belonging to different civilizations, cultures, nations, languages, religions in the geographical space for educational, business, commercial, travel, scientific purposes, creates trans, inter – and other financial, economic, spiritual, political, legal institutions. At the same time, the formation of international, regional organizations has incomparably influenced and deepened the communication process . Today young people act as the subjects that form interculturalcommunication between cultures in the internet space. They use visual forms of communication to form new types of interaction between people. In addition to the term ―social media‖ in scientific literature, we can meet other terms as ―newmedia‖, ―interactive media‖, ―civil Media‖, ―Web 2.0 projects‖, etc. Uzbek blogger, translator, former diplomat, doctor of philosophy in philological sciences (PhD) B.S. Alimov groups the existing social networks according to their types as follows:
interconnectedness and interdependence of our culturally diverse world. Media for social interaction allows for people to communicate and engage with information that is quickly accessible on the Internet. In today’s society, there is an increasing number of Internet users so new social media has become more popular in daily patterns and routines. The communication that occurs in these online contexts promotes interactive dialogues that build understanding of different points of view. “New social media means that everyone is a publisher and everyone is a critic” (Georgetown University, 2010). In social media, people have the opportunity to express their opinions to the public and participate in conversations and dialogue through a common virtual medium.
For immigrants, refugees, or émigrés, the long-term counterpart of culture shock is acculturation or adap- tation. For them, there is to be no re-entry to their home cultures. Communication plays a key role in the adjustment of these individuals to their new home culture. 26 important communication components that will determine the quality of cross-cultural adaptation include (a) a critical mass of same-culture immi- grants to provide community support and mass media, (b) the receptivity of the host culture to non-native populations, and (c) opportunities for immigrants and refugees to participate in interpersonal interaction with host nationals. If these communication factors are absent or out of balance, there is a danger that immigrants or refugees may either lose their native cultural identities and assimilate, or that they may iso- late themselves from their host culture and fail to participate fully. The goal of communication for adapta- tion is the establishment of integrated bi-cultural (or multi-cultural) identity. 27
Among others, issues such as initial attraction, dating, marriage, dissolving of an intimate relationship, family issues and raising bicultural/biracial children are discussed. Often, people from different cultures have different expectations at different stages of an intimate relationship, and these expectations pose many challenges for the couples. Miscommunication can occur due to cultural differ- ences, and inter-racial couples sometimes become the target of discrimination from others as well. The authors state that ‘self-disclosure is one of the key factors in developing a personal relationship in any culture or ethnic group’ (p. 251). Aside from ‘culture-sensitive dialog’ and ‘genuine relational commitment’, inter- cultural couples need to pay extra attention to the development of ‘cultural, ethnic, and relational identity’ in overcoming various obstacles (p. 227). In Chapter 11, ‘global’ and ‘local’ identities are compared. As the Internet becomes accessible to more and more people and takes over the core of our lives, the concept of our cultural identity is also changing. Technology and pop-culture are strongly inﬂuencing the identity of the next generation. This new type of identity, called ‘e.netizen’, is brought to light in this chapter. Both through media (especially television) and the Internet, local culture has become easily accessible to a global audience. Being exposed to international media, ‘identity imitation’ can take place. Unlike the local identity which consists of ‘ethnic values, practices, and traditions’ (p. 232), ‘global identity is made up of individuals who adopt and embrace international practices and values over local practices… [I]t keeps up with the latest trends, technological advances, international programming, and consumer materialism’ (p. 232). A person’s identity is composed through social interactions with the various people surrounding him/her, and media is, in that sense, also responsible for creating and furthering certain stereotypes and univer- sally perceived characteristics of certain groups of people (Comstock 1993:311). Pop culture also plays an important role in obscuring cultural boundaries, as ‘pop culture creates a cultural interdependence on the global economy, e-commerce, mass media, and social network platforms’ (p. 236). The term ‘e.netizen’ is deﬁned as a ‘new generation of individuals, from any age group, wired to the internet via intersecting space’ (p. 238). E.netizens are considered to have a ‘hybrid’ identity (a mixture of local and global identities), though degrees of orientation toward global cultures vary by individuals. An e.netizens’s identity can be quite ambiguous at times, as one can easily modify one’s identity according to the circumstances (p. 248).
