The main aim of the current study was to examine the effect of social networks usage on academic performance with especial attention to mediation role of academic engagement and informal learning. To some extent, it seems obvious that non-academic usage of social media negatively affects academic performance, some new reports like Rostaminezhad, Porshafei, and Ahamdi (2018) ,Lau (2017), Alwagait et al. (2015) and Junco (2012b) confirm this negative effect. This study in its direct effect analysis repeatedly confirmed this negative effect in the Iranian context.In relation to this hypothesis, it can be discussed that the amount of time students spent on instant messaging has been found to be significantly related to multitasking (Lau, 2017) so it can result in distraction form academic tasks (Levine, Waite, & Bowman, 2007). This study looked at informal learning and academic engagement in investigating the effect of using social networks effects on academic life. In the case of informal learning, the findings of this study indicated that use of social networks had a positive effect on informal learning as reported in previously published research (Chen & Bryer, 2012; Gülbahar, 2014; Madge et al., 2009; Russo et al., 2009; Song & Lee, 2014). Despite the direct and positiveeffects of socialnetworking on informal learning, the effect of informal learning on academic performance was not significant and its value was negative in current study. Although there is no solid research evidence for comparing the result of current study in the context of social media but it is inconsistent with the result of studies like Klein and Moore (2016), indication using informal strategy in general facilitate learning and enhance performance. The finding of current study is also inconsistent with other studies (Chen & Bryer, 2012; Gülbahar, 2014; Russo et al., 2009; Song & Lee, 2014). The reason for this inconsistency can be the context of research and student differences in using social networks; although more comparative study needs to resolve this inconsistency.
The study findings show that various contextual, individual, and socialnetworking factors determine the likelihood of NWOM communication on SNS. In case of contextual determinants, we found that injustice perception, firm attribution, and firm image are key antecedents of NWOM communication on SNS. The study findings pertaining to perceptions of injustice indicate that customers may engage in NWOM communication on SNS to not only communicate their dissatisfaction to other network members, but also to for the service provider to respond to their negative experience. When responding to NWOM communications on SNS, the service provider can either engage in proactive or reactive webcare interventions to mitigate the adverse effects. Proactive webcare refers to service recovery strategies or interventions posted proactively on SNS in response to NWOM communications. Reactive webcare includes interventions posted following specific requests from customers in their NWOM communication. We contend that a timely response to NWOM communications, either proactively or reactively, will help to resolve issues. This is particularly important because other customers on social media are watching; hence, a quick and effective response is critical. In short, the service provider should focus on responsiveness and fixing the service problem effectively, because a lack or delay of action can adversely affect the image of the service provider and create a major public crisis (Richins, 1983). Moreover, both proactive and reactive webcare increase customer satisfaction, loyalty, positive eWOM, and customer retention (Van Noort and Willemsen, 2012).
In recent decades, Internet use, particularly socialnetworking, interactive games and online shopping, is increasing at a rapid and uncontrollable rate. This reality leads us to the problem of Internet addiction . Internet addiction has negative consequences on emotional, cognitive and behavioral development . Despite the positive role the Internet can play in daily life when used in moderation, over time, its users tend to communicate less and spend less time with other people. So, they often experience disconnection from their relationships with other people . When shame is considered in the scope of Internet addiction, it seems to lose its significance with regard to socialnetworking usage, because individuals suffering from Internet addiction may not place importance on their social life. Thus shame may not be that important to the daily lives of Internet-addicted individuals, because that addiction itself has diminished their usual social communications. Consequently, their position as either a sociable person or a shamed person is not very
Social networks have become a core topic among others in social sciences in the last decades. Social network theory was one of the sociologists’ answers to new institutionalism which emerged in economics some decades ago. Granovetter’s seminal work on embeddedness of social action  attacks economists’ views on markets and on hierarchies  alike . The concepts of social embeddedness of individual action and of social networks have been the battle horse for New Economic Sociology since the mid 1980s . Apart from science, these concepts have also gained considerable support on the political arena. Political organizations such as the EU provide incentives—mainly in the form of monetary subsidizing—fostering networking of individuals, e.g. entrepreneurs or researchers. Some politicians apparently expect that positiveeffects of social networks emerge also for groups other than network members. For instance, social networks may speed up the production and flow of knowledge and other goods in a society. Negativeeffects of social networks are largely ignored both in the sociological literature and by political actors. Yet, negativeeffects may emerge not only for network members, but also for non-network members and for societies at large. In this paper the focus is on such negativeeffects of social networks. The aim of the paper is to address this deficit and to add critical thoughts to the ongoing discussion on social networks, which we consider biased and in favour of positive network effects.
