In , the secondary users learn the best routing path along with the dynamic spectrum allocation. This being an overlay DSA scheme, the secondary users rec- ognize the free spectrum sub-bands. The secondary users transmit data on these frequencies while determining the best routing path. Thus, the parameters from physical layer (unused frequency) and networklayer (routing) are used together to adapt by the secondary. The work in , proposes a cross-layer opportunistic spec- trum access and dynamic routing algorithm for CRNs, called ROSA (ROuting and Spectrum Allocation algorithm). This algorithm jointly considers routing, spectrum assignment, power allocation, and (potentially) congestion control in a distributed way. In , decentralized and localized algorithms for joint dynamic routing, relay assignment, and spectrum allocation under a distributed and dynamic environment are studied for co-operative CRNs. This work shows that these algorithms lead to increased throughput with respect to non-cooperative strategies. In , CRNs are studied to develop analytical framework model to perform congestion control over the transport layer. This framework is also designed for an overlay approach where the operation on cognitive radios will be stopped when the primary user starts using the channel for its communication.
 In this paper, “a survey on mac strategies for cognitive radio networks”, which is published by a.d. domenico, e.c. strinati and m.d. benedetto in the year of 2012, we have discussed various methods and techniques used so far in the design and development of mac protocols for manets. we also looked into a few protocols developed for wsns that can be deployed in a manet environment with minor adjustments. some of the techniques proposed call for interaction between different layers of the protocol stack such as, a mac solution that works in conjunction with routing. the traditional layered architecture for network communication is rigid and thus limits the ability of nodes to select better routes. we believe that a mac solution that interacts with the physical layer and networklayer (routing) would provide better results compared to a strict layered approach. we also looked into antenna technologies used in manets especially the directional or the beam forming antennas. in communication environments where a single radio interface is using a single channel, only one device can transmit whereas the rest of the nodes in its transmission range either receive the data being transmitted or waits for the transmission to end before they can transmit their own data. these enhanced antenna based mac solutions can achieve better throughput performance by opportunistic transmission without affecting other transmissions in their neighborhood. specialized antennas based mac solutions also fall under the paradigm of cross-layer design because beam forming antennas needs instruction from the mac layer before directing their transmission at particular node or group of nodes.
With the many applications of IoT, devices tend to be tailored towards very specific tasks. As a result, it is unlikely a network will contain nodes created by the same manufacturer. An attack that could occur during this phase would involve an untrustworthy manufacturer that clones the device. In the best-case scenario, the cloned device is sold for a cheaper price but functions the same as a genuine device. In the worst-case scenario, the software may be changed to implement harmful features such as a backdoor [Garcia13]. As a result, there exists an implicit user trust of vendors and their manufacturers.
G. N. Bravos and G. Efthymoglou, and et al. classified the existing multipath routing protocols in Wireless sensor networks s based on the primary criterion used in their design. Accordingly, the principal motivation of conducting this research was lack of a comprehensive survey on the proposed multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first effort to classify and investigate the operation as well as benefits and drawbacks of the existing multipath routing protocols in sensor networks.
when solving the RWA problem. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) is a mathemat- ical optimization program which can be used to solve the routing sub-problem with the objective to minimize the crosstalk attack radius and in-band attack radius in scheduled optical network. In summary, our approach relies on optimally arranging the set of lightpaths to minimize the possible disruptions caused by various attack scenarios to reduce the number of lightpaths attacked, which can not only reduce the potential network service disruption but also make failure detection and localization algorithms be faster since they only need to search fewer potential lightpaths  .
