New ICANN Top Level Domains

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The BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later

The BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later

In June 1998, the US Department of Commerce called for the creation of a new not- for-profit organization to assume responsibility for the technical coordination functions performed by the IANA. Later that year, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was formed to fulfill that role. ICANN was granted “the au- thority to manage and perform a specific set of functions related to coordination of the domain name system, including the authority necessary to . . . oversee policy for deter- mining the circumstances under which new TLDs are added to the root system” [8]. In 1999 ICANN formed the Domain Name Supporting Organization (DNSO), an advi- sory body within ICANN, to handle matters concerning the Domain Name System [6]. Within the DNSO, Working Group C was chartered to study the issues surrounding the formation of new generic top-level domains (gTLDs). Specifically, the Working Group was tasked with determining whether there should be new gTLDs, and, if so, their nature and deployment policy [3]. In March 2000, Working Group C released its final report addressing these questions [10]; their recommendations were adopted by the ICANN board in July 2000 [5].
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The BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later

The BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later

In June 1998, the US Department of Commerce called for the creation of a new not- for-profit organization to assume responsibility for the technical coordination functions performed by the IANA. Later that year, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was formed to fulfill that role. ICANN obtained “the authority to manage and perform a specific set of functions related to coordination of the domain name system, including the authority necessary to . . . oversee policy for determining the circumstances under which new TLDs are added to the root system” [8]. In 1999 ICANN formed the Domain Name Supporting Organization (DNSO), an advisory body within ICANN, to handle matters concerning the Domain Name System [6], chartering, within the DNSO, Working Group C to study the issues surrounding the formation of new generic top-level domains (gTLDs). The Working Group’s task was to gauge the need for new gTLDs, and, if deemed required, to determine what should be their nature and deployment policy [3]. In March 2000 Working Group C released its final report, addressing these questions [10]. The ICANN board adopted its recommendations in July 2000 [5].
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How To Understand The Role Of Icann

How To Understand The Role Of Icann

With over one billion pages on the web today (according to http://www.internetlivestats.com), the administration and security of the system for registering, recording, transferring and protecting domain names obviously is complex. The question of whether to approve new "top level domains" (TLDs)—that is, the part of a domain name to the right of the last dot, such as .com or .gov—can be contentious because such domains can be used to stake out a new "location" in cyberspace. Until 2012, ICANN strictly restricted the issuance of new "generic" top level domains (gTLDs), but under ICANN's present rules, new gTLDs are much easier to obtain, with about 1,300 new gTLDs now approved and more to come. (For an amusing ICANN video describing this process, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kFcxf8KAjg.)
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Convergence and Incongruence: Trademark Law and ICANN's Introduction of New Generic Top-Level Domains, 25 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 625 (2008)

Convergence and Incongruence: Trademark Law and ICANN's Introduction of New Generic Top-Level Domains, 25 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 625 (2008)

This essay participates in a larger discussion of the convergence be- tween law and technology by analyzing an example in trademark law that has not gotten as much att[r]

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Perception of sexuality in young teen top middle level

Perception of sexuality in young teen top middle level

impliesto be little people who disobey and break rules and regulations. Sexuality is defined by WHO as a central aspect of being human throughout this life encompasses sex, identity, and gender role, eroticism, pleasure, identity, reproduction, and sexual orientation.Today many influencing factors on information about sexuality in adolescents media play a very important role because these topics currently shown in videos and magazines and television repeatedly deformed or distorting manner. The media has removed the barrier of the adult world to the world of teenagers as these exhibit desnudad people or people of different sexes or having sex, it is attractive to have new experiences in his short life to feel what the characters are feeling, plus it all looks so easy for them is the same way no consequence and it is time for u.Another important factor is parents still find parents who are embarrassed to talk about it with their children as they bring traditional patterns of sexual behavior and believe that their children are not in the right age to know about the subject and I evade this also confuses young people outside hear that is normal but inside your home is something that should not be mentioned, as they have information but not clear and you want someone to clarify these dudad.
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ICANN Policy Developments on Abusive Domain Name Registrations