While cultures around the world value their individual traditions, beliefs, and norms that make them unique, social media links people around the world regardless of differences and geographical boundaries. According to Chen and Zhang (2010), “The compression of time and space, due to the convergence of newmedia and globalization, has shrunk the world into a much smaller interactive field” (p. 14). People across the globe can interact with each other within seconds of sending and receiving messages. Social media has brought people from different cultures together in the “global village.” During intercultural adaptation to a host country environment, people use social media to learn about their host countries, establish and maintain relationships, and stay informed with events in their home countries. Thus, it is important to examine the potential impact of social media on intercultural adaptation in order to better understand the role that new technology plays in the process of interculturalcommunication in this globalizing society.
This volume proposes a set of interdisciplinary approaches and maps current dilemmas and developments within the field of dialogue research and its empirical content. The relevance of articles moves beyond the immediate and opens new ways of addressing dilemmas in contemporary technological contexts. On the one hand, some papers discuss opportunities opened by the multilevel architecture of dialogue. It still allows analytical distinctions to make intelligible dialogical tensions and implications on diverse levels of meaning, such as processes of convergence and fusion of temporalities, while "old" logics gradually lose their power to set up practices and institutions overwhelmed by the multilevel business intelligence. On the other hand, the conceptual framing of dialogue induces ethical reflections on controversies and media slippages (immaterial space), as well as a more critical look on the urban landscape (material sites) where architecture installs cultural and architectural objects signalling the closing of dialogue and installing the power strings at the level of perception and visibility. The current contributions range from professional to personal, from space to language, from interpersonal to organizational dimensions of dialogue. Daniela Rovența Frumușani explores “Les nouvelles technologies et l’intégration vie professionnelle/vie personnelle?”. Natalia Kravchenko describes the architecture of the conceptual space in “Dialogue As A Multilevel Conceptual Space”. Othman Khaled addresses space as context for closing dialogue in “The Dialogue Friendliness of Architecture of Places of Power in Independent Tunisia”. Mariana Tocia’s analysis, “Consequences of the ethical slippage in the media”, questions where there are limits to political satire in the media. Alexandra Codău identifies a process of transformation of the image of the Roma people in the cultural magazines in Romania in “Revaluing the image of the Roma community in the cultural journalism. Case study: The „Dilema veche” magazine”. Last but not least, Virginia Petrică opens a new reading of food as a premise for intercultural dialogue.
When a company chooses to expand its home market to another market in another country, new problems arise, which the company has to consider. The move implies a shift from operating within its own well-known and native culture to operating among other cultures and values. In this regard, the company has to decide if cultural differences should be considered in its communication strategy, and whether the strategy should be adapted culturally to new markets. Business communication approaches have become increasingly important in the world today where globalization has had the effect of dissolving borders, thereby increasing cross-cultural communication. Globalization has been facilitated by a growing digitalization, through which an increasing number of people around the world has access to the Internet. Today we see a growing trend for companies to take advantage of this interest in the digital world by communicating to people through online channels such as social media. How to interact, and what to consider when communicating across cultures through social media, among other things depend on the cultural differences between the parties communicating. This thesis addresses the growing problem faced by businesses seeking to reach a global consumership through social media. I will argue that there is in fact no such thing as a single “global consumer,” but rather segments of consumers differentiated by various cultural factors. Companies must be critically aware of and sensitive to cultural differences in order to communicate effectively with consumers. Social media offers powerful tools to engage with consumers, but it can pose dangers or become ineffective if the cultural differences that define various segments of consumers are not taken into careful consideration. Through theoretical perspectives on intercultural and online communication as well as empirical research, I will focus on the problem of intercultural online communication in a case study of a company that is currently failing to reach consumers online through its neglect of cultural differences. The problems and potential solutions revealed by this case study, I will argue, can be a model for all businesses seeking to attract and engage with consumers around the world through social media.
