As before, the tuning of 35 new classical guitars was time-consuming. A very small group of students turned up but the group grew as the lesson progressed. Some of the students were so enthusiastic that they did not want to leave when their lesson was over and the next group arrived. The tutor, despite also being a beginner was very dedicated and motivated and the lecturer could continue teaching and playing whilst he was walking around the room correcting errors. Although the changing of chords was still a challenge, we played through the following songs: Brother John, Three blind mice and Mary had a little lamb. The songs were repeated using different tempos and dynamic differences and referring to the elements of music learnt during formal lectures. Students who were hanging around the music venue asked if they could join the group with percussion playing. The added instruments helped to make the repetitive playing less boring. Just for entertainment, the lecturer started singing Nginesiponono – a traditional isiZulu song with fast changing chords (D and A major). Some students tried to join in but others just sang and laughed at their inability to get to the correct chord in time. Students were taught how to do dramatic “rolling strumming” to end lively songs and due to the success wanted to end every song with this dramatic roll. The G major chord was taught and this took quite long to master. Part of the challenge was the fact that students could not distinguish between the strings. When they were told to place their fourth finger on the bottom string, they would place it on any string! This challenge was addressed with the lecturer getting everybody to pluck a specific string on command to get the students used to the different strings. All three major chords D, G and A were practiced in a pattern: D x 8 beats, G x 8 beats, A x 8 beats. The number of beats was gradually reduced from eight to four beats and then to two beats – making the chord changes faster. Some very good progress was made and towards the end of the lesson the students were playing and singing and changing! It was interesting that after getting to know the basic melodies of the English nursery songs, students started singing typical African harmonies.
The very idea of electricity conjures both images of the nineteenth and of the twentieth century. Traditionally, electricity serves as a labour saving device. When speaking of electronic music, this is an idea, in fact almost a prejudice that comes to mind. It is music that is produced with the aid of electricity, and by extension, electronically. Musical labour is something that becomes almost anachronistic when considering the work of computer laptop artists and their type-point-and-click music; the new musicians use their game controllers, gloves, helmets and electrodes; they respond, monitor and engage with their software creations, with apparently little physical effort. These artists conjure sound from the point of a laser; they make tidal waves of acoustic force with the touch of a button, and the slide of a controller or the proximity of a sensor. No feat of musical virtuosity is beyond their software. In entering the arena of musical performance they are not limited by their manual dexterity; They are not physically limited by space as traditional musicians; Through performances of network music, much the same as in network games, laptop musicians can collaborate in realtime from diverse geographical locations, by disembodying the act of performance into cyberspace.
The survey of commercial and non-commercial controllers presented in Chapter 2 finds none that can measure the shading continuum which is being proposed here. It appears that nearly all current windcontroller keys consist only of switches. The Akai EWI has in, addition, pressure sensors under the keys. These sensors do not appear popular, partly because they make it awkward to rest the fingers. Simple switches make it impossible to closely approximate the feedback dynamics which occur when someone plays a traditional keyed wind instrument. Faster key movement in legato playing on an acoustic instrument results in faster tonal transition. Such transitions are not immediately obvious to the ear, but do contribute strongly to the overall authentication of the sound by the listener. Each transition effectively constitutes the attack section of the new note. If we consider feedback has a means for the player to better understand the current state of their instrument, an event occurring only at the end of a prolonged action, e.g. finger movement, is on its own, less helpful than a prolonged feedback event. The piano enjoys a prolonged force feedback event. Drumming on the other hand is reliant upon the regularity of a background rhythm to ensure accurate overall timing, since the prolonged feedback element is much less well defined, consisting of sight and arm / hand internal pressure feedback. The whistle finger control does not obviously offer prolonged force feedback for the fingers, to enforce the prolonged sonic feedback. However, players use the technique of deliberately lifting a finger from a hole gradually, so that the tip breaks contact first, followed by the rest. This provides a strong form of sensory feedback as the fingers have an especially high sensitivity and resolution for touch. The wide edges around the tone holes serve to enhance this. Overall result is precise control of shading, which is not possible simply by moving the finger vertically, or even sliding it horizontally. There are several other wind instruments such as the clarinet and some modern flutes, where shading can be applied, but few are so expressly well suited to the technique as the penny whistle. The traditional Japanese wind instrument, the Shakuhachi, provides excellent examples of shading technique. Though it has only four upper holes and one thumb hole, experienced players can generate the chromatic scale and a wide variety of colours. Unsurprisingly, the Japanese developers of the Yamaha VL synthesizer prided themselves on developing an impressive Shakuhachi physical model. The key element missing from this is an interface for shading, as no suitable controllers exist.
