2) Reform the individual income tax system. Establish the individual income tax that the classification and the synthesis unify. The first is to widen the taxa- tion range of individual income tax. Widen he taxation range on the basis of 11 original levying tax items to fully cover various incomes of naturalperson. The second is that the object of taxation takes the family as the unit. The tax pattern is divided into prepaying and remitting link. In prepaying link, take the individ- ual as the object of taxation, and let the obligor of withholding and remitting tax withhold. In the year-end remitting link, take the family as the object of taxation, let the family members with tax liability aggregate the income, and take the whole family burden into account to make final settlement of the individual in- come tax of family member in tax year. The third is to reasonably determine ex- pense deduction standard. In the year-end remitting link, expense deduction standard is divided into basic expense deduction and franchise expense deduc- tion. Basic expense deduction is determined mainly according to the number of natural person’s relatives who conform to the conditions of support and basic allowance of family. Franchise expense deduction is divided into standard de- duction and itemized deduction, and can be chose freely by taxpayers. Standard deduction formulates different quota standards according to the constitution of family declared members whose type is usually divided into joint declaration of couple, single parent family declaration and individual declaration. Itemized deduction mainly considers actual outlay of taxpayers, such as medical treat- ment, education and house loan. Itemized deduction standard should set up maximum limit and requires taxpayers to provide legal and valid certificates .
would not be entitled to benefits such as perpetual life but for state law. Thus, state legislatures, which can always amend incorporation statutes, have the final word as to how and when corporations form and what benefits they receive. So too are corporations dependent on the individuals who comprise them. While it may be true that incor- poration is a natural tendency in a free market, to suggest that cor- porations have identities separate from those of their makers is ludi- crous. Without actual people to associate, pool resources, develop business models, and file necessary paperwork, corporations would never exist; without Bill Gates, there would be no Microsoft. Taken to its logical extreme, the naturalperson theory might suggest that cor- porations have no need of such officers or employees, since they are actual persons themselves, capable of making decisions and speaking their minds. This is clearly as unrealistic as it is illogical.
However, if the insured person has willfully or through gross negligence failed to observe the safety regulations or the duty of salvage, or if the insured person’s use of alcohol or other intoxicant has contributed to the negligence, compensation may be reduced or disallowed. If the insured person has through gross negligence failed to observe the safety regulations or the duty of salvage or if his/her use of alcohol or other intoxicant has contributed to the negligence, the insurance company will nevertheless pay under the liability insurance that portion of the compensation which the naturalperson who has suffered the loss or damage has been unable to collect because of the insured person’s state of insolvency as authenticated by distraint or bankruptcy.
R v. Great North of England Railway  where courts saw the corporation as a fiction and limitedly responsible for the outcomes of acts and decisions made, and is permissible to attach criminal liability to a corporation where the conduct constituted a public nuisance or breached of a statutory obliga- tion. Since then, at least in common law countries, corporations have come to be held criminally responsible in a variety of settings. However, up to the present day, much has changed since the decision was rendered and this path is not universally followed. European started the other way, arguing that real human beings, naturalperson, not corporation, should be subjected to the denunciation of criminal law. 34
23. R EPRESENTATIONS . Customer represents and warrants (which representations and warranties shall remain in effect during the term of this Agreement) that: (a) if a naturalperson, Customer is of legal age, under no legal incapacity and is not restricted from entering into this Agreement and effecting purchases and sales of foreign currency contracts by virtue of employment or otherwise; (b) if an entity, Customer is duly organized and in good standing in the jurisdiction of its formation, and it may lawfully and is duly authorized and empowered to enter into this Agreement and to effect purchases and sales of foreign currency contracts; (c) this Agreement is binding on Customer and enforceable against Customer in accordance with its terms; (d) Customer is in compliance with any applicable registration requirements (or exemptions therefrom) of the Commodity Exchange Act and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and any applicable membership requirements of the National Futures Association; (e) no one other than Customer has an ownership interest in Customer’s Account with MBTF unless such other persons are indicated to MBTF in the Customer Application Form; and (f) MBTF is entitled to rely upon all actions taken and instructions given by any person with apparent authority to act on Customer’s
“Connected Person” means a naturalperson or legal entity (other than you) whose information (including Personal Data or Tax Information) you provide, or which is provided on your behalf,to any member of the HSBC Group or which is otherwise received by any member of the HSBC Group in connection with the provision of the Services. A Connected Person may include, but is not limited to, any person identified as a beneficiary under this insurance policy, any person who is, or may be, entitled to receive a payment under this insurance policy, a director or officer of a company, partners or members of a partnership, any Substantial Owner, Controlling Person, or beneficial owner, trustee, settlor or protector of a trust, your representative, agent or nominee, or any other persons or entities with whom you have a relationship that is relevant to your relationship with the HSBC Group.