A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless mobile node that dynamically self organizes in random and temporary network topologies. People and vehicles will be internet worked in areas while not a pre existing communication infrastructure or once the utilization of that type of infrastructure needs a wireless extension. In the mobile ad hoc network, nodes can communicate directly with all the other nodes within their radio ranges; whereas nodes that not in the direct communication range use neighbouring nodes to communicate with each other. The need for mobility in wireless networks caused the creation of the MANET working group within The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for developing steady IP routing protocols for both static and dynamic topologies. In a MANET, mobile nodes have the capacity to accept and route traffic from their neighbors towards the destination, i.e., they act as routers as well as hosts. As the network grows, and coupled with node mobility, the challenges linked with self configuration of the network become more obvious. More frequent connection disconnections and reconnecting place an energy constraint on the mobile nodes. Ad hoc routing protocols are refined with mechanisms to cope with the dynamic nature of MANET.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) are characterized as an infrastructure-less communication networks formed among a set of stranger nodes. Service Discovery is a challenging problem in such networks due to their non-deterministic and improvised nature. This manuscript addresses two main issues related to service discovery in MANET i.e. consistency management and knowledge representation. Consistency management i.e. the problem of maintaining a coherent view of the services in the network is a taxing job due to the sharp variations in the service availability information in MANET. Similarly, the lack of a standard mechanism for representation of data and resources on the network engenders syntactic and semantic interoperability issues during discovery of services. The use of a colossal schema to describe the services can resolve the issue of non- interoperability, but this approach is certainly not viable because of the limited capabilities of nodes. In view of these challenges, this paper presents a robust and scalable networklayer semantic service discovery scheme. A networklayer service discovery scheme is presented that finds out the requested service jointly with the corresponding route to the provider of service. For ensuring the robustness of the process, a networklayer consistency management scheme is also proposed that maintains the valid state of the services by exploiting the vigilance of networklayer. To solve the knowledge representation issue, we recommend a scalable multi-tiered approach based on a general purpose ontology called Software Ontology for Ad hoc and Vehicular Network Applications (SLAVE). The multi-tiered approach keeps a portion of global schema at individual nodes of the network and advocates progressive growth of schema information. The proposed scheme has been simulated in JIST/SWANS simulator. The simulation results assert the robustness and scalability of the consistency manager and knowledge representation scheme respectively.
Referred to as network segmentation, localizing the traffic and effectively reducing the number of stations on a segment is necessary to prevent collisions and broadcasts from reducing a network segment’s performance. By reducing the number of stations, the probability of a collision decreases because fewer stations can be transmitting at a given time. For broadcast containment, the idea is to provide a barrier at the edge of a LAN segment so that broadcasts cannot pass outward or be forwarded on. The network designer can provide segmentation by using either a router or a switch. You can use routers to connect the smaller subnetworks and either route Layer 3 packets or bridge Layer 2 packets. You can improve the effect of collisions by placing fewer stations on each segment. A router cannot propagate a collision condition from one segment to another, and broadcasts are not forwarded to other subnets by default, unless bridging (or some other specialized feature) is enabled on the router. Figure 1-1 shows an example of how a router can physically segment a campus network. Although broadcasts are contained, the router becomes a potential bottleneck because it must process and route every packet leaving each subnet.
The challenge of mobile adhoc network (MANET) is to keep the path active for long time. Since the path breaks due to node movement and limited battery power. The route is repaired and discovered only after a path breaks in existing routing protocols. Detection of route break and establishment of a new route insisted a high cost on the network. Preemptive route repair can be an alternative. It allows a routing algorithm to maintain connectivity by switching to a new path before a path break. In this paper, ‘Route discovery by cross layerrouting protocol ( RDCLRP)’ is proposed. RDCLRP is modification of AODV. RDCLRP is a preemptive route repair routing protocol using cross layer approach. A route is considered to break when the node is moving towards out of transmission range or battery power is going to zero. When a path is about to break, a warning is broadcast showing the possibility of disconnection. A route is discovered in advance before route break to avoid disconnection. The performance of proposed algorithm is investigated for change in traffic. Simulations are run on qualnet 5.0. Proposed algorithm shows improvement compared to an AODV. Results illustrated that the route breakage is reduced by an average of 91%, throughput is improved by 30.62%, delay is reduced by 24.1%, received packets are increased by 24.3% and residual battery power is increased by 16.05%.