communication strategy. The so-called transfer is a method that using the native language structure and usage to study the target language or to communicate. However, not all of the mother tongue can play a positive role in target language learning. According to the role it played in language learning, transfer can be divided into positive transfer and negative transfer. This strategy still plays an important role in interculturalcommunication. Positive occurs when target culture is identical with native culture, conversely, when target culture is different from native culture，negative transfer occurs. Positive transfer will promote language learners’ interculturalcommunication ability, while negative transfer might lead to communication difficulties, misunderstanding and hatred. As a result, it is very important to shift negative transfer to positive transfer. Negative transfer has two levels: surface culture level and deep-structure culture level. The former emphasizes material or physical level while the latter lays stress on psychological level. As the main part of interculturalcommunication behavior, time and space will produce psychological level negative transfer. However, by understanding the difference of spatial-temporal system between America and China, negative transfer can be shifted to positive.
Consciousness of one’s own culture may happen in the exercise of direct contacts with norms of other countries during the journey and within one’s own country (international and domestic imperative) . In conditions of global networks, those contacts emerge far more frequently. In interculturalcommunication, “all vital and central problems of communication, in particular, the problems of contextualization and (re)construction of meaning in the frame of communicative events” become apparent in a vivid way .
Culture is a complex concept to be defined for its numerous hidden meanings. It is a set of beliefs, values, behaviours that are learnt and shared within a group; it includes language, communication style, practices, costumes and different perspectives about roles and relations. We belong to more than one culture that can be, for instance, social, professional or religious. Culture defines they way we see the world, affecting our interactions and perceptions, our verbal and non- verbal language, our identity. There is no doubt about the evident and complex relation between culture and communication. The specific meanings, symbols and value systems belonging to a culture, emerge and are known through communication. Morillas (2001) affirmed that, "humans communicate linguistically in a cultural environment that constrains the form and nature of communication. Culture constrains both what is acquired and how it is acquired. In turn, communicative processes shape the culture that is transmitted from generation to generation". According to Aldridge (2002) culture is, "the shared system of symbolic knowledge and patterns of behaviour, derived from speech communication (...)We learn cultural codes for social life, role expectations, common definitions of situations, and social norms in order to provide predictability and survival of the human species. Human language is the symbolic glue for human culture. Moreover, Haslett (1989) affirmed that "culture by definition is a shared, consensual way of life and sharing and consensus are made possible only by communication". It appears clear the strict relation linking culture, communication and language. As far as this relation is concerned, Valdes (1986) found that in order to become linguistically competent, it is necessary to be aware of ourselves as “cultural beings” in the process leading to explore our own cultural complexity. Accepting our own culture, “comes with the acceptance of their language and a greater willingness to let go of the binding ties of the native language and culture”.
tion, the limitations of a narrow linguistic approach soon became obvi- ous. Thus, from the 1970s, insights and approaches from textlinguistics, pragmatics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics and communication stud- ies were adopted into Translation Studies. The text moved into the centre of attention, and notions such as textuality, context, culture, communica- tive intention, function, text type, genre, and genre conventions have had an impact on reflecting about translation (e.g. Reiss 1971, Neubert and Shreve 1992, Hatim and Mason 1990, 1997). Texts are produced and re- ceived with a specific purpose, or function, in mind. This is the main ar- gument underlying functionalist approaches to translation, initiated by Vermeer (1978) with his Skopos theory (derived from the Greek word skopós, which means purpose, aim, goal, objective). The basic assump- tions are as follows: translation is a specific kind of communicative ac- tion; each action has a specific purpose, and therefore the most decisive criterion for any translation is its purpose (Skopos). Translation is a pur- poseful activity (Nord 1997), initiated by a translation commission and resulting in a target text which is appropriately structured for its specified purpose. The purpose of the source text and that of the target text may be identical or different. Language and culture are interdependent, and translation is therefore transfer between cultures, it is a specific kind of culture-determined text production (cf. Vermeer 1996, Reiss and Ver- meer 1991). This complex translatorial action (Holz-Mänttäri 1984) is realised by a translator, an expert in transcultural text production.