Abstract: The present survey based study was conducted to analyze the impact of Social Media on the future generation. Survey was done on students of grade 8 to 12. Both girls and boys were included. The youth is the backbone of our nation and hence they were selected for this study. Social media is the prominent part of their life. Social media keeps them better connected and informed. There are many positive aspects, but there are equally as many dangers of using socialnetworking sites. Youths were enquired on the way of using internet, why they use, different positive and negative uses and effects were observed and discussed. SocialNetworking has become addiction for some of them. Findings show that the majorly respondents admitted that they are influenced of social media use.
is the responsibility of the librarians to offer unrestricted access to internet interactivity in accordance with all levels for greater access. In 2006, Aiken in 2007 surveyed 400 public library directors randomly selected from every state. Their questions were directly accession of socialnetworking as a result 17.3% of the 400 directors surveyed did not allow minors access to socialnetworking site with parental permission. and 37.3%didnot allow access without parental permission. According to the American Library Association Council, prohibiting children and young adults from using socialnetworking sites does not teach safe behavior and leaves youth without the necessary knowledge and skills to protect their privacy. Instead of restrict or denying access to internet, librarians should educate minor to participate responsibility, ethically and safely. (Minors, 2009). 9. Impact of SocialNetworking on Higher education
It is not clear to what extent tie strength influences source credibility, because different studies show different relationships between the constructs. Cummings, Butler & Kraut (2002) studied the impact of offline ties on credibility in online situations. They measured online relationships via e-mail but not via SNSs (N=979). They argue that the impact of online social ties depends on whether the online social relationships supplement or substitute for the tie strength of offline social relationships. Offline relationship strength determines the tie strength and thus source credibility. This study argues that tie strength and thus source credibility have positive influences on decision-making processes. However, Steffes and Burgee (2009) studied the tie strength with the source and credibility by online forum messages (N=482) and showed that tie strength does not matter at all in online situations. In fact, in their study about electronic fora, messages from strangers were more influential in decision-making processes, than speaking with a friend in person. The results of Steffes and Burgee (2009) show that some weak tie information sources are rated as more credible and influential than some strong tie information sources. In this situation tie strength does not predict the effects of the advice. Thus, there are different results concerning the effect of tie strength on source credibility. Despite the different results, tie strength will be measured in the current study, because if tie strength is a good predictor of source credibility then SNS-connections are very likely to be more credible than the company recruiters without a tie with the potential applicants. Since the aim of this study is to measure to what extent tie strength can explain source credibility, it is important to have a clear understanding of tie strength and important to know how tie strength between two individuals can be measured. Therefore, tie strength will be elaborated in the next part.
Increasing the social adjustment among children in testing group showed that they had behaviors that led to positivesocial-mental results such as peer acceptance and effective relationships with others. On the other hand those who have not acquired the necessary social skills, often with behavioral disorders and not be accepted by peers & don’t work well with others or teachers. Parents provided positive feedback about the interactions after the implementation of therapeutic play sessions with their children that appear to contribute to the improvement of children's social interactions.
First, industrial contraction gave rise to more technologically advanced industries that provided safer working conditions. This resulted in a reduction of occupational risks and therefore overall mortality. Furthermore, in a constantly changing work- ing environment, modern industries do not employ only semi-skilled or unskilled employees. They attract more highly-skilled professionals, since technological in- novations demand more skillful employees. Second, the expanding service sector entails numerous occupations and it could be initially considered a safer occupa- tional choice compared to industries. However, this thesis revealed that this is not necessarily true. The extensive diversity within services disguises hidden occupa- tional risks possibly concentrated around issues of income inequalities, duration of employment, skill mismatches, job-related strain and satisfaction. This thesis sug- gests that medical and technological innovations have reduced the physical risks of working environments. However, contemporary employment sectors disguise patterns of mental morbidity that should be further evaluated in future studies. In summary, literature so far has conceptualized deindustrialization as an event oc- curring across a single dimension, mainly regional, causing high levels of unem- ployment and inactivity. The morbidity and mortality implications of those path- ways have been extensively explored by including ecological information and spe- cific occupational groups. Overall, previous research has mainly considered indus- trial decline as a negative event causing deprivation and erosion of the community and family structure. This thesis has progressed beyond the current findings by con- ceptualizing deindustrialization as a transitional and dynamic event that functions in many levels, progresses unevenly and therefore disproportionately influences mor- tality and morbidity outcomes at a national, regional and individual level.
