NEW BUSINESS MODELS IN THE MUSIC INDUSTRY

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Music business models and piracy

Music business models and piracy

The online market is a high-velocity environment as demand, competition and technology are constantly changing (Wirtz et al., 2007). Music distributors have begun to establish new business models where they are part of the value chain (i.e. cloud music services) being necessary for that a close analysis of customers behaviour. Business models are built around delivering customer value but knowledge of innovation management in the music industry may be limited, exemplified by the negative impact of mp3 technology on revenue. To better understand how business models create value for customers firms have begun to more closely customers' analyse behaviour (Parry et al., 2012). Understanding and development of successful business models may be seen as part of a more complex strategy, which would include lobbying for IPR protection, to recover revenues. For all these reasons, a second hypothesis is created to test whether new business models can increase revenues:
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Business Model Dynamics In The Music Industry: Video Killed The Radio Star   Or How The Internet Altered Business Models In The Music Industry

Business Model Dynamics In The Music Industry: Video Killed The Radio Star Or How The Internet Altered Business Models In The Music Industry

Victor Hugo already explained 150 years ago that "Ce qu'on ne peut pas dire et ce qu'on ne peut pas taire, la musique l'exprime (William Shakespeare, 1864)." (engl.: “Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent.”), hence it is not surprising that more than 58% people listen to music 2 ½ hours daily (Music Survey Data Analysis, 2012). Besides listening to music via the radio or TV programs, the emergence of information and communications technology (ICT) as well as the internet enabled music enthusiast to access easily their favorite sounds through online media. However, the World Wide Web and ICTs, like hardware and software and tools such as websites or management information systems (Osterwalder, 2004), did not only evoke a change in customers’ behavior but also require a change in companies’ management. Various new communication and information channels simplify international trade and thus provide consumers with a more diversified range of possibilities to satisfy their needs (Teece, 2010). In this more transparent market, with an increased bargaining power of buyers, it is more important than ever before for companies to follow a customer-centric approach in order to stay competitive (Teece, 2010). This change in market powers can also be observed in the music industry: The “traditional” value chain is extended by online music providers (Guetta & Antebellum, 2012). Moreover, artists as well as producers have now the ability to elude record companies as well as retailers because computer recording equipment and software are considered to decrease in costs but to increase in quality (Warr & Goode, 2011). Additionally, such homemade tunes are easily uploaded onto sharing platforms and social networks so that they are available
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Future Business Models of Music,
An Intellectual Property Perspective :
A New Perspective on Copyright Protection, Methods of Utilizing Revenues and Business Models in the Electronic Music Industry

Future Business Models of Music, An Intellectual Property Perspective : A New Perspective on Copyright Protection, Methods of Utilizing Revenues and Business Models in the Electronic Music Industry

To counter the potential stagnation, protecting the “economic interest and promote innovation and advancement, it is important to protect intellectual property from piracy and theft,” (Piquero, 2005) since the absence of laws and regulations governing the rights of individuals to freely create and develop innovations may not only stymie technology but also cultural and intellectual advancements. One example of the absence of sufficient regulations are third-party downloading programs to convert Youtube videos to mp3 files. While the act of saving an mp3 file off of Youtube is not legal by Youtube’s terms of agreement, there are no regulations to actually work against it. Different lawyers even declare it as a “grey-zone”, therefore not technically illegal. These circumstances lead to the average user not being intrigued by the thought of illegally downloading music files online. As modern deterrence theory suggests, humans are guided by reason, have free will, and are responsible for their own actions. Therefore deterrence theory “assumes that individuals are deterred or dissuaded from criminal activities if they perceive legal sanctions to be certain, swift, and severe.” (Piquero, 2005) However in order for formal deterrence to work, there must first be a law to prohibit the behavior. Furthermore deterrence assumes that people are not only aware of the laws prohibiting the behavior but are also
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Adoption of Open Business Models in the West and Innovation in India's Software Industry

