Neo-Confucianism

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The Changing Role of Women. During the Rise of Neo-Confucianism

The Changing Role of Women. During the Rise of Neo-Confucianism

Around the time of the rise of Neo-Confucianism foot binding also saw a rise in popularity. Foot binding is the practice of binding the feet of women, starting when they are young girls, so that the arch of the foot breaks and the toes are forced under and squeezed together until the entire foot is only three inches in length. This practice was very painful but it became an important status symbol as only those with the money and resources could afford to bind their daughters' feet. The appeal of the bound feet was partially due to the fact that it made women even more fragile and dependent than in their natural state. Because the women with bound feet were unable to walk or even stand without considerable effort and discomfort they became closely tied to their home and family due to the basic fact that they were physically unable to leave the home for any extended period of time. 11 And despite the way a women might feel about her role in society it was always her duty to instill in her children the same the male-centered Neo- Confucian values she had been forced to life by. Under such a patriarchal doctrine it may not seem as though there would be room for a woman to exercise her mind and better herself intellectually, however in its own subtle way, Neo-Confucianism invited women to do just that.
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Modern Chinese Wooden Chair Design Under Ming Style Furniture Neo Confucianism

Modern Chinese Wooden Chair Design Under Ming Style Furniture Neo Confucianism

Cultural expression of Neo Confucianism in modern Chinese wooden chairs.The concept of Neo Confucianism endowed the Ming Dynasty furniture with profound cultural charm, and let the Ming Dynasty furniture maintain a high degree of unity with appreciation of traditional culture in exquisite, elegant style, that is, the perfect combination of literature and quality, to the artistic sublimation of elegance and beauty. Therefore, according to the form of Neo Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty furniture, we shall have modern people's aesthetic taste to study the literati feelings under the influence of traditional Neo Confucianism culture, and the life style with distinct nature, only this, can we not be lost in the material desires of the world in the rapidly developing economic society, concise but not simple, finding spiritual sustenance in wateriness life, so as to improve one's moral character. We shall combine Chinese traditional Neo Confucianism culture to design modern Chinese wooden chairs, thus, we can raise the national cultural connotation of furniture products continuously to make them have higher cultural and artistic value, for example, the “HJX”sofa (Fig. 4) designed by Chen Darui, the founder of MAXMARKO, the sofa was designed into a semi closed space, which represented a sense of leisure and freedom. And the “cloud rocking chair” ( Fig. 5) designed by Chan Yanfei, founder of Shanghai “PUSU"original design brand,
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The Nationalization of Confucianism: Academism, Examinations and Bureaucratic Governance in the Late Tokugawa State

The Nationalization of Confucianism: Academism, Examinations and Bureaucratic Governance in the Late Tokugawa State

Maruyama Masao’s early work during and immediately after World War II represented the fi rst generation in an ongoing postwar dialogue in Japanese scholarship over the political valence and roles of Neo- Confucianism in Japanese history. In the 1970s and 1980s, research from the second postwar generation of Japanese-language scholarship in this fi eld, comprising the works of Watanabe Hiroshi, Kurozumi Makoto, Kojima Ya- sunori, Maeda Tsutomu, Sawai Keiichi, and Hiraishi Naoaki, signifi cantly reformed Maruyama’s earlier vision. Important cumulative works of some of these scholars published in the last two decades have cemented the idea of Confucianism in Japan as a predominantly privatized social force act- ing upon the state from the outside. 10 Indeed, Kurozumi Makoto suggested the “peripheral” position of Confucianism in Tokugawa political society as one of the defi ning features of early modern Japanese Confucianism. 11 This argument certainly holds for most of the early and mid-Tokugawa pe- riod, but it has also directed attention away from the important minority of Confucians who ended up with central positions in the state in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Second-generation researchers have tended to give precedence in their studies to early and mid-Tokugawa An- cient Learning thinkers such as Ito¯ Jinsai, Ogyu¯ Sorai, and Dazai Shundai or else to Mito or National Learning scholars of the mid- or late Tokugawa period. 12 In this sense, they have continued to focus on the same schol- ars and movements highlighted by Maruyama, who in turn had analyzed
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Influences of Confucianism on Chinese Parents’ Experience with Early Childhood Education

Influences of Confucianism on Chinese Parents’ Experience with Early Childhood Education