Individuals cannot survive in a vacuum, but are embedded into a social environment. Socialnetworking site (SNS) is a social space created on internet for the people for their connection and communication, where people can create or share their contents with people on the same site Face book, MySpace and LinkedIn are examples of such sites..Social network sites are used extensively by the students in fulfil their basic needs and communication. It is becoming a well-known means for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. University students are using social network sites for dissimilar sort of motives from social relations to communication. Regular use of social network sites bring an addiction towards the concurrently influent students’ daily life at outsized. This paper recommends that motives for social networks sites are the factors contributing to social network sites addiction among individuals.
Face book also increases both teacher-student and student-student interaction in the form of web-based communication. Face book helps instructors connect with their students about assignments, upcoming events, useful links, and samples of work outside of the classroom. Students can use Face book to contact classmates about questions regarding class assignments or examinations as well as collaborate on assignments and group projects in an online environment. Building on the face-to-face, teacher- student relationship, social networks allow students to glimpse instructor profiles containing personal information, interests, background, and “friends,” which can enhance student motivation, affective learning, and classroom climate.
The most important information which is gleaned from the in-game behavior logs is about user relationships in their gaming activities. Game players socially interact with other users using the methods provided by the virtual universe MMOG mechanisms. The gamers (users) form clusters to clutch monsters, trade jointly among one another, go on chasing in a combined environment, form and connect guilds, articulate different stages of trust, mentoring other players, etc. These activities can be represented as a social network among these online game multi-players, to analyze how the players and environment are impacted and affected by those activities. Below mentioned are the different types of relationship networks constructed from the players’ in-game behavior logs.
Most of the adolescents stated that the loss of hair and having to wear a mask made them sad and that they were negatively affected by the reactions of other people. The final theme was about thoughts regarding the future. It had four subthemes: 'stress-free life', 'having an occupation', 'continuing school', 'being independent'. The adolescents felt that the experiences they had during their illness process had given them a chance to really get to know themselves, and they generally perceived themselves as resilient, hopeful, patient and stubborn. Most adolescents stated that getting a cancer diagnosis had given them positive experiences in addition to their negative experience.
Another aspect to consider is time. While compassion fatigue has been suggested as possibly occurring immediately or over time, the current results suggest the possibility of the later, as one negative article had the potential of increasing compassion. Moeller (1999) suggests specifically that CF occurs over time spent viewing articles on the same type of social issues (pestilence, war, etc.). This suggests a type of cultivation effect. Media effects research, including traditional effects, has been criticized as not being useful as it could be due to issues that may influence media effects over time (Williams, 2006). This particular notion is relevant here, especially given that affective expectancies have a direct relation to time. Future research should examine the variable of time to determine whether affective expectancies involved in CF might be influenced by number of exposure to positive or negative articles over a certain period of time. For example, it could be determined how many articles over how long will increase actual fatigue. This could then be translated in to specific cases for the AEM, as suggested by Wilson et al. (1989).
We adopted questionnaire items from Zhang and von Dran (2000) and Wu et al. (2008), and revised these based on the characteristics of our task (SNS apps), which resulted in the items being slightly different from Zhang and von Dran (2000) and Wu et al. (2008). In addition, we referred to the social media report 2012 (Nielsen, 2012) to help us filter the top five SNS apps in 2012. These were determined to be Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, Google+, and Pinterest. Consequently, the questionnaire consists of 11 items in the visuals category, and 15 items each in the usability and functionality categories. These items are listed in Appendix 1. Then we calculated the percentage of each feature that was selected from the questionnaires. More details about how we decided HFs and MFs is in section 3.3. Based on the result of the questionnaires, we can determine which item is HF and which item is MF. Then, to test our theoretical model, we conducted another study. The first step was to develop a pseudo SNS app. We designed a pseudo SNS app which incorporated both HFs and MFs in its design. In Study 2, we unpacked the causal relationship between MFs and BIs in relation to SNS app. Employing online surveys as the experiment’s method, we manipulated for two factors: IL (high and low) and MFs (with and without). The levels of each factor are described below. The SNS app with MFs is the one that we added MFs to—the virtual app, which we called Unicorn. The MFs introduced here were those retrieved from our Study 1. In this experimental task, we used the Facebook app as the SNS app without any MFs. Thus, a 2x2 experimental design was adopted in Study 2.