22. R EPRESENTATIONS . Customer represents and warrants (which representations and warranties shall remain in effect during the term of this Agreement) that: (a) if a naturalperson, Customer is of legal age, under no legal incapacity and is not restricted from entering into this Agreement and effecting purchases and sales of foreign currency contracts by virtue of employment or otherwise; (b) if an entity, Customer is duly organized and in good standing in the jurisdiction of its formation, and it may lawfully and is duly authorized and empowered to enter into this Agreement and to effect purchases and sales of foreign currency contracts; (c) this Agreement is binding on Customer and enforceable against Customer in accordance with its terms; (d) Customer is in compliance with any applicable registration requirements (or exemptions therefrom) of the Commodity Exchange Act and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and any applicable membership requirements of the National Futures Association; (e) no one other than Customer has an ownership interest in Customer's Account with FX Solutions unless such other persons are indicated to FX Solutions in the Customer Application Form; and (f) FX Solutions is entitled to rely upon all actions tak en and instructions given by any person with apparent authority to act on Customer's behalf, and any person specifically designated to act on Customer's behalf.
According to the Procedural Rules, where a naturalperson, a legal person or other organization pledges its exclusive rights on a registered trademark, the pledgor shall conclude a written contract with the pledgee, and register the pledge at the trademark bureau. A pledge registration application shall be jointly submitted by the pledgee and the pledgor directly or through a trade mark agency upon entrustment. Foreigners or foreign enterprises which have no habitual residence or business premise in China must entrust an agency to file the application.
The Act on Insurance Activity does not contain a provision, analogous to that contained in the Banking Law, permitting the disclosure of information covered by the insurance secrecy on the basis of consent granted to the insurance company by the entity to which the information refers. Although it may be argued this is permissible. This is indicated among other things by the position of the Constitutional Tribunal expressed in the judgment of 20 November 2002 (K 41/02), according to which the essence of the “information autonomy rule” comes down to giving each person freedom to determine the extent to which knowledge about them will be available to others. The source of authorisation to express the consent to the disclosure of information covered by the insurance secrecy may be also sought in the construction of personal rights, in particular the right to privacy, as it is assumed that the eligible person’s consent waives the unlawfulness of infringement of personal rights. Such arguments, however, do not remove all of the doubt as to the meaning of the consent of an insurance secrecy beneficiary to the disclosure of information covered by the secrecy to third parties as a prerequisite legalising such act of an insurance company.
1. Introduction. Most fundamental results in team theory concern linear quadratic Gaussian problems or, in general, problems with continuous decision spaces, where the cost is somehow convex in the strategies and the information structure is a “nice” one (see, e.g., partial nested structures) [12, 16]. In such particular cases, it is well known that a simple solution idea consisting in a sequential optimization on the part of the Decision Makers (DMs), called person by person optimization (pbp), leads to the team-optimum , namely the argument minimizing the team objective function. In this paper, on the same line of [8, 9], we restrict our attention to boolean de- cision spaces. The novelty of our approach is the adaptation to a dynamic team con- text of notions borrowed from pseudo-boolean optimization , as Completely Local- Global (CLG) functions, Completely Unimodal (CU) functions (also known as acyclic unique sink orientations and abstract objective functions ) and sub-modular func- tions [6, 11].
Before representing documents, a series of pro- cedures are adopted to preprocess these docu- ments including stop word removal. Next, we select feature words for document clustering. Generally, paragraphs containing the target per- son name usually contain more person-related information, such as descriptor, occupation, af- filiation, and partners. Therefore, larger weights should be assigned to these words. Furthermore, we further consider the appearance position of the features. Intuitively, local feature words with small distance are more important than the glob- al features words with longer distance.
conditions of work and to protection from unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone who works has the right to a just and satisfactory remuneration that provides for a decent person, his or her family and, if necessary, supplemented by other means of social provision. Everyone has the right to form trade unions and be members of them in order to protect their interests. In this way GDHR, actually laid the foundations for those basic standards for fair working conditions, where the judiciary is not an exception, which was subsequently expanded and enshrined in the laws of different countries of the world. However, since GDHR has a declarative character, the world community faced the issue of establishing an international treaty that would become universally obligatory for the states which ratified it. Taking into account these circumstances, in 1966 the UN General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which not only enshrines the right to work, but also contains extended safeguards on working conditions, fair remuneration, working time and other labor rights of a person.
Excise taxpayers are, in particular, natural persons, legal persons and non-legal entities if they carry out taxable transactions, i.e., producers and importers of excise goods, operators shipping excise goods into tax warehouses or entities making intra-Community purchases of these products. Subject to taxation is the circulation of excise goods which, pursuant to Art. 2 of the Act, include energy products and electricity, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products and dried tobacco. The legislator also levies special taxes on trading coal products used for heating purposes and—using the right to tax products other than the ones mentioned in the Community regulations—imposes taxation on the trading of passenger cars. Due to the excise duty suspension arrangements, a number of events may be subject to taxation. Generally, the scope of taxation includes production, intra-community acquisition and import of excise products. Tax is also imposed, inter alia, on the shipment of excise goods into and out of a tax warehouse, as long as the procedure of excise duty suspension does not apply (the legislator provided in this case for certain additional conditions). Also, losses of excise goods are taxed, as well as their total destruction and use for the production of other goods.
larity of person-to-person evaluations, and we as- sessed this model in two datasets. Both involve com- munal decision making, where people’s attitudes and opinions of each other have profound social con- sequences, but they are very different. In the Wi- kipedia corpus, the sentiment signal is strong be- cause of established community norms for how to convey one’s opinions, but the network is sparse. In the Convote corpus, the network is determined by fully observed voting patterns, making it strong, but the speech texts themselves only indirectly and nois- ily convey person-to-person opinions. In both cases, our method excels because it is adaptive: it learns from the data how best to combine the two signals.