ABSTRACT: Zigbee wireless communication technology is a kind of newly arisen wireless networktechnology; the characteristic is short distance communication, low speed, low power dissipation, and low cost. It, application of Zigbee wireless communication technology, makes that inconvenient wire repeat can be avoided in the area of home, factory, hospital, etc. With the rapid development of IT industry and the strong functional expansion of SCM, Zigbee wireless communication technology will play an important role in wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, Zigbee wireless communication technology and the process of establishing Zigbee network are introduced, the application of Zigbee wireless communication technology is studied in the real world
Z-wave technology as a wireless sensor and control network is one of the most popularly deployed wireless technologies that too in recent years; this is because Z-wave is an open standard lightweight, low-cost, low- speed, low-power protocol that allows true operability between systems. It features to meet required functionalities thereby finding applications in wide variety of wireless personal area networked systems such as home/industrial automation and monitoring systems. Although the Z-wave design specification includes security features to protect data communication confidentiality and integrity, however, when simplicity and low-cost are the major goals, security suffers. This paper gives the general survey of the Z-wave as a wireless sensor network based technology, which provides the readers with the general overview of Z-wave networktechnology.
Abstract: Recent advances in the electronics technologies results into revolutionary developments in fields of science and technology. Due to relentless efforts of scientists and technologists the fields such as Embedded Technology, Integration technology, communication technology, smart sensor design technology etc are pervasively growing and evolving innovative fields for research and developments. On confluence of embedded technology and communication technology with computer technology, a novel field called Wireless Sensor Network is emerged. Wireless sensor network provides new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information from various environments with a great potential to serve many and diverse applications. The monitoring of various physical parameters such as temperature, fluid level, relative humidity, intensity of light, concentration of gasses dissolved in the atmosphere, vibrations, strain, soil moisture, industrial process parameters, pH and salinity of water etc plays commendable role in various sectors such as environmental pollution monitoring, high-tech agriculture, structural engineering, chemical and physical industries, transportation, military and defense, healthcare, forestry etc. The WSN is the network of smart sensor nodes, wherein the standard protocols such as Zigbee, Bluetooth, wifi, GSM etc technologies are employed to establish the RF communication. The distributed sensor nodes must be routed in the network to ensure cooperative collection of the data. Different routing protocols have been studied for their suitability to use in the WSN. It is found that, to establish the WSN, different routing protocols have been reported. Therefore, in present paper wireless sensor networktechnology and networking algorithms used in wireless sensor network for diverse applications are discussed.
Recently, the global penetration of open networktechnology as represented by the Internet has caused various tensions as well as global economic development. While the value of the open networks themselves are increas- ing significantly as their users increase, inter- actions fraught with a variety of problems such as conflict of values, knowledge gap and eco- nomic gap could occur at any time. Although there may be criticism against such traits of open networks, the communication infrastruc- ture that transcends the conflict of values, knowledge gap and economic gap has become the driving force of the recent global devel- opment, and the capacity for safely using this infrastructure is a great source of competitive- ness.
single bill. These services include cellular telephony also. What lacks in this environment is interworking among various services. A converged environment would allow for rich multimedia applications to be accessed by the users on any device and retain the user profile and other settings. The idea is to be able to communicate, establish multimedia sessions, and perform control and configuration operations on all the networked elements in the residential environment. The following are the typical requirements of a converged residential network:
Abstract— In globally implemented heterogeneous remote systems, a vital undertaking for versatile terminals is to choose the best system for different radio access correspondences whenever anyplace, as a rule called network selection. As of late, this point has been broadly contemplated by utilizing different numerical algorithms. The utilized hypothesis chooses the goal of advancement, unpredictability and execution, so it is an absolute necessity to comprehend the potential numerical algorithms and pick the suitable one for getting the best outcome. In this manner, this paper methodically contemplates the most vital numerical hypothesis which can display the best network selection compared to other technologies that are already implemented. To find out the best mobile terminal & core network flow was explained. For achieving best network using the priority best network selection algorithm procedure is proposed.