Abstract: The Rapid development of technology has changed the individual and social life while use of various websites with advanced digital devices. Utilization of Face book website is one of them recently played a vital role in the social circle of Students lives particularly at educational environments. Academic authorities build an efforts to produce an honest quality and supportive learning interfaces. Each and every student is engaged to become a part of such a social network i.e. Facebook. The researcher selected the rural university of Arid Agricultural University Punjab province and 217 Questionnaire distribute among the respondents of undergraduate students of Rawalpindi Medical College. This paper is carried out the effects of Facebook use on health and academic performance. Moreover, this paper provides the critical analysis to the way students are socialized towards Facebook and another side they forget their educational aims and learning stage and where be them stands now? Whereas they’re totally unaware corresponding future consequences and misinterpret the hidden hazards besides the utilization of Facebook.
NorfiPC (2015) comments that Instagram is a very popular application for mobile devices, allows users to edit, retouch and add effects to photos taken with cell facilitates sharing in social networks and from the moment it is possible to navigate and explore photos other registered users, is considered a social network. Instagram is a relatively new social media website; it is a photo-sharing platform. Recently, video-sharing capabilities were introduced, and video length is restricted to a maximum of 15 seconds (Al-Bahrani & Patel, 2015). Users capture moments in their life and share them with friends. Instagram provides the opportunity for users to apply different filters on their pictures or videos before posting. Posts are accompanied by a caption. The growth of Instagram has been prolific. According to the company’s Web site, as of June 2016 the platform has grown to more than 500 million active users (Instagram, 2016).
Abstract:- In the experiment we tested antibacterial activity of citrus juices and apple cider vinegar on Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 1249, clinical strain Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2523. Antibacterial activity was tested using agar well diffusion method. Results were obtained by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition around the wells. The highest zone of inhibition (18.5 mm) was observed around 100% concentration of apple cider vinegar on E. faecalis. Lemon juice of 100% concentration also had an impact on E. faecalis where the zone of 14 mm appeared. Zones of 15.5 mm and 13.5 mm were obtained for 100% and 75% of lemon on S. aureus ATCC 2523 respectively. S. aureus NCTC 1249 showed to be resistant to all concentration of all juices except for 100% concentration of apple cider vinegar where we got reduced growth. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was resistant to all concentrations of apple cider vinegar and zones of 15 mm and 14 mm were present around 100% and 75% lemon juice respectively. E. coli showed to be resistant to all concentration of citrus juices. Apple cider vinegar concentrations of 100% and 75% slightly reduced the growth of E. coli. Results obtained in this experiment suggest that different concentrations of citrus juices and apple cider vinegar have a prominent antibacterial effect on gram positive bacteria and less prominent effect on gram negative bacteria as in this case E. coli.
participants received on SNSs about LTPA in the previous 12 months. Participants were asked to indicate how often their contacts on this SNS have demonstrated three dimensions of social support: 1) companionship support, which is participating in a LTPA with another person; 2) informational support, which is providing positive information regarding LTPA; and 3) esteem support, which refers to encouragement (Chogahara, 1999), using a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (very often). An example for companionship support was “made plans with you for doing a leisure-time physical activity together;” for informational support was “informed you about the expected positiveeffects of a leisure-time physical activity on your health;” for esteem support was “complimented your good skill in a leisure-time physical activity.” The Cronbach’s alpha was .88. The score was summed, where a higher score indicates more social support.
In the model presented, the two sides of the market are assumed to be symmetric, where each side consists of heterogeneous agents with a continuum of types. Firstly the model is presented where the monopolist is restricted to forming at most one search market on each side, that is, he is able to set up at most one network, by charging a single price of each side of that network. The setup of the model is a two-stage game where in the first stage the monopolist matchmaker creates search markets on each side by setting the network access price for each side. After observing the prices, agents make their decisions about joining the markets created. The model assumes the presence of positive network externalities; an agent is always better off if she or he joins a market that is thicker on the other side. By contrast, the extent of negative network externalities can vary from as much as equaling that of the positive network externalities to a minimum of total absence. Letting the negative network externalities vary so widely allows the analysis of the effects of different degrees of competition within a side. The variation in the competitiveness parameter reflects the variation in the extent of negative network externalities in two-sided markets: while job seekers on monster.com prefer less competition on monster.com, Visa card holders are not competing with each other for sellers. Alternatively, when the agent’s utility is decreasing with an incease in the size of the market on his own side, this can be interpreted as the ratio of potential partners to competitors, where the number of potential partners per competitor reflects the probability of finding a match, and the weight of this ratio in an agent’s utility is allowed to vary widely. The assumption of heterogeneous agents allows the monopolist matchmaker to sort agents into different marketplaces by charging different prices. Heterogeneity in the types of consumers reflects the differences in agents’ valuations of the network good. Although agents are heterogeneous in their valuation of the network good, it is assumed that agents do not differ in their valuation of network externalities.