development of a new art form in kumi-daiko. It is important to note that the structure of any kumi-daiko group is fluid, with no set rules as to how many people can play in the ensemble or what instruments have to be played. This is a significant cultural and musical development in Japanese music, as it shows that old traditions in music can be re-imagined into something new and inclusive to all of the people of Japan and not just a small population of traditionalmusic experts/performers. Examining the history and repertoire of the most famous kumi-daiko group in Japan, Kodo, reveals the true innovation taking place in Japanese music today. Kumi-daiko, along with most traditional Japanese music, is mainly transmitted through rote training. As a result, one way to gain an understanding of the larger picture of kumi-daiko becoming its own Japanese art form is through the viewing of live performances. Kodo, designated cultural ambassadors of kumi-daiko music throughout the world, provides excellent performances that showcase the eclectic pieces of tradition and contemporary music that are melded together to form a kumi-daiko work. 6 Through historical
Academic analyses of transcriptions of Eastern music have been rare, especially as far as transcribing Taiwanese music for piano. Most of the source music is in the form of folk tunes, passed down through the generations by, for example grandma humming them at bedtime or through story telling. Aboriginal Taiwanese migrated from neighbouring islands in several stages over a long period of time and the population can be divided into two groups: the plains people (known as pingpuzu) and the mountain people (gaoshanzu). 94 Since there was no written language, the aboriginals developed songs as a way to record their history and customs, and it is believed that singing was more prevalent than instrumental music. This vocal music ranged from simple monophony to complex polyphony that included solo singing, chanting, call and response, canon, organum, ostinato, drone, and free counterpoint that often resulted in both consonant and dissonant harmony. 95 The music typically used
music and its place in system of the fine arts has been sympathetically received many philosophers and musical theories. Schopenhauer was saying that music is expressive of the emotions in virtue of its representational power, but not emotionally moving in arousing whatever emotion or emotions it represented. Schopenhauer instituted a revolution in our philosophical thinking about music in general, and about the relation of music to the emotion in particular. Schopenhauer’s basic philosophy is articulated in his magnum opus the world as will and representation was based primarily on the preceding work of Immanuel Kant. Schopenhauer viewed music is the one at from that was not representational in nature. Music, however, was unique to Schopenhauer because it was, like the entire phenomenal world, another expression of the will itself, the inner being, thing- in-itself, of the world. For Schopenhauer, this fact explained music’s profound expressive power, which he believed to be above that of the other arts. The strange thing is that Schopenhauer already did the work of linking the will to musical language by stating that music is a manifestation of the will, and by pointing out the desire, or willing, that occurs when certain musical devices are employed. If we were writing a piece of music to represent, for a random example, the union of two people in marriage, a motive approach might make sense; we could create a motive, or melody, for each person, and as the characters grow closer, we could bring their themes closer together through various musical means: adjusting their styles to be more consistent, using increasingly related key areas, combining them in counterpoint, etc. Representing the will with a motive, however, is strange because the will is already inherent in our experience of music, unlike the idea of characters or of marriage. Music is literally, for Schopenhauer, another embodiment of the will just like the phenomenal world, which is why it stimulates desire in listeners so effectively compared to other artistic media. We hear certain chords and a desire is created within us for them to resolve to specific other chords, which is essentially a direct experience of the will.
Classifier is used to verify the performance of the selected features. The accuracy rate achieved by the classifier is analysed to identify the effectiveness of the selected features. Achieving a high accuracy rate is important to ensure that the selected features are the best relevance features that perfectly serve to the classification architecture which able to produce a good result. However, the performance of the overall classification system is not only depends on the features used. There is also significance to ensure that the classifier is able to analyze and extract the implicit information of these features into an intelligible form . There are various classification algorithms that have been used in musical instruments sounds classification system such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) , k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN)  and Artificial Neural Network . The classification of the instrument into individual and four (4) groups of instrument’s family which are brass, woodwind, piano and string has been discussed by . They used five (5) classifiers
Alongside these applications, video-sharing websites started to stream music. Founded in 2005 by PayPal employees, YouTube quickly became the world’s most important online video portal. Ever since its purchase by Google in 2006, YouTube also became the world’s second largest search engine, catapulting the online sharing platform to the forefront of online distribution channels. Figures from June 2015 show that YouTube, with 7% of the 135.2 billion total worldwide streams, dominates other online music streaming services. This might come as a surprise given that, despite the various improvements, YouTube remains a rather inefficient way of listening to music compared to the traditional online streaming services described above. Indeed, even though YouTube allows users to create playlists and search for content, it remains rather user unfriendly. Users must search for content on a song-by-song basis or per artist and must differentiate original content from other user-generated content present on the platform. In 2015, YouTube developed its own music app, YouTube Music. This app aims to address the criticisms by enabling users to search only for music-related results and the algorithm should boost the official artist and album pages to the top of the search results list. Therefore, users are not limited to searches on a song-by- song basis but are also allowed to search for albums, live concert footages, karaoke tracks, etc. This being said, unlike with Google Play music, users are unable to create or share playlists with other users. Playlists are generated by YouTube employees and an algorithm based on the user’s history. On this front, YouTube music is behind Pandora and Spotify in terms of music discovery and recommendations to users.