Compared to the Tier-2-Comm‟s design, Tier-3- Commdesign is intended for use in metropolitan areas. Inorder to bridge the two networks for inter- BAN andbeyond-BAN communications, a gateway device, suchas a PDA can be employed to create a wireless linkbetween these two networks.As shown in Fig. 2, the beyond-BAN tier communicationscan enhance the application and coverage rangeof an E- healthare system a step further by enablingauthorized healthcare personnel (e.g., doctor or nurse)to remotely access a patient‟s medical information bymeans of cellular network or the Internet.A database is also an important component of the“beyond-BAN” tier. This database maintains the user‟s profile and medical history. According to user‟s servicepriority and/or doctor‟s availability, the doctormay access the user‟s information as needed. At thesame time, automated notifications can be issued tohis/her relatives based on this data via various meansof telecommunications.The design of beyond-BAN communication isapplication-specific, and should adapt to the requirementsof user-specific services. For example, if anyabnormalities are found based on the up-to-date bodysignal transmitted to the database, an alarm can benotified to the patient or the doctor through emailor short message service (SMS). If necessary, doctorsor other care-givers can communicate with patientsdirectly by video conference via the Internet. In fact, itmight be possible for the doctor to remotely diagnosea problem by relying on both video communicationswith the patient and the patient‟s physiological datainformation stored in the database or retrieved by aBAN worn by the patient.An ambulatory patient travelling to a location outside his/her hometown might experience a
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) provide a new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information from various environments, with the potential to serve many and diverse applications. A smart WSN consists of a number of sensors spread across a geographical area; each sensor has wireless communication capability and sufficient intelligence for signal processing and networking of the data. We highlight potential applications to off-shore oilfields for seismic monitoring, equipment monitoring, and underwater robotics. We identify research directions in short-range acoustic communications, MAC, time synchronization, and localization protocols for high-latency acoustic networks, long duration network sleeping, and application-level data scheduling. The structure of WSNs are tightly application-dependent, and many services are also dependent on application semantics (e.g. application-specific data processing combined with data routing). Thus, there is no single typical WSN application, and dependency on applications is higher than in traditional distributed applications. The application/middleware layer must provide functions that create effective new capabilities for efficient extraction, manipulation, transport, and representation of information derived from sensor data. We focus on middleware technology, and describe details of some existing research prototypes, then address challenges and future perspectives on the middleware.
We studied the fully connected as well as chain We studied the fully-connected as well as chain- shaped wireless sensor networks and obtained formulas showing what relation between network parameters should be to have a synchronized network.
All-time shock is brought to modernist by the appearance of computer network. Although with time passing by, networktechnology itself is in the continuous change and improvement such as HSLN high-speed LAN, LAN, WAN, MAN, Internet, cable networks, wireless network and so on. With the progress of network, the spread and communication of information, so much as many fields of our social life is effectively progressing. As NDT scientific and technological workers, we should firmly grasp the pulse of times, so as to make this modern scientific civilization better serve the NDT field. In this paper, from a technical point of view and on the basis of existing nondestructive testing technology, the feasibility of using networktechnology to realize the system integration and long-distance remote control of eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, magnetic memory, ultrasonic NDT equipments is analyzed. The aim is to extend the testing ability of the existing NDT technology, broaden its application scope. Meanwhile, adopting this method to research and develop is also introduced. The new-type integrating testing equipment includes EEC-2008net eddy current and ultrasonic network testing system. The conclusion, revolutionary concept change will be brought by the NDT integrated technology based on network, is trying to get in this paper.
The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS provisions permitting a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in the radio access network. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time-division duplexing (TDD). The IP-based network architecture, called the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and designed to replace the GPRS Core Network, supports seamless handovers for both voice and data to cell towers with older networktechnology such as GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000. The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs (for example, each E-UTRAN cell will support up to four times the data and voice capacity supported by HSPA)
In the case described above, the introduction of the GPS units into the AFL was relatively uncontroversial. By contrast, the use of devices that imitate the effects of altitude training, such as technologically constructed hypoxic environments (TCHEs), remains controversial in sport because of the argument that the effects mirror those of doping: in particular, EPO and blood doping. Nonetheless, they remain a legal technology in sport. This section will investigate the legality of TCHEs through the notion of what is ‘folded’ (Latour and Venn, 2002) in a technology. Like the case of the GPS units, this section again emphasises the significance of viewing technologies as actor- networks. However, where the GPS unit’s effectiveness was hampered by lack of support from the necessary network that existed beyond the physical unit, in the case of the TCHEs I will argue that it is the actor-network within the units themselves that produces the controversy. Where for the GPS case I needed to follow the units outwards to the network, in this case I will instead follow the TCHE network inwards. Specifically, I argue that TCHEs have a particular history folded within them, including the decisions made at the 1968 Olympic Games and the apparent natural superiority of long-distance runners from places such as Kenya and Ethiopia, which are at a high altitude. In a way, this approach has some similarities to that of authors such as Magdalinski (2009), who notes that the cultural meanings of technological devices are important for understanding their use. In this chapter I adopt a related though somewhat different approach of following the history of the debate, which I argue has become a significant part of the network that we call a TCHE. I argue that the network also incorporates a simplicity of use and lack of medicalisation that results in athletes feeling more comfortable using the devices.