ICANN Policy Developments on Abusive Domain Name Registrations

This activity was taken to the extreme over several years of DNS exploitation, with the rise of “domain tasting” and “domain kiting” as profitable business practices. Tasters took advantage of the five- day “Add Grace Period” formerly required in most of ICANN’s gTLD registry contracts, including Verisign’s contracts to operate .com and .net. They developed software to select thousands or even millions of names at a time, register them all, monetize them and track traffic for almost five days, and then drop almost all of the domains for a full credit of the registration fee. They kept those domains projected to earn more than their registration fee via pay per click (PPC) traffic over 365 days. 5
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Sentence-level sentiment tagging across different domains and genres

Sentence-level sentiment tagging across different domains and genres

The ultimate goal of sentiment and subjectivity annotation is the analysis of clauses, sen- tences, and texts. The acquisition of individual sentiment-laden words/unigrams using corpus-[r]

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Measuring the Placement of DNS Servers in Top-Level-Domain

Measuring the Placement of DNS Servers in Top-Level-Domain

A special case should be noted here: although name- servers provided by some providers are assigned differ- ent IP address, they may be actually hosted in the same server node. We detect this case by querying name- server IP of one domain (e.g. domain A) for SOA RR of other domains (e.g. domain B). If two domains use separate nameservers, nameserver of domain A will not reply SOA RR of domain B. However, in some case we do get the desired SOA RR from unrelated nameserver IP address. We highly speculate these domains’ name- servers are hosted in the same server node. For example, RIPE hosts 75 ccTLDs’ nameservers with 75 different IP addresses, but we can get SOA RRs of all the 75 ccTLDs by querying any of the 75 IP addresses. Our speculation has been confirmed by operators in RIPE. We find such cases are prevalent in many large server providers, e.g. Netnode, NeuStar. However, lack of con- firmation from them, we still take these nameservers as separate in our measurement.
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New governance, the internet, and country code top level domains in Europe

New governance, the internet, and country code top level domains in Europe

and ADR providers. The article’s case studies also illustrate the variety which exists at the national level. It is important to note that elements of the four different typological categories in Table 2 exist in each case study, though the degree to which each is present differs. The UK has been a forerunner in liberalising communications governance in recent decades and it is therefore unsurprising that its system is the closest to ‘voluntary action’. The other three cases examined provide examples of differing degrees of more hierarchical state-sanctioned (quasi) private interest governance. A hybrid public-private entity in the Norwegian case - that is, state owned, independent non-profit-making and market-based - undertakes key governance functions. In Switzerland, a private foundation of the university sector undertakes ccTLD governance. In both cases, the telecommunications regulator plays an oversight role. In France too, an independent commercially conscious registry has, nevertheless, strong representation of the French state on its governing board. These cases illustrate examples in the electronic communications sector of compromise between national public policy concerns and sectoral characteristics developed at the global level. Further research could explore the extent to which this phenomenon exists elsewhere in the international political economy. An important research question raised by the modes of regulatory governance identified in the case studies is the extent to which the evolving systems have proven efficacious. Thus far, it does appear that they have functioned with sound practical policy efficacy. However, whilst our case studies have generally not illustrated any significant disadvantages at the operational level, it is clear that potential problems do exist. For example, in the Norwegian case it is acknowledged that ‘the somewhat complex procedures required of all public sector bodies (especially if they want
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The New .Africa Top Level Domain: An African Initiative in Ensuring Africa's Rightful Place on the Global Network

The New .Africa Top Level Domain: An African Initiative in Ensuring Africa's Rightful Place on the Global Network