Dhillon present IDS every node calculates non -conformances of Topology Control msg with respect to already known HELLO messages. This solution is most effective under the assumption that HELLO msg can be trusted. In node isolation attack, this HELLO message is the main issue. The authors mention the works of and as a strategy for avoiding spoofing attacks in HELLO messages. But, as we already mentioned, adds overhead to the network, as does by utilizing control messages for confirming the HELLO messages. An extended security to the OLS R is introduced by Adjih et al. A signature and timesta mp is joined to every control message. These imp rovements prevent the modification and falsification of topology data and guarantee the timeliness of every message. This method successfully blocks unauthorized users from join ing an OLSR MANET, but cannot prevent attacks launched by compro mised genuine key holding nodes.
shortest path pheromone concentration is increased and the other ants are forced to choose this path. Likewise each node‟s (node‟s) position is identified by its latitude indicated by North or South from the Equator and longitude indicated by East or West from the Prime Meridian which are obtained from Global Positioning System, i.e., GPS antenna system. This latitude, longitude, and the movement of a node‟s direction in form of destination sequence number are broadcasted to all other node which are noted and updated in the look up table for routing purpose. All base station node maintain a look up table in form of the destination sequence number (nearest node) in a particular direction and periodically (say 2~3 minute) refresh it. In case a node wants to send information to another distant node, first of all it collects the information about the location of the destination node according to its destination sequence number. Then in that direction the shortest distanced available node within the source node‟s power coverage zone is connected according to the look up table of destination sequence numbers, and further this process is going on till the terminal (destination) node reached. This connection is set up through intermediate nodes and terminal node according to suggested Modified AODV (M-AODV) protocol. Modified AODV (M-AODV) finds a route from a source to a destination only when the source node wants to send one or more packets (traffic) to that destination either through several intermediate nodes or directly according to the source node‟s transmitting power coverage zone. The established routes are maintained as long as they are required by the source. It employs the destination sequence numbers to identify the most recent path. This destination sequence number is computed according to the nearest latitude, longitude, and direction of movement of the node in Modified AODV protocol. Here swarm (ant colonies) intelligence technique  is applied through the latitude, the longitude, and the direction of movement of a node which act as pheromone in ant colonies. A Route Request (RREQ) is flooded throughout the network and it contains the source address or identifier (SrcID), the source sequence number (SrcSeqNum), the destination address or identifier (DestID), the destination sequence number (DestSeqNum), the broadcast identifier (BcastID), and the time to live (TTL) field. Destination sequence number (DestSeqNum) is determined in accordance with latitude, longitude (both in normalized form, i.e., divided by 3600), and direction of movement of the intermediate or the terminal destination nodes (nodes) with respect to the source or the previous intermediate node.
This types of attacks where it is also mainly possible against the routing protocol AODV, here attacker mostly change hope count value and due to this way it will become the cause of attract traffic. They are mainly used to include new routes in order to reset the value of hop count field to a lower value of a RREQ packet or sometime even it is used to set to zero.
ATM and PoS can be used within the same network. ATM technology provides an effective, ﬂexible provisioning mechanism for low- to high-speed network access. ATM switches can be used to aggregate digital subscriber line (DSL), cable, and customer trafﬁc by using permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual circuits (SVCs), which can then feed into compatible downstream routers. This trafﬁc is then fed into higher-speed links attached to the Cisco 12000 series router for transport through the core through PoS interfaces. An advantage of ATM is its innate support for QoS. PoS is fully capable of supporting the transport of time-sensitive data, using Layer 3 mechanisms. Technologies such as Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), committed access rate (CAR), and Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) enable providers to offer QoS solutions in a more cost-effective manner than ATM. These technologies are Layer 3 implementations for QoS. This book does not focus on QoS, but other Cisco Press books covering QoS are available (such as IP Quality of Service; ISBN: 1-57870-116-3).