Seen from the above description, the time after China set up economic reforms can be viewed as a period bringing obvious change in ECE system orientation, which moved from collectivist ideological and moral teaching to children’s integrated and individual development. The emphasis of educational areas in the Guidance for Kindergarten Education in 2012, modified from the Kindergarten Work Regulation and Procedure in 1989, can be seen as a development throughout the journey of cultural influences. Morality is an ideology from Con- fucianism, (and later Neo-Confucianism), but the emphasis of its meaning has been shifted from filial piety, frugality and integrity to interpersonal activity and adjustment to society, which reflects what Western ideas ad- dressed. Physical covers psychological development, which is also Western concepts advocate, but it also keeps habit building which is rooted in Confucianism. The Western concept of science has been an emphasis in educa- tion since 1979, even though it serves a very specific national development purpose. The influence remains and it makes intellectual development, in particular about natural sense and mathematics, an important area in cur- rent ECE.
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K'ung-tzu or Confucius? The Jesuit interpretation of Confucianism

K'ung-tzu or Confucius? The Jesuit interpretation of Confucianism

Feng Ying-ching had grasped the central thrust of Ricci's argument very well. The whole appeal to Chinese tradition rested on a certain view of early Confucianism. Ricci claimed that this was a pure form of natural religion underpinning a social and ethical philosophy. In the T'ien-chu shih-i he does not develop this explicitly, nor at length, but allows it to emerge from his critical remarks on Buddhism and Neo- Confucianism, usually placed in the mouth of the Chinese

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The Basics of Confucianism

The Basics of Confucianism

Confucianism is named after its founder, who lived in the 6th century BCE. The central ideas he articulated, which were developed by later thinkers, enjoyed imperial patronage during the Han Dynasty (from approximately 200 BCE - 220CE) during which the worldview flourished. Later, Taoism and Buddhism achieved prominence for several centuries until a renewed "neo-Confucianism" resurged in the 10th century CE after the fall of the Tang Dynasty. The newer form of the philosophy internalized some of the critiques and ideas of both Taoism and Buddhism.

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Engaging in Civic Life: Confucianism, Republicanism, and Ordinary Chinese in the 1940s

Engaging in Civic Life: Confucianism, Republicanism, and Ordinary Chinese in the 1940s

This is how a ruler should act. (Ebrey, 1993, p. 112) At first glance, this passage is similar to the aforementioned one from the Great Learning, extending an individual’s morality and self-discipline to effective rule of the country and care for other people; however, the hierarchical and authoritarian nature of this rule is obvious because this is his country, his territory, and his people. The existence of the country is more for the ruler than for the people. The country is owned by the ruler rather than by the people. That “he must broaden his will so as to be able to embrace both Heaven and earth” also suggests the penetration of state power into each corner of the country, including the family. While each member of Chinese society was deeply imbued with imperial Confucianism, the core of the concentric circles in the Chinese empire, in practice, was not the individual, but the ruler; similarly, the core of each familial circle was the family head. Confucianism experienced another transformation between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries resulting in the Learning of the Way (also known as Neo-Confucianism by Western scholars), as a philosophical response to the flourishing Buddhism and Daoism and as a social response to increased urbanization and commodification. During this period leading Confucian scholars initiated a revival of Confucian rites—initiations, weddings, funerals, and ancestral spirits—to restore the ethics of social relations and hierarchy (Chu & Ebrey, 1991). Zhu Xi (or Chu Hsi), for example, believed that these rites would develop a good man's learning and behavior and then improve his virtues, for his ritual practices should conform to his positions in various groups. So a virtuous man would take it as his duty to serve in the officialdom (Bol, 1989, pp. 164-71). Other local Confucian elites centered on the responsibility of a family head. Yuan Cai (or Yuan Tsai) affirmed the necessity of investment and increase of family property because the family was more than a nexus of human relationships. The family was a corporate body (Yuan & Ebrey, 1984).
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From Heaven to History: Authority in Early Confucianism

From Heaven to History: Authority in Early Confucianism

One critical problem with the conception of Confucianism as being primarily concerned with individual cultivation is that it does not distinguish between “classical Confucianism” and its variations, the most prevalent being Neo-Confucianism. For instance, Ames claims that “the Confucian project”, with its preoccupation with individual self-cultivation, was initiated by the Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200 CE). Confucianism has come in many shapes and it would be inappropriate to attempt to interpret it without due attention to its particular historical context; perhaps a truism, but one that is often overlooked. I do not intend to go into depth to explore the differences between early Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism. Suffice it to say that the individual concern in Confucianism is a latter-day Neo-Confucian conception. This is pointed out by Peter K. Bol in his study of Tang and Song intellectual history, which advocates the view that Neo-Confucian scholars, by stressing the mind’s ability of each individual “to arrive at true ideas about moral qualities inherent in the self and things,” shifted “the focus of learning away from cultural activities to the cultivation of ethical behavior.” 4
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Validity and reliability of NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) on university students

Validity and reliability of NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) on university students

17- Roshanchsly R, Shaeiri M , Atryfrd M, Nikkhah A, Qaem-Maqami B, Rahimi-Rad A. Psychometric properties of "five-factor NEO Personality Inventory NEO-FFI. J Daneshvar-Raftar. 2007;16:27-36. [Persian] 18- Pakdaman Sh, Atashpoor B, Asgari A. The relationship between personality and academic achievement. J Iranian Psychologists. 1998;16:96-105. [Persian]

