Tiab and Bettam (2007) presented a practical interpretation of the pressure behavior of a finite- conductivity hydraulically fractured vertical well located in a naturallyfracturedreservoir. The interpretation is based on analytical equations derived to determine permeability, fracture storage capacity ratio, interporosity flow coefficient, skin and wellbore storage from the pressure derivative plot without using type-curve matching technique. In other words, they implemented the TDS technique, Tiab (1993), for such systems. Part of the work presented by Escobar, Martinez and Montealegre (2009) was focused on the implementation of conventional analysis for the work presented by Tiab and Bettam (2007).
Naturallyfractured reservoirs constitute majority of the reservoirs documented on earth. Tectonic activities on earth have produced widespread natural fractures which properties should be accounted for in reservoir simulation. The intrinsic properties of naturallyfractured reservoirs make accurate simulation of the reservoir challenging and still have been a topic of discussion. Studying the pressure and pressure-derivative behaviour of a well has been proven in literature to be an accurate method for reservoir characterization and reservoir evaluation. The pressure transient behaviour of vertical and horizontal production wells has been well researched and presented in literature but little information exist on the pressure transient behaviour of a horizontal steam injection well in a naturallyfracturedreservoir. Therefore, this paper focuses on the pressure transient behaviour of a horizontal steam injection well in a naturallyfracturedreservoir to accurately characterize the reservoir. Simulation studies are conducted using Computer Modelling Group (CMG) software, STARS, a thermal recovery simulator. A base model of a horizontal steam injection well in a dual porosity reservoir is constructed and the pressure transient behaviour is studied through parameter variation. Results show that we can observe a radial flow regime, followed by a downward dip due to the gas injection, another downward dip due to the dual porosity storativity and finally pseudoradial flow due to the pressure transient reaching the boundary. The negative or close to negative pressure-derivative observed in the first downward is due to the high compressibility nature of steam. The presence of steam injection and the dual porosity may mask other flow regimes in the model and further test designs could be constructed in the future to further study the pressure transient behaviour of a horizontal steam injection well in a naturallyfracturedreservoir.
An improved methodology for well test interpretation homogeneous and naturallyfractured and compressible reservoirs with a single fluid is presented. New expression to find the permeability, permeability modulus and geomechanical skin factor from slope during radial flow regime have been introduced and corrections of for the minimum point and the intercept between the unit-slope line taking place during the transition period and the radial flow regime are given so existing equations in the literature can be applied for the determination of the naturallyfracturedreservoir parameters. These new expressions were successfully applied to synthetic examples.
In this study, hydraulic fracturing operation is being studied in a naturallyfracturedreservoir whose fracture distribution is uniform. For this reservoir, hydraulic fracturing operation in various directions is simulated. In each direction that the operation is performed, fracture lengths are considered different. In each direction with different lengths, production rate is evaluated and the reason of the changes in production rate is discussed. Finally, the most optimized direction and length which causes the highest production rate is specified and the reason of the other unacceptable scenarios is also specified in economical and operational dimensions.
The pressure behavior of naturallyfractured reservoirs (NFRs) is usually studied using Warren and Root (1963) simplified model neglecting the flow of fluids in the matrix blocks. This simplification generally yields satisfactory results because the matrix permeability is usually much less than that of the fracture system in a naturallyfracturedreservoir. However, in order to determine the limits of validity of Warren and Root’s solution and to study the behavior of a naturallyfracturedreservoir in which the contrast between the permeability of matrix system and that of fracture system is not significant, the more general Barenblatt-Zheltov-Kochina (1960) model is typically used in the literature. But the analytical solutions to this model which were obtained by numerical analysis or numerical inversion are very complex and inconvenient to use (Chen and Jiang, 1980).
2-Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling Coupling of a reservoir simulator with a geomechanics module has increasingly wide application in the petroleum industry. In a conventional simulator, surface subsidence is often estimated only by a simple formula without knowing the complete geomechanical response. The only geomechanical parameter considered may be pore compressibility, which is insufficient to reproduce pore volume changes induced by complex pressure and temperature variations [Settari and Mourits, 1998; Tortike and Farouq Ali, 1993]. In some problems, such as primary production and linear-elastic reservoir response, subsidence computed by a reservoir simulator alone may give results comparable to coupled solutions, but when nonlinear material response is strong; the results from the two approaches will diverge. In a coupled simulator, flow can be strongly affected by the stress and strain distributions that give changes in porosity and permeability, but in conventional simulation Δσ′-dependence is ignored. Such approaches cannot give appropriate predictions if a stress-sensitive reservoir (e.g. naturallyfracturedreservoir or poorly compacted reservoir) is considered [Mainguy and Longuemare, 2002].