Adoption of Open Business Models in the West and Innovation in India's Software Industry

activities. While this had worked well for a number of years, changes were needed for a more radical business transformation envisaged by the firm’s management. In 2003, this company made a decision to make a major shift in its business model to strengthen its position in the third-party logistics (3PL) market. In this business the transportation services company takes a greater responsibility for coordinating its customers’ supply chain logistics needs, i.e. the model is open on the ‘sell side’. However, the IT application portfolio, built incrementally over the years, did not optimally support the 3PL business unit. In order to do this it needed IT systems that supported new value-added services such as load building and optimisation. It wanted a one-stop IT solution to handle receipt of orders, carrier notification, load building and a tracking website for clients. As most new processes were IT-based, the IT department needed to play a key role in the business model transformation. However, while the IT department was capable of keeping existing systems running and improving them incrementally, it needed outside help to design a system that could support the envisaged business processes. While cost drove previous outsourcing, the access to expertise and technological overview drove this engagement. An Indian software company had strong expertise in the logistics domain with more than 1,000 full-time employees working in the transportation unit and a proven record of accomplishment in strategic consulting and business process re-engineering in this area. This firm was engaged to undertake a major project of Business Process and IT System Re-engineering. A cross-
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More Kiwi music : upgrading New Zealand's music industry through successful music export : a 152 800 (100 point) masters thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Management at Massey University, New Z

More Kiwi music : upgrading New Zealand's music industry through successful music export : a 152 800 (100 point) masters thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Management at Massey University, New Zealand

Arts and Cultural Industries Promotion Division Association of Independent Record Labels Australia Music Centre Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners Society Australian Music Online A[r]

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Open Business Models and Industrial Marketing: A Multiple Industry Practice Perspective

Open Business Models and Industrial Marketing: A Multiple Industry Practice Perspective

Intra-organisational factors we visualise as those factors within a single organisation that specifically support the OBM. The notion of organisational culture emerged as a recurring intra- organisational feature of the three firms’ value creation processes that formed the focal OBM. The foundations of these firms’ cultures appears to have been established in Builder and Inbound by their founding practitioners and in Buyer by LIFT in the city-region. The notion of organisational culture is supported in BM literature by Morris et al. (2005) who found that a well conceptualised BM affects and was affected by such organisational variables as organisational culture. The three firms that formed the focal OBM each had their own distinctive organisational cultures. In varying degrees, organisational culture resonated with the three firms and formed an intuitive way for their key practitioners to understand intra-organisational practices and situated praxis. The above finding alludes to the fact that the collective beliefs, principles and values of firm members could be arranged into four generic within-case themes which were termed by the researchers as human resource-based practices, investment-based practices, procurement-based practices and sales-based practices, all of which demonstrated key intra-organisational value- creating practices and related situated praxis. A common theme displayed among the three firms’ cultures was an absolute expectation for their practitioners to put the customer first. As part of this customer-first expectation, the three firms’ practitioners were empowered with varying degrees of delegated responsibilities to make their own decisions in order to solve problems and resolve conflict. Furthermore, the three firms’ practitioners were recognised as their number-one asset and were rewarded with incentivised remuneration structures and training and development opportunities that led to the promise of structured career progression to reach their full potential. However, there seemed to be a general consensus amongst respondents that Builder and Buyer had very different value orientations, incentives and motivations for being involved in the PPP. Buyer was characterisable as being motivated by the opportunity to develop a range of innovative health care and social care solutions for their co-located non-business communities in the city-region. Builder, on the other hand, seemed primarily motivated by the opportunity to make a profit with the implication that the interests of its shareholders would take precedence over the needs of its co-located non-business communities.
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Implementing green business models in the UK construction industry: opportunities and challenges

Implementing green business models in the UK construction industry: opportunities and challenges

GBMs implementation. It can be suggested that the greater the involvement of staff in the implementation process the greater the commitment to the company and the better the performance. In addition, bottom-up approach can generate commitment to the process of GBMs implementation through involvement and ownership in its formation. Once this has been achieved, it is crucial to reinforce and build the same support with external bodies and professionals to exchange knowledge and learn from best practices available. Top-down-bottom-up receptiveness and buy-in is a positive sign that the company is ready to dive in demand capture and understanding. It is assumed that the broad understanding of clients demand have been covered at the starting point to create a culture of recognition about the importance of GBMs demand and how it can be met given the available resources of the company. This phase captures demand from either existing or future potential clients (TG). By doing this, companies will have ideas of services that will be potentially appealing to the TG. The demand then will be converted into GVPs where financial assessment will be carried out to build strong business case. Then GVPs will be created by performing certain activities and using certain resources. However, it is essential to recognise that green value creation may involve external parties such as suppliers because it will not be always feasible to perform everything internally. Sourcing-out can improve the efficiency and quality of services because the pressure of a competitive market would lead to improved performance on cost and quality. Reaching these phases will indicate that the demand has been met but if not then a review will be carried out to inform the top management thus informed decisions can be made. On the other hand, if the demand has been met then sales and promotion will start to capture the value. Companies should realise that they will be selling benefits of GVPs rather than features. This approach will encourage TGs to appreciate GVP because it fulfils their needs while providing benefits such as future proof services. It is worth noting that monitoring GBMs is important phase and should be conducted in regular bases to assess success and renew the GBMs before they are outdated due to their evolving nature.
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I. Unit Title: Delta Music Institute School/College or University Division: College of Arts & Sciences Unit Administrator : Tricia Walker

