Nexus Between Exports

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The Causal Nexus between Exports and Economic Growth: Evidence on the Role of Omitted Variables

The Causal Nexus between Exports and Economic Growth: Evidence on the Role of Omitted Variables

Given the evidence of cointegration, we further present the estimates of the long-run coefficients for countries where cointegration was found. Results are disclosed in Table 4. As expected all the signs are positive in the bivariate model indicating that exports and GDP are positively correlated in the long-run. Furthermore, the results support the export-led growth hypothesis for six countries. Nigeria has the highest export elasticity of output (1.57), followed by Ghana (1.13), Benin (0.95), Cameroon (0.56), South Africa (0.31) and Gabon (0.23). Exports are playing a significant role in the economic growth of these countries. However, when controlling variables are included, the number of countries where the export-led growth hypothesis holds falls to four. The results also support the import-led growth hypothesis for seven countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa). The fact is that most African countries rely more on imports, especially in terms of raw materials, machines and productive technology that are further used for production of goods and services. Furthermore, exports have positive effects on imports in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire and Kenya, while imports are positively related to exports in Ghana. The evidence of exports promoting imports is in line with the view that greater exports, through accumulation of foreign exchange facilitate more imports, which provides further beneficial effects on economic growth.
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Impact of Exports and Imports on Economic Growth in Canada: Empirical Analysis Based on Causality

Impact of Exports and Imports on Economic Growth in Canada: Empirical Analysis Based on Causality

The aim of this study was to explain the nexus between exports, imports and economic growth of Canada during the period 1990-2015. The cointegration, VAR model and Granger’s causality tests are applied to investigate the relationship between these three variables. The unit root properties of the data were examined using the Augmented Dickey Fuller test (ADF) after that the cointegration and causality tests were conducted. The result shows that there is no relationship between the three variables in Canada. On the other hand, we found that there is a strong evidence of bidirectional causality from imports to economic growth and from exports to economic growth. These results provide evidence that exports and imports, thus, are seen as the source of economic growth in Canada.
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The Three Way Linkages between Export, Import and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Tunisia

The Three Way Linkages between Export, Import and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Tunisia

This study investigates the nexus between exports, imports and economic growth in Tunisia using annual time series data for the period 1965 - 2016 by implementing cointegration analysis and vector error correction model. The empirical results show that in the long run (i) exports affect negatively on economic growth, (ii) imports have positive effect on economic growth, (iii) economic growth have positive effect on exports, and imports have positive effect on exports. However in the short run empirical results show that there is (i) bi- directional causal relationship between exports and economic growth, (ii) uni-directional causal relationship from exports to imports, (iii) uni-directional causal relationship from imports to economic growth. These results provide evidence that imports and exports are necessary in Tunisia's economy and are