For me, musical performance requires a good deal of skill in terms of artistic interpretation. The musician appearing on the stage must attempt to express the composer’s intension. Through my experience of live performance, different environments seem to have a tangible effect on the musician resulting in unique music expressions as they move from concert hall to concert hall. No two performances are identical when performing live. With different concert halls, different acoustics, different audiences, and so on, all these elements combine to inspire the performer in different ways throughout the recital. Presenting new repertoire is exciting although it is always difficult to predict how the audience will respond. However great the risk, to play a whole recital with Chinese traditional piano music programme is certainly innovative, especially when performing in a western country such as the UK. I found the experience of performing in Peel Hall to be interesting as the acoustics are very good although the setting is still fairly intimate. I got a real sense of the building’s history as a Gothic concert hall while I was performing there.
Then, of the neural processes of sensorimotor integration, those involving motor programs are crucial to fingertip instrumental control. As discussed in Section 220.127.116.11, spontaneously occurring neural processes of motor learning may result in fingertip instrumental control which largely relies on somatosensory transduction alone. This is associated with crucial advantages for instrumental control. One is faster movement execution through a reduced reliance on corrective sensory feedback. Another is the reduced or even absent claim on resources of attention and consciousness, once the execution of a movement has been initiated. In combination, these advantages may very well increase the number of changes that can be made intentionally and successfully to the sound-generating process over a given period of time. This is beneficial, in the sense of increasing the number of different possibilities for resulting musical sound. Also, the activation of motor programs may allow attention and consciousness to become more occupied by resulting musical experiences, which are the ultimate object of instrumental control. These advantages, realized, can be found e.g. in the study and practice of traditional acoustic instruments, which over time results in increasingly complex musical pieces becoming playable.
Researchers who have investigated traditional folk communities have observed several commonalities among members. Most are between 40-70, literate, white and well- educated white-collar workers (Finnegan, 2007; Gardner, 2004). The majority consider themselves to be hobbyists, and their descriptions of their musical activities are consistent with Stebbins’s (1992) definition of a hobby as “a specialized pursuit beyond one’s occupation, a pursuit that one finds particularly interesting and enjoyable because of its durable benefits” (p. 44). Furthermore, these individuals tend to fit into Stebbins’ subcategory of “activity participants” who engage in a physical act (playing an instrument), learn required rules and perceive a non-competitive challenge in their hobby. Finally, many begin playing music later in life (Cope, 2005), which is common among baby-boomers who grew up wanting to play an instrument but instead marry, have children and immerse themselves in their careers. Only after they reach their 40s and 50s do they find time to pursue their dream of playing music.
Alan Chamberlain, Mads Bødker, Adrian Hazzard, David McGookin, David De Roure, Pip Willcox and Konstantinos Papangelis (2017) “Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction: From Space and Place, to Social Media, Music, Composition and Creation”, In the International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction (IJMHCI) Volume 9, Issue 4, October - December 2017 pp. 25 - 40. DOI https://doi.org/10.4018/ijmhci.2017100103 - Journal Paper
Harmonically, Aleph is based on A Aeolian. There is a change to B Aeolian at bar 48, but this returns to A Aeolian at 66. There are two sections that include wholetone material in Aleph; in bars 39-40 and 62-65. In Beth, the harmonies are less stable with bitonality created between Choir 1 and Choir 2. This first occurs from bar 86. Choir 1 has material that starts and ends on A with harmonies based on A Ionian and A Phrygian (bars 86-89). This is followed by a new ostinato riff in Choir 2 based on the notes from Eb Ionian (from bar 90). Above this, at bar 96, Choir 1 repeats the material in bars 86-89, ignorant of the change in harmonies by Choir 2. This idea is then repeated using different words and tonal ideas against each other (the details of which can be found in fig.37), until the piece returns to the Aleph material – this time in Bb Aeolian – at bar 144. Bar 166 sees the whole choir singing both languages in near rhythmic unison, but the harmony becomes less diatonic until the piece ends with B flats at octaves.