I. Unit Title: Delta Music Institute School/College or University Division: College of Arts & Sciences Unit Administrator : Tricia Walker

Gonzalez and Lily Afshar. Mark's music has been performed throughout the United States, in Argentina and Taiwan, and selected for festivals and conferences that include Electronic Music MidWest, National Flute Association, West Virginia Festival of Trumpets, North American Saxophone Alliance, SCI, Ocean, Imagine and the Imagine 2 Electro-Acoustic Festival which Mark founded and directs. His work has been supported by generous grants from several organizations including the National Endowment for the Arts. As a performer, Mark has recorded and toured the U.S. with an eclectic list of ensembles: One Ring Zero, Dirtball, Easy Chair, Spike the Dog, Klezalachia, GB, J. D. Hutchinson, and Billy Rhinehart.
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More Kiwi music : upgrading New Zealand's music industry through successful music export : a 152 800 (100 point) masters thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Management at Massey University, New Z

More Kiwi music : upgrading New Zealand's music industry through successful music export : a 152 800 (100 point) masters thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Management at Massey University, New Zealand

Arts and Cultural Industries Promotion Division Association of Independent Record Labels Australia Music Centre Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners Society Australian Music Online A[r]

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Coopetitive Business Models in Future Mobile Broadband with Licensed Shared Access (LSA)

Coopetitive Business Models in Future Mobile Broadband with Licensed Shared Access (LSA)

In practice the incumbents and MNOs operate and provide different wireless services and value propositions to different customer or industry segments. Also, the different need for the spectrum can be seen as a basis for differentiation. In LSA they would share the same spectrum for different type of operations. These differences and parallel functioning of the offerings, value propositions and differentiation allows sharing to take place as MNOs’ and incumbents’ customers could sometimes even be the same, but services and usage patterns are different. From theoretical perspective, the value co-creation and co- capture processes when seen from customer perspective can be regarded as separate for the incumbents and MNOs. The offering of both MNOs and incumbents are influenced by licensing terms and sharing conditions and the governments and regulators have a strong influence over these terms. As there can be different constellations for resource availability and use for MNOs—in temporal, spatial or spectral terms—the competitive situation may vary between the players in this respect, too. Regarding coopetition, there will be all the time competition over the same scarce resource, the spectrum. In some cases, however, incumbents could benefit from the infrastructure of the MNOs, for example as regards connectivity. Therefore, the customer, offering, value proposition, and differentiation related choices of the MNOs and incumbents can act as an enabling factor for value co- creation and co-capture, and they may lead to coopetition between the players.
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Music Industry Market Research - The Effect of Cover Artwork on the Music Industry

Music Industry Market Research - The Effect of Cover Artwork on the Music Industry

Users  like  to  see  the  expression  of  an  artist’s  songs  in  another  form  other  than  the   song  itself.    90%  of  users  who  answered  the  survey  said  that  they  like  music  videos.    Music   videos  are  a  visual  expression  of  an  artist’s  particular  song.    This  data  shows  supports  my   initial  conjecture,  because  users  are  drawn  to  visuals  such  as  cover  art,  music  videos,  etc.   which  might  lead  to  users  wanting  to  see  more  of  these  materials  to  be  incorporated  online.     This  can  be  shown  by  looking  at  question  fourteen  which  asked  if  users  preferred  having   music  videos  as  an  added  feature  to  the  website.    86%  of  total  users  answered  “yes”  and   14%  answered  “no.”    This  statistic  does  not  match  the  one  previous  to  this  question,  which   had  a  stronger  correlation,  but  it  is  not  far  off.    This  could  show  that  users  want  the  
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New IT Business Models in the "Asian Age"   Multilateral Collaboration and Business Innovation