Mobile terminals, however, are susceptible to suspended services since wireless links can disconnect under certain cir- cumstances. In comparison to fixed nodes like personal comput- ers, this greatly limits processing power and the types of ser- vices that can be provided. To overcome this instability of wire- less links and to compensate for the relatively low processing power of mobile terminals, it is essential to improve terminal performance and wireless technology and upgrade facilities, but these measures in themselves would not completely make up for the limitations of mobile terminals. This article introduces Twin Agents  architecture and its programming model as a net- work-assisted mobile terminal support technology for offsetting
Switzerland showed its commitment to innovation in health care since the early 80 th , implementing agencies and government units with the mission to promote and to appropriately govern innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology Assessment (SNHTA) was founded in 1998. The aim is the promotion and implementation of Health Technology Assessment projects in Switzerland by providing a neutral forum for the identification and the pursuit of common interests. This includes the coordination, exchange and dissemination of experiences of HTA projects and the implementation of the results. The collaboration in international projects is a priority. Ultimately SNHTA has the goal to improve efficacy, cost effectiveness and social accountability. An inventory survey amongst the members confirmed a high level of diverse specialised competencies, mainly employed within the institution. Only 20% of the HTA specific competencies are used for external activities. The need for integration of all partners in the field of innovation in a network has been recognised by the Swiss government. This lead to the creation of a webplatform in which all players involved in the business of medical technologies are involved. This platform (swiss medtech), includes patients, insurers, industry, universities and professional organisations. The joined activities include agreements on intellectual property and the integrated patient care chain. New ways to connect players in innovation are needed to face the challenge of increasing costs and diminishing resources.
Sandvine’s Network Security product delivers a third-generation clean pipe technology to automatically identify and eliminates Layer-3/4 DDoS attacks like SYN floods, flow floods, and bandwidth floods, as well as IP-spoofing reflector attacks (e.g., DNS, NTP) that trick network resources into attacking subscribers. This inline solution uses behavioral heuristics to detect high-volume attacks for reporting and alarm notification, with both manual and automatic mitigation options.
This is a working document for all ICT infrastructure projects in the College. It sets out the standards for design and implementation of network installations in both stand-alone projects and as part of integrated refurbishments and new builds. It is also intended as a guide to understanding of the requirements of the ICT Department.
Those concerned with education - teachers, learning technologists - want to understand learning in this changing technological context and think about how education might be different. Theories of web-enabled learning have grown out of the disciplines of education and what is called instructional design in USA, with competing and philosophically disjoint theories such as behaviorism, cognitivism and (social) constructivism holding sway in different quarters and at different times. Behaviourism offers laws to govern behaviour that can inform a teacher’s manipulation of the learning environment (including texts and activities) to promote learning, for example Gagne’s nine events of instruction. Cognitivism opens up the black box of the mind regarding the learner as information processor. Social constructivism is an interpretivist approach, based on phenomenology, that has an “ontology in which reality is subjective, a social product constructed and interpreted by humans as social actors according to their beliefs and value systems”, (Darke, Shanks, & Broadbent, 1998). Hence social constructivism places a greater emphasis on the importance of social interactions in affecting the individual's generation of knowledge or facts about the world. Such categorizations of theories can run counter to the practice of teachers who often adopt and adapt theories in a flexible manner to help them to understand and plan teaching and learning activities. It can be argued that theories of learning that were based on assumptions of students being taught by teachers, usually in a classroom, do not provide an adequate framework for us to think and act in the digitally saturated and connected world in which we live. Networked theories of learning (Goodyear, 2001) and of society (Castells, 2000) have been elaborated to explain the impact of ICTs across education, commerce and society in general. Learners, teachers, managers and policy makers are trying to integrate technology into learning in formal and informal settings, looking for theories that can usefully inform their actions.