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“A Real China” on User-Generated Videos? Audio-Visual Narratives of Confucianism

“A Real China” on User-Generated Videos? Audio-Visual Narratives of Confucianism

However, beneath the “Chinese success story,” the Chinese society has become frag- mented, polarized, and deeply divided by inequality (Zhao 2007). As social stratification, class polarization, and cultural displacement are increasing, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is trying to harmonize the residents of China “by reinventing itself as a corporatist par- ty claiming to represent the interests of all sectors of Chinese society,“ as Zhao (2007, 102) observes, with reference to Madsen (2003, 109). However, “it has not found a coherent an- swer to the challenges of reconciling social interests that are fundamentally incompatible with the Marxist framework that it officially still espouses” (Zhao 2007, 102). As Bell concludes, “Communism has lost its capacity to inspire the Chinese” (2010, xx). The author also sug- gests that Confucianism may become a new solution. New Confucians have argued that “on- ly by returning to a Confucian foundation can Chinese societies maintain a solid culture” (Rainey 2010, 183).
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The Renaissance of Confucianism in Contemporary China from the Perspective of Terror Management Theory

The Renaissance of Confucianism in Contemporary China from the Perspective of Terror Management Theory

Abstract Confucianism has been representative of Chinese traditional culture in official context for most of the time since the Han Dynasty (202BC). Since the fall of the Qing Dynasty, China neglected its traditions in order to modernize itself. People seem to be in danger of losing their soul [1]. As capitalism grows in contemporary China, cultural confusion sends China back to its home base - the Confucius worldview and cultural value. People are now exploring ways to integrate Confucianism into modern society. Previous research efforts have explored the motivational reasons contributing to this phenomenon. However, less clear is the psychological and spiritual significance of contemporary aspirations toward resurrecting Confucianism. This paper examines the Confucianism renaissance through the perspective of Terror Management Theory (TMT) which suggests that culture serves as a defense against the anxiety inherent in the human condition. This review is supported by a large body of experimental evidence [2,3]. Numerous studies have found that when people are reminded of their mortality, they are motivated to validate and defend their cultural worldviews and values in order to boost their self-esteem and viability of their own culture.
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Neo-Sufism: Examining the Roots of the Islamic reform Movement called “Neo-Sufism”

Neo-Sufism: Examining the Roots of the Islamic reform Movement called “Neo-Sufism”

An examination of the roots of neo-Sufism necessarily starts with examining Sufism. In the first chapter I explained the terminology, the history and the development of Sufism. Sufism has had an important role in the Islamic world for centuries. The term ‘Sufism’ was created in the West and Western scholars have been interested in Sufi movements ever since. The strong sociological and political interest of Western scholars led to a fascination with Sufi orders as authoritarian structures. There has been an automatic tendency to view the brotherhoods as something like political parties with distinctive ideological characteristics. Yet Sufi theorists tend to take a different view on Sufism. Another characterisation of Sufism by Western colonial sources is one that emphasises the dangers of the fanatical resistance of Sufism to European rule. This reflects how perceptions can differ largely from different points of view. The Western view clearly differs from the Sufi theorist’ view. Although relatively little has been written on Sufism and its influence on Islam, it has shaped Islamic thought and history. Sufis were influential in spreading Islam, particularly to the furthest outposts of the Muslim world in Africa, India and the Far East. The current debate on Sufism should disentangle itself from underlying Orientalist constructions by Western scholars. Therefore, more research is needed on the topic.
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The parrhesia of neo-fascism

The parrhesia of neo-fascism

Rerouting the parrhesiastical recruitment channel into neo-fascism means taking the fun out of “shocking” acts of (supposed) truth-telling (and violating orthodoxies and “home truths” can be immensely pleasurable), whose aim is precisely to elicit a horrified reaction: in other words, to refuse to go along with the back-and- forth game of astonishment (on our part) and (false) piety (on theirs). This is, in truth, a parlor game with rather high stakes. Rather than be shocked at pronouncements whose very purpose is to elicit shock, a political strategy capable of counteracting neo- fascism would entail exiting language games of neo-fascism’s making and instead attempt to intervene directly in the material world, to engage in concerted efforts to build the world rather than be caught in various discursive games about the world – from creating stable, high-paying jobs to ramping up infrastructure investments to constructing ecologically sound economies, and, in the long-run, to move beyond the capitalist horizon.
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Neo-Assyrian Period