New IT Business Models in the "Asian Age" Multilateral Collaboration and Business Innovation

In addition to Japan, three locations have shown a distinguished industrial development in Asia: South Korea, Taiwan and China. Perhaps the rise of China has been a decisive factor in the development of the Asian electronics business. The electronics industry in China consists of several sub-segments such as consumer & home appliance products, computer & related products, telecommunication products, electronic components, materials and software products. It is important to note that China’s “Reform and Opening-up” policy initiated towards the end of 1978 triggered an inflow of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), and the remarkable business shifts have been accomplished. The first joint venture company was registered in 1981 – Hitachi,Ltd.’s color television factory in Fuzhou, and this was followed by a wave of production shifts by multinationals in the world. The formation of the electronics industry in China has been driven by the Government’s FDI policy. It is also worthy of mentioning that the China local industries were also born and have grown up during this process. A number of private enterprises have emerged in the course of the local industry formation in China.
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Predictive performance models in the South African Business Process Services industry

Predictive performance models in the South African Business Process Services industry

In the multivariate analysis stage of the data, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were first conducted to establish if original theoretical constructs could be replicated. This was necessitated because of the fact that the researcher had developed five of the ten scales and a number of items, as well as because of the exploratory nature of the study. Secondly, item and iterative reliability analyses were then conducted on those established variables. Thirdly, all the variables were then subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the measurement models and the suitability of their use in the structural models. At this stage, some items were omitted to improve the model fit. Finally, structural equation models (SEMs) were then tested for structural model fit. Incremental and absolute fit statistics were used to report on model fit. IBM’s SPSS (Version 22) was used to analyse the data with EQS (Version 6) for SEM, as EQS is robust in handling non-normal data (Bentler, 2006). The summary results of the CFAs are presented and discussed per variable in terms of the absolute fit measures and incremental fit measures. Absolute fit measures are the chi- square (χ²), degrees of freedom (df), the chi-square–degrees of freedom ratio (χ²/df) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Incremental fit indices are the Bentler–Bonnett Normed Fit Index (NFI), Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (Bentler, 2006; Hair et al., 2010). The required limits for fit indices are as follows:
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Business Ethics in Islamic Finance

Business Ethics in Islamic Finance

Islam is a way of life. Ethics lie at the heart of Islam. The entire Islamic law places a premium on ethical conduct in all the affairs of man in this world. The Shari’ah is inseparable from ethics. Ethics in an Islamic system differ from that of a conventional system as ethical ideals, theories and practices in the former are shaped by reverence to Allah (SWT) while in the latter ethics are based on transitory customs. Islamic ethics are based on the eternal provisions revealed to man from the Holy Quran and the Sunnah teachings of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him). The concept of Maṣlaḥah, or social welfare or utility (“common good”), is at the heart of the fundamental decrees of Islam. The ideal of Maṣlaḥah touches on all human affairs – including business – and defines the nature of the proper links and relationships between individuals and the society (Montgomery, 2010). Maṣlaḥah is the building block of all the business ethics of Islamic finance.
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Business Models as Models

Business Models as Models

Permanent repository link: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/13975/ Link to published version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2010.02.005 Copyright and reuse: City Research Online aims to ma[r]

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New business and economic models in the connected digital economy

New business and economic models in the connected digital economy

From my perspective, the business model has seen greater discussion of late because of its systemic nature and the linkages between the components. In the past when firms sold products, the linkages between the value proposition (the offering), the value creation (the experience) and the resource benefit (the money) have been rather loosely coupled, especially for physical products. If the firm sold a watch, the experience (value creation) of a watch was away from the firm within the customer space and the payment of the watch was at market spaces such as retailers and both components had less impact on how the watch was made. In a traditional product economy, value propositions, value creation and resource/revenue streams were therefore loosely coupled and from a systems perspective, each component could be analysed, improved upon or changed without much impact on the other. Consequently, even while their relationship is investigated in some domains such as supply chain and revenue management, the consumption, market and manufacturing spaces could often be studied separately and many academic disciplines and their research have progressed on this basis.
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Business Models as Models