selected 2000 STB/day and 1500 MSCF/day respectively. The total injected pore volume was 0.7 PV, and water-wet rock data were chosen as the input to the simulator. Injecting water phase as a first phase produces higher recovery value than the gas phase. At the beginning of injection, the reservoir oil saturation (also the permeability of oil phase) is high enough, and this value decreases over times of injection, so it is better to use a fluid (like water) which has higher mobility than gas and can produce more oil at the early times of injection. If gas phase was chosen as the first injected fluid, then the gas breakthroughs very soon and cannot produce oil like before the breakthrough time; thus, if water was injected after gas phase, the saturation and also permeability of oil phase would be decreased, and water could not produce high oil volume in comparison with the time when water was injected as the first fluid. In the case of injecting gas as the first fluid, if the cycle time of injection was increased, it would result in low oil production after early breakthrough times. The results of these simulation scenarios are illustrated in Figures 7 and 8. Figure 7 shows the recovery comparison for several cycle times for the two conditions (W-G) and (G-W). (W-G) means injecting the water phase first, while (G-W) means injecting the gas phase first. Figure 8 shows the fraction of breakthrough time (FBT) of injection. As mentioned before, when water was first injected, FBT would be decreased, which means water very quickly reaches the producing well. When the gas was the first injected fluid, water FBT would then be increased. In this kind of injection, for the highest cycle time of injection, FWCT would be the minimum.
done for the assessment of concomitant traumatic brain injury. The right temporal bone fracture with a fractured fragment in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) space, the right zygomatic arch fracture, the right greater wing of the sphenoid fracture, the orbital ﬂoor fracture, and lateral and medial walls of the right maxillary sinus fracture were re- ported. The patient was subsequently observed in the neurosurgical ward for 48 hours prior to his discharge. Outpatient assessment in the oral and maxillofacial clinic a week after trauma noted grossly symmetrical malar prominence, with resolving right periorbital hematoma. No enophthalmos, diplopia, and eye motility restriction were clinically observed (Figure 2). Mouth opening was, however, quite limited to 25 mm interincisal. Further ophthalmology assessment conﬁrmed good eye movement with no diplopia. The patient continued to be reviewed weekly under max- illofacial follow-up for assessment of late enophthalmos. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) orbit carried out 3 weeks after trauma conﬁrmed ﬁndings of the previous scan. The fractured lateral wall and the ﬂoor of the right orbit (involving the infraorbital foramen), the fractured right greater wing of the sphenoid, the lateral wall of right maxillary sinus involving the right alveolar process, and the undisplaced fracture of the right zygomatic arch were observed. Detailed radiographic analysis showed that although the fracture size is small involving less than 50% of the overall size of the orbital ﬂoor, some degree of her- niation albeit without periorbital entrapment was observed (Figure 1). Additionally, the orbital ﬂoor fracture occurred just immediately behind the equator of the globe, that is, at the main bulk of the inferior rectus muscle. However, its muscle height-to-width ratio remained intact. These detailed radio- graphic ﬁndings may suggest that the patient could develop late orbital fracture complications such as late enophthalmos, diplopia, and restriction in eye movements. These compli- cations could occur secondary to the incarceration of peri- orbital tissues or muscle or later cicatrization in and around the inferior rectus muscle.
Previous studies allow us to conclude that the area of Mako is characterized by discontinuities and microdiscon- tinuities oriented N-S, E-W, NE, NNE, NW and NNW. It is brittle discontinuities (fractures) and ductile disconti- nuities (folds). The hill of Badian shows like others for- mations of the domains the same discontinuities. A finest study of this hill show fractured and microfractured and microfractured unfilled or filled with calcite, epidote and quartz. The spacing of the discontinuities are moderate that is causing block rarely metric. The mechanical be- havior of this rock is also influenced by the presence of imperfection. Thus, the application of normal charge on a discontinuity makes decrease the Young modulus but the compressive uniaxial strength varies only slightly. If the discontinuity of the rock is filled, the basalts behavior will depend to the nature of filling. Quartz significantly
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to model reservoir inflow as a function of meteorological parameters such as precipitation, temperature and evaporation. That is, the input variables are: precipitation, temperature and evaporation while, the output variable is reservoir inflow at the three hydropower reservoirs. The ANN model in the ‘Alyuda forecaster XL’ softwares was used for the analysis. The model was trained (calibrated), validated and tested with the available hydro-meteorological parameters in the selected stations using error back propagation algorithm in order to speed up its convergence to a minimum error .