Learning from previous mistakes, the policy did not address substantive rule-making and took the road less travelled in the United States DNS administration history by conceding to the principle of privatisation. This entailed a call for the creation of a new, private, not-for-profit corporation to take over the coordination of specific DNS functions and spearhead reform for the benefit of the broad-based Internet community. The White Paper placed strong emphasis on the critical importance of representation in ensuring democratic legitimacy for the new body. It stated that the structures of the body must "reflect the functional and geographic diversity of the Internet and its users" and be "broadly representative of the global Internet community". 11
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Energy requirements in top-level danceSport athletes

Energy requirements in top-level danceSport athletes

Competitions are organized according the different discipline types, during each competition athletes have to perform many different dances, each dance lasts between 90 and 120 seconds and different dances are performed at very short intervals, thus requiring a strong recovery capacity. A performance model for DanceSport has still to be investigated and defined, however, according to Delise et al. (2005) DanceSport should be considered a dynamic activity that require an heavy cardiac workload, and from a methabolic point of view, it involve both aerobic and anaerobic pathways, as Bria et al. (2011) have recently demonstrated. A top-level dancer must have both conditional and coordinative skills. With regard to conditional skills a key role is played by resistance training, joint mobility and movement speed. Coordinative skills as well flexibility, and speed are essential to reach a top-level performance. So a typical dance-sport training session has to stimulate all this skills.
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ICT Contingency Plan Top Level Plan

ICT Contingency Plan Top Level Plan

The purpose of this document is to provide at a high level a succinct description of the holistic management process and guide for the recovery of the information systems and associated processes immediately following an incident interrupting service. It represents the assertion of control to minimise the impact on University business.

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Strategy proof Rules on Top connected Single peaked and Partially Single peaked Domains

Strategy proof Rules on Top connected Single peaked and Partially Single peaked Domains

We characterize all domains on which (i) every unanimous and strategy-proof social choice function is a min-max rule, and (ii) every min-max rule is strategy-proof. As an application of this result, we obtain a characterization of the unanimous and strategy-proof social choice functions on maximal single-peaked domains (Moulin (1980), Weymark (2011)), minimally rich single-peaked domains (Peters et al. (2014)), maximal regular single-crossing domains (Saporiti (2009), Saporiti (2014)), and distance based single-peaked domains. We further con- sider domains that exhibit single-peakedness only over a subset of alternatives. We call such domains top-connected partially single-peaked domains and provide a characterization of the unanimous and strategy-proof social choice functions on these domains. As an appli- cation of this result, we obtain a characterization of the unanimous and strategy-proof so- cial choice functions on multiple single-peaked domains (Reffgen (2015)) and single-peaked domains on graphs. As a by-product of our results, it follows that strategy-proofness im- plies tops-onlyness on these domains. Moreover, we show that strategy-proofness and group strategy-proofness are equivalent on these domains.
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Estimating the amenibility of new domains for deception detection

Estimating the amenibility of new domains for deception detection

In this paper we tested a simple distance metric, out-of-rank classification, to see if we could esti- mate the feasibility of building a T/F classification system for new a domain before the claims in the domain were verified. Through n-gram analysis on four domains with varying characteristics, we showed one of the domains, D4, to be an outlier with surprisingly little variation within the narra- tive. This result would have helped us avoid the expensive task of annotating D4 for ground truth only to discover that it had no verbally identifiable lies. While we currently do not have an explana- tion for the correlation between the absence of ver- bal deception in D4 and its outlier status, we plan to further analyze the differences between the lan- guage of D1-D3 and D4 for clues to the case of de- ception by omission, which D4 serves as a good model.
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The Distribution of Top Incomes in New Zealand