Business Models as Models

The experiences of managers point us to an essential element of business models as models - that they are practical things and have a dynamic aspect to them: as Demil and Lecoq explain, firms experiment, change, refine and re-invent their business models. 28 This introduces one more notion of models that we think is important, and which comes from the practical and technological domain rather than the scientific one. Architectural models have been used for centuries, not just to persuade donors to fund construction, nor only to specify aspects of the building contract, but in many cases (as the records of St. Paul’s Cathedral show) to illustrate salient details of radically new construction techniques to carpenters and masons. 29 This notion of a model as something that demonstrates a technology (rather than as a technology of scientific investigation, as considered in the previous section), is particularly interesting, as such models often display or instantiate matters of principle (how joists are to be joined to support a roof) as well as details of style and content - exact arrangements, decorations, and so forth. They are used to demonstrate or give advice about how to do something so that the results will come out right. There is no particular name already given for such models, but they can be well conceived of as recipes: they embody some general principles (of cooking: baking, roasting, frying etc and cooking times and temperature, etc.) as well as particular details of ingredients and construction for specific dishes. 30 They lie between principles - general theory - and templates - exact and exhaustive rules (as discussed in Winter and Baden-Fuller’s article on replication referenced earlier). Recipes depend (in a parallel manner to architectural models) on considerable tacit knowledge of the craft of cookery, and on how they represent that knowledge, to make them usable.
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Opportunities and Challenges of Sharia Technology Financials in Indonesia

Opportunities and Challenges of Sharia Technology Financials in Indonesia

The Islamic finance industry, being the object of study that is always interesting, is examined. Especially when compared to the conditions of the conventional financial industry that already existed before. For example, the results of the research conducted by Andi Fariana and Ahmad Safii (2018) 30 , revealed that the digital era that cannot be contained in its development has negative and positive impacts on humans in all dimensions of their lives. However, current developments should be used as opportunities and challenges to provide benefits and convenience. Similarly in the financial industry where the development of information technology penetrated and entered all financial sectors including sharia financial institutions. Islamic financial institutions that carry sharia values must also take part and take advantage of this phenomenon and collaborate with FinTech (financial technology) for the purpose of the benefit, and this is very possible to do while upholding Islamic values. For that regulation is very necessary so that collaboration will give birth to comfort, tranquility, and the most important thing is to keep emphasizing that it must avoid ribawi transactions, gharar, maysir, tadlis, risywah and israf and transactions for illicit or immoral objects. The author agrees with the study of Andi Fariana and Ahmad Safii that Islamic financial institutions must be able to take advantage of the momentum of the industrial revolution 4.0 where the synergy between the Islamic financial sector and technological advances is needed so that it can catch up with the conventional financial sector.
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Piano transcription as translation in music : cross genre adaptations

Piano transcription as translation in music : cross genre adaptations

Academic analyses of transcriptions of Eastern music have been rare, especially as far as transcribing Taiwanese music for piano. Most of the source music is in the form of folk tunes, passed down through the generations by, for example grandma humming them at bedtime or through story telling. Aboriginal Taiwanese migrated from neighbouring islands in several stages over a long period of time and the population can be divided into two groups: the plains people (known as pingpuzu) and the mountain people (gaoshanzu). 94 Since there was no written language, the aboriginals developed songs as a way to record their history and customs, and it is believed that singing was more prevalent than instrumental music. This vocal music ranged from simple monophony to complex polyphony that included solo singing, chanting, call and response, canon, organum, ostinato, drone, and free counterpoint that often resulted in both consonant and dissonant harmony. 95 The music typically used                                                                                                                
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Proposing Five Sustainable Model For The Missional Character Of Music In Worship

Proposing Five Sustainable Model For The Missional Character Of Music In Worship

Teach the congregation to pay attention to and think about the texts of the hymns they sing. Show them why and how you select the hymns for worship. Since people like to sing hymns they know, assure them that there will always be at least one very familiar hymn, usually two and often three. But point out that unfamiliar hymns, scriptural songs and psalms will never become familiar unless they are sung once in a while. Let the visitors know what you are doing. Introduce and explain “new” hymns: that is, hymns your congregation has not sung before. Some churches have a Hymn of the Month, which is introduced with brief comments about its origin, author and composer, sung by the choir and by the congregation three or four Sundays in a row (Odewole 2016:240). It is a good idea every so often to do a Favourite Hymn Survey. You will be surprised to note how often some of the Hymns of the Month are included among the congregation‟s best-loved hymns. Visitors are always impressed by the attention given to this crucial aspect of worship.
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