This vignette plainly requires the help of many others to make its claim that the military works vigorously to inculcate a hypermasculinity among its soldiers. However, it should suffice for the reader that the contrast on offer speaks to how society expects men to behave in ways that can be described as a state of fractured manliness.
For fractured reservoirs, it is necessary to supply the formation energy for main- taining high formation pressure and large production pressure difference and preventing cracks deformation and closure, resulting in a decrease in oil produc- tion index, usually using artificial energy to maintain pressure in the process of development. The main driving forces in the water flooding process are the wa- ter injection pressure gradient, capillary force and gravity. However, for fracture systems and matrix systems, the three driving forces have different effects. For the crack system, especially for the reservoir with high original oil saturation, the main driving force is the water injection pressure gradient in the water injection and oil production process, and its flow condition is in accordance with Darcy's law, and the capillary pressure is small or the capillary pressure can be neglected. Besides, the water drive efficiency can reach more than 95%. For the matrix sys- tem, the water flooding target is the crude oil in the small pores and small cracks of the matrix rock. During the driving process, the primary driving force is
A multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite for One Health. Physicians are important players in the One Health team, yet they are often hard to convince of the benefits of the One Health approach. Here, the case for multidisciplinar- ity including physicians is made using the example of environmental resistance development to influenza antivirals. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the major class of anti-influenza pharmaceuticals, and extensively stockpiled globally as a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness, especially important in the first phase before vaccines can be mass- produced. The active metabolite of oseltamivir that is excreted from treated patients degrades poorly in conventional sewage treatment processes and has been found in river waters. Dabbling ducks constitute the natural influenza A virus reservoir and often reside near sewage treatment plant outlets, where they may be exposed to neuramini- dase inhibitor residues. In vivo experiments using influenza-infected Mallards exposed to neuraminidase inhibitors present in their water have shown resistance development and persistence, demonstrating that resistance may be induced and become established in the influenza strains circulating in natural hosts. Neuraminidase inhibitor resist- ance genes may become part of a human-adapted influenza virus with pandemic potential through reassortment or direct transmission. A pandemic caused by a neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant influenza virus is a serious threat as the first line defense in pandemic preparedness would be disarmed. To assess the risk for environmental influenza resistance development, a broad multidisciplinary team containing chemists, social scientists, veterinarians, biologists, ecologists, virologists, epidemiologists, and physicians is needed. Information about One Health early in high school and undergraduate training, an active participation of One Health-engaged physicians in the debate, and more One Health-adapted funding and publication possibilities are suggested to increase the possibility to engage physicians. Keywords: Avian influenza, Drug residue, Influenza A virus, Lanamivir, Mallard, Neuraminidase inhibitor, Oseltamivir, Pandemic preparedness, Peramivir, Zanamivir
Majority of them are required their proper documentation and scientific investigations. However, the traditional uses of lesser-known medicinal plants are disappearing rapidly and creating threat for extinction not only the plants, but also several naturally occurring bioactive compounds also. There is an urgent need to make a bridge between scientists, academics and the rural traditional practitioners to documents all the traditional information on plants for identification/ modification for the existing hits to get better lead compounds from natural resources.
Rippl (1883) developed a simple and earlier technique for analysing the relationship between reservoir inflows, desired draft rate and the storage capacity. This mass curve technique is known as Ripple‟s mass diagram. This mass diagram analysis is still used today by many water resources planners. Different draft rates can be tried with this model. In this technique, the cumulative inflows and the cumulative desired outflows are plotted in a time chart. These plots are commonly called „mass curves‟. The minimum capacity of the reservoir is calculated by maximum difference between total inflow and total outflow. The main disadvantage is that some time difference may be negative. 
Roman Celin, Boris Arzenek, Dimitrij Kmeti (2008) "A Metallographic Examination of a Fractured Connecting Rod" Professional article/Strokovni ~lanek MTAEC9, Vol. 42, No.2, pp.93. Martin, G. G (2004) "Failure of Stationary Pump Engine piston" Journal Of Failure Analysis And Prevention, Volume Vol. 4, pp. 37-39