The Distribution of Top Incomes in New Zealand

The introduction of individual taxation was associated with a jump in the top shares: the share of the top 1% rose by some 2 percentage points, and the share of the top 5% by 4 percentage points. After 1953, the share of the top 1% fell substantially: it nearly halved in the next thirty years. The share of the top 0.1% similarly halved. As noted earlier, the introduction of PAYE in 1958 may have affected the estimates, but if we subtract the difference between 1958 and 1957, this still leaves a sharp reduction in the top shares. The share of the next 4% was reduced less proportionately than the share of the top 1%, although it still fell by 3-4 percentage points (allowing for the possible 1958 break). In contrast, the share of the next vintile was not much reduced, remaining broadly constant before falling a little in the 1980s: it remained in excess of 10%. There was a change in the shape of the distribution, not just a uniform scaling-down of all shares. In this connection, it is interesting to look at Figure 3, which charts the top 1% share against two comparison groups – the salary earned by a judge on New Zealand’s highest court (the Supreme Court until 1980, the High Court from 1981-2002) and the basic salary paid to a Member of Parliament – both expressed as a fraction of average earnings. More detail on these measures is set out
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Adapting Visual Category Models to New Domains

Adapting Visual Category Models to New Domains

We presented a detailed study of domain shift in the context of object recogni- tion, and introduced a novel adaptation technique that projects the features into a domain-invariant space via a transformation learned from labeled source and target domain examples. Our approach can be applied to adapt a wide range of visual models which operate over similarities or distances between samples, and works both on cases where we need to classify novel test samples from cat- egories seen at training time, and on cases where the test samples come from new categories which were not seen at training time. This is especially useful for object recognition, as large multi-category object databases can be adapted to new domains without requiring labels for all of the possibly huge number of categories. Our results show the effectiveness of our technique for adapting k-NN classifiers to a range of domain shifts.
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Measuring Machine Translation Errors in New Domains

Measuring Machine Translation Errors in New Domains

Translation languages. We only translate from French to English. This well-studied language pair presents several advantages; large quantities of data are publicly available in a wide variety of domains, and standard statistical machine translation archi- tectures yield good performance. Unlike with more distant languages such as Chinese-English, or lan- guages with radically different morphology or word order such as German or Czech, we know that the old-domain translation quality is high, and that translation failures during domain shift can be pri- marily attributed to domain issues rather than to pro- blems with the SMT system.
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Adaptation of Relation Extraction Rules to New Domains

Adaptation of Relation Extraction Rules to New Domains

As discussed above, data properties are the crucial factor for DARE performance. The management succession domain has a relatively low recall suffering from poor redundancy: nearly all events are just mentioned once, since the data is from a single newspaper, namely, the New York Times. In Xu and Uszkoreit (2007) and Uszkoreit (2007), several strategies have been proposed to circumvent the lack of the required data property. A general and direct approach is to utilize the web to increase redundancy, as also independently proposed by Blohm and Cimiano (2007).
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D1.1: Functional Architecture Definition and Top Level Design

D1.1: Functional Architecture Definition and Top Level Design

As traffic for a given source-destination pair enters the network, the source Label Edge Router (LER) routes the traffic through one of the available LSPs. The objective of routing at this level is to distribute the load on the available paths, in order to avoid overloading and congestion in parts of the network. The appropriate parameters for load balancing have been downloaded and configured by Network Dimensioning (long-term TE, section 5.1.3.1). However, with the exception of static load balancing, e.g. in a fixed-weight round-robin fashion, this information alone does not suffice. In fact, even if the long-term predicted values remain unchanged, there will always be statistical variations of network traffic. Hence it may be preferable to implement load-balancing schemes that adapt to varying network conditions. However, highly dynamical schemes that try to continuously adapt to current network state may not be feasible or desirable due to the following reasons:
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Verisign/ICANN Proposal in Response to NTIA Request

Verisign/ICANN Proposal in Response to NTIA Request

new unique set of credentials for authentication (versus “authorization”) of Root Zone Change Requests (“RZCRs”) or SKRs. In this approach, no code changes are required and only one single authorization action remains possible. The two systems would operate in parallel, with the IFO replicating TLD manager change requests entered into one instance into the second instance, and the RZM verifying the results generated by the two instances are identical just prior to the newly updated and signed root zone on the RZM distribution master server.

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