Social media, argues Meek (2011), “are becoming so integrated into our lives” (p. 4). Social media usage is a phenomenon that has received little research focus (Kim et al., 2009); thus, the research was very timely and relevant to contemporary interculturalcommunication research and the evolving landscape of mediated communication. Expatriates are also deemed as virtual communicators when they get engaged with the internet and its applications. Without a doubt, expatriates experience adjustment and integration issues in an international assignment, many of which relate to the fact that previous social networks that were once available in the home country are no longer available in the host country (Black and Gregersen, 1991). However, there was a dearth of researchers that document the practices of these people as regard mediated communication using social media platforms from an interculturalcommunication perspective.
3 Chris Cartwright, MPA, EdD, is the director of intercultural assessment and the associate director of the MA in intercultural relations (MAIR) program at the InterculturalCommunication Institute. He recently served as dean of academic programs for the International Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership. He frequently teaches, trains, and offers presentations on issues surrounding
Communication has several functions, you can tell how and why the product is used, what kind of people use it, where and when you use it, consumers can know who produces under that mark and may receive an incentive to use it. It allows com- panies to connect their brands to people, places, events, other brands, experiences, feelings, etc.. And contribute to creating a brand image. It is why social media should be integrated into the marketing - mix strategy relevant to the marketing communica- tions program, maximizing individual and collective contribution of all stakeholders. In communication, there are two important objectives, first to alert the recipient of the message, the second time to win their attention. In a world saturated with infor- mation and suspicion, to achieve these objectives requires an increased effort. In an analogy economic time for individual attention is a scarce resource for excellence in developed societies in paradox with a growing supply. In this scenario brands need to make a greater effort to achieve more than a little public attention saturated by mes- sages trying to get their attention and less tolerance for invasion of personal space .
Some researchers have also investigated the perception of the Web as an advertising medium in relation to the traditional media using websites among advertisers (Chiagouris and Lala, 2009; Bush, 2008; Yoon and Kim, 2001b; Bush, et. al, 1998; Leong, et. al, 1998) whereas others have examined consumer perceptions and their impact across various media (Elliot and Speck, 1998). Meanwhile, Yoon and Kim (2001b) have sought to compare the effectiveness of the Internet with the traditional media by focusing on the factors that affect the choice of media, by investigating the attitude toward advertising. The result shows that Internet advertising is better suited for highly involved and rationally oriented consumers. ‘Involvement’, was also proved to have an association with the information processing of advertising content (McGrath and Mahood, 2004; Burnkrant and Sawyer, 1983). Based on most of the studies, the Internet can be considered an important media alternative. It can be an effective marketing communication tool for a particular type of consumer; nevertheless, more studies should be conducted to support its maximum potential in the future.
“Asian cultural norms differ from Western norms with respect to the use of direct and indirect communication styles. In a study by Gudykunst (2001) that compared Asian Americans with European Americans, Asian Americans used a more indirect communications style that included an emphasis on maintaining interpersonal harmony, whereas European Americans used a more direct communication style that is characterized by being dramatic, open, precise, and
The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the newmedia – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those formed by elder people, manage to quickly assimilate the changes that occur. Some researchers say, however, that this type of media that enhances our perception on the present (it seems that the surrounding reality may appear “live” on our TV screen) and reduces the amount of memory and history, makes us more and more unable to plan our collective future. Indeed, this design comes from the awareness of a common identity, having its origins in the historical memory and the power to turn it consciously. Today, therefore, society and human nature itself are transformed with increasing speed, but not primarily because of a collective movement or individual interactions between ordinary citizens (as it would be expected in liberal democracies), but especially at the initiative of a small group of
competencies as a beneficial component to academia and have increased their commitment to ―teaching diversity and multiculturalism‖ (Platt, 2002, p. 41). ―With global citizenship and civic engagement as core missions in higher education, intercultural competence becomes central across disciplines‖ (Bennett & Salonen, 2007, p. 50). The field of interculturalcommunication provides a particularly useful perspective for developing intercultural competence: ―It aims to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for effective and appropriate interactions across cultures‖ (Bennet & Salonen, 2007, p. 48). Developing these skill sets and building a knowledge base through interculturalcommunication education places students in an