Neo-Assyrian Period

Letters, both official and private, can offer important information on legal practice in the Neo-Assyrian period. The texts come mainly from the state archives in Nineveh and Kalhu but also from the archives of the provincial governors in Kalhu and Guzana (Tell Halaf) and the private archives from Assur. They cover the period from the eighth to the late seventh centuries, albeit concentrated in the reigns of certain kings, while virtually no letters from the reigns of some kings, most notably Sennacherib, are known. 7

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Institutions and initial conditions in transition: reconciling neo institutional and neo classical conceptions

Institutions and initial conditions in transition: reconciling neo institutional and neo classical conceptions

These conditions are examined in a growth theoretical context to see specifically what effects they may have dynamics and outcomes during transition, or how different institutional envir[r]

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Extreme neo-liberalism: an introduction

Extreme neo-liberalism: an introduction

This is to say nothing of how the business school is understood inside the university itself, where it represents both the bringing of the market into the university, and the spread of new management techniques (and indeed new managers) across the university. But even this popular academic image of extreme neo-liberalism requires some thought if extreme neo-liberalism is not merely to be dismissed as the spread of empty terms like excellence or entrepreneurship, forward spies for the invasion of market relations. Indeed, if we turn this around a bit we can see that to focus on the movement of the market into the university, through the conduit of business school misses its other important half: the movement of the university out into the metropolis. This other movement, this metroversity offers its own incubated techniques of university management to private firms and local governments, techniques for the management of the production and circulation of knowledge. After all, what organisation is more experienced at encouraging, capturing, and exploiting knowledge than the university? Its techniques today can be found in every technology park (not accidentally sometimes called technology campusus), creative industries district, financial centre, and multiculturally marketed neighbourhood. Peer review, departmental democracy, university governance, mentoring and probation, research
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Neo-Despotism as Anti-Despotism

Neo-Despotism as Anti-Despotism

Neither Hiero nor The Prince nor Leviathan called their protagonists despots, but they knew, as their audiences did, that they were. While keeping silent about this, it did not occur to them to redress themselves as anti-despots. But insofar as it disseminates revised concepts, obscuring their content, neo-despotism must appear in the guise of its opposite, as a domain of freedom and choice. To make sense of what is at stake here, we must reflect on the nature of the command. In Western thought, there are two distinct but related ontologies that remain in a disjunctive rela- tion: the ontology of declaratory assertion, which seeks to determine whether a logical proposition or phenomenon is true or false, and the ontology of the command, which finds its expression in the imperative (Agamben, 2019: 48). Philosophy and science are dominated by the first discourse, while the second discourse governs the fields of law, religion and magic. However, throughout Christianity and modernity, the ontol- ogy of the command has progressively displaced, marginalized and replaced the ontology of assertion (2019: 53). Consequently, the contem- porary ‘democratic’ societies can be defined as:
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Neo-Humanism in Practice Stimulating Physico- psychic Environment: A Case Study of Neo-Humanist Schools

Neo-Humanism in Practice Stimulating Physico- psychic Environment: A Case Study of Neo-Humanist Schools

transcendental knowledge. Yoga for health, quiet time exercise, moral teaching, morning circle and control of breathing, music, dance, drama, service projects all are incorporated in the school curriculum along with the content knowledge. NHE curriculum is framed to balance in three strata-physical, psychic and spiritual. Early intervention for moral development is another important aspect of this school. Instead of rote learning, these schools create a physic psychic environment that arouses thirst for knowledge among the students. Neo-humanist Education (NHE) suggests integrated and inter-disciplinary curriculum so that the different layers of mind remain engaged simultaneously. NHE curriculum incorporates the spiritual and moral practice of Astaunga Yoga for development of integrated personality. Along with cognitive development, proper physical development, development of rationality, socio-emotional development and moral and spiritual development are the main focus of these schools.
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Research of Confucianism Education Method in Chinese College Students’ Ideological and Political Education

Research of Confucianism Education Method in Chinese College Students’ Ideological and Political Education

Study of Confucian thoughts on psychological education, using Confucian thoughts on psychological education and methods to strengthen college students’ psychological quality, to strength[r]

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Achievements and challenges of the Chinese model of Capitalism   How much can be explained by Confucianism?

Achievements and challenges of the Chinese model of Capitalism How much can be explained by Confucianism?

Confucianism is inherently sceptical toward technical inventions which disturb established patterns of behaviour. Third, extended kinship groups protect its members against economic adversities and decrease the motivation for payment of debts and work discipline. Fourth, Confucian ethics rejects professional specialization, expert bureaucracy and special training due to the notion that “a cultured man‟ is seen as an end in itself and not just a means for a specified useful purpose or a functional end. Weber sees instrumental rationality like specialization, professionalization and bureaucratization as crucial features of the modern age, and he stresses that the lack of emphasis on law and professional specialization are elements of Confucianism which constitute barriers to the rise of capitalism in China.
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