The purpose of this study is cross layer optimization for protocols in mobile adhoc networks to support Quality of Services. This consists of cross layer interactions among physical and network layers for link availability and energy manipulate at MAC layer.Most of routing protocols offer best effort carrier and they're not concerned approximately satisfactory of service. Mobile Adhoc Networks are characterized by dynamic topology due to nodes’ mobility. Mobility is the principle motive of the link disasters that influences the services provided by way of the networks. So in this proposal, we are predicting the provision of the hyperlink using Newton divided distinction interpolation technique. REFERENCES
We use the most widely used algorithm  to impose security as well as to prevent selfish behavior to determine the detect each and every node in the network in regualr manner. A public and a private key pair are involved in RSA. Everyone can know the public key and use it to encrypt messages. Only private key can decrypt messages encrypted with a public key. In the key generation process, it is supposed to use two keys are generated, the primary is the public key P(n,e) and secondary is private key (d). To obtain the value of the trust of every node in the network, it is required to collect the information about collaboration index (CI) present in the neighboring nodes. The purpose of updating the value of CI is responsible for listening to the original or control information with the help of neighbor nodes.
Wang Qing-wen, Shi Hao-shan, Jiang Yi and Cheng Wei in 2010 advised CLERP. Beneath the move- layeredthe strategy, there is still the separation between 802.11 Mac layerand routinglayer. Sharing of cross-layer cache is used. Itkeeps the hyperlink knowledge in the cache. Repute (active orinactive) of the node is ready in step with the transfer from a node inits time. If there is no signal of switch from any node, the node isdeleted from the cache. The pass - layer cache can be utilized to set up a backup route to reduce the packet losses due to hyperlink break.CLERP expand the packet supply fraction. Yao Chang-hua, Wang Cheng-guy  in 2010 advisedCLSDTP. CLSDTP is based on token passing. Time slots areoutlined for each node to move token and information packet. In thisMAC and routinglayer share the understanding, this reduces themethod overhead. Token passing queue (TPQ) is maintained. Ifany node has token it transfer packet and delivered to the rear ofthe queue, different nodes can most effective listen to the channel. For that reason, thecollision is very low, network efficiency development.
Clustering Agents: the clustering in a hierarchical topology network is the reorganization of the WSN on groups of nodes where a cluster-head is elected to manage the group of nodes and perform some proc- essing tasks on the data gathered by its members. The clustering phase is very important for some hierar- chical routing protocols, so it is very useful to assign to the WSN such service. Like the positioning, this task can be centralized or decentralized. In the first case, a task-agent specify the cluster-heads and the members of cluster using the parameters given by the planning-agent of the deployment module, then an update-agent is disseminated to update the role of each node in the network. In the other case, the planning- agent disseminates mission-agents to the nodes in or- der to negotiate and elect the cluster-heads and the members of clusters.
Wireless Sensor (WSNs) is eminent from other wireless networks or wired network by many features. First of them is mobile nodes in WSNs can moves freely in the lack of a fixed infrastructure unit. The nodes are mobile and by that the link in between sender to receiver is rapidly changes i.e. the main cause of topology failure. Another one is nodes in WSNs has limited resources such as energy or power, limited bandwidth, and nodes computational power and WSNs have no trusted centralized authority. The proposed IDS method against wormhole attack is not only detect the wormhole attacker but also prevent the network from it. The proposed IDS is improves the routing performance and provides the secure communication. The information of attacker is broadcast to all the nodes that are participating in routing for sending data to destination and genuine nodes are simply deny the request of wormhole attacker if it identified again after block their existence. The attacker infection is very harmful for WSN the routing overhead, throughput and PDF are provides the negligible output but after applying proposed secure IDS scheme the routing packets flooding is minimized with enhancement of performance of PDF and packets receiving. The performance of proposed IDS is supposed to be equivalent to normal routing performance. The characteristic of WSN is a decentralized network and forming dynamic link. The control in nodes movement and security is only possible through some better routing scheme and reliable routing scheme. In future we try to propose the security scheme against jellyfish attack and flooding attack. The attacker identification is not only based on packet loss but also based on heavy packets flooding in WSN.