away from the centre of the session (in contrast to another Feakle session where newcomers were often invited to sit next to the leader) was a way of preserving the ‘Pepper’s sound’ that the regular musicians valued. In the winter months each week’s session sounded much the same, with the same musicians playing the same sets of tunes (based on the repertoire of the Tulla Ceili Band) and following PJoe Hayes’s distinctive rhythm and style. Vince’s position in the seat he had ‘earned’ next to PJoe secured both status and access to PJoe’s rhythm and repertoire. Both were threatened during the summer months, when an influx of visiting musicians introduced different instruments, styles and repertoires, changing the dynamics of the session and the sound it produced. For Vince and other middling musicians, the session was ‘ruined’ because the ‘lovely’, ‘beautiful’, ‘very, very true Pepper’s sound’ had ‘gone missing’ along with PJoe’s rhythm, which was the key to the musical style they passionately wanted to acquire. 33
Olókogbè music serves different functions in Ponyan community, ranging from social, moral, religious to political. It has functioned so much in entertainment as most members of the society were normally intrigued to watch the performances. Olókogbè songs, though they have historical facts connected to time, place, events, vice and effects, are not just narratives of detached facts that are functionally ephemeral. They are songs whose poetry focuses on, and employs nature and metaphysical imagery, and well as wise sayings and inveterates philosophical wisdom of common experiences to the Ponyan people in particular and other cultures that are capable of fixing congruous ideas into the minds of listeners. Laura (1998) comments on the functions of music in the society, arguing that performance as entertainment can make people happy. According to him, songs can make people forget about death and fighting and words of some songs remind people of past times and of other occasions for praise signing, because, praise singing occurs during parties, celebrations, or other events that call for entertainment.
traditional contexts. 116 CC, by contrast, could have the effect of entrenching the primacy of individual property rights, and thus, formalising the system of free sharing that occurs within traditionalmusic networks of, for example, Irish or North American fiddle players or jazz trumpet players. Here it is worth recalling the old adage that a ‘leaky’ copyright system works best. 117 To some extent CC licences effectively ‘fill in the gaps’ left by the copyright system, something that may lead to the entrenching of individual property rights in areas where individual authors have generally ignored copyright. For example, in traditional contexts where there has been no financial incentive to enforce copyright, composers and arrangers have sometimes allowed, or even encouraged, their fellow musicians perform, re-arrange, and record their music freely, while enforcing rights against broadcasters and film and TV
slight recovery from 1974 to 2012 was due in part to individual communities being enabled and encouraged to develop their own nuanced approaches to worship and community through worship (liturgy and music) and social interactions. They looked to major historical reforms in Anglican polity to form their particular styles of liturgy, and to inform their community’s stance on theological points of difference in contemporary Anglicanism. As will be shown in Chapter Four, each of the communities which took part in this study has a distinct way of worshipping within an obviously Anglican tradition. Some are stricter on Reformation principles than others (for example, not allowing music to be sung with texts other than in English); some favour the Arminian Evangelical approach to music making (employing a range of instruments), whereas others are more Calvinist in their approach (limiting, or restraining the use of varied musical resources); some offer a relaxed style of worship (stemming from the Evangelical Revivals of both the eighteenth and twentieth Centuries), whereas others provide more formal liturgies
The necessity of emphasizing the otherness of Irish culture in an attempt to create an unique identity separate from Britishness has long been part of the Irish nationalist movement. For the geographer, otherness accentuates the boundaries of a culture that may be representative of regions or nations. The desire to emphasize otherness can change the context of musical performance as well as the acceptability of some or all of that performance in the given context. I have selected three Irish organizations that have attributed meaning to Irish traditionalmusic and have evoked the concept of a national sound: The United Irishmen, a group central to the 1798 Rebellion; the Gaelic League, a cultural movement with particular emphasis on the Irish language; and Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann, a cultural movement initially set up to promote Irish traditionalmusic. In each instance the musical space, the sound and the audience are different, thus constructing a different representation of place and inevitably different geographies of the nation.
Students in music major in universities mainly engaged in music education work after graduation. Its professional nature determines the employment area is relatively narrow. Social demand is small. The requirements to graduated students are higher and higher. The society requires students to have both excellent professional performance and high quality. Therefore, how to cultivate music professionals in normal universities has become an important topic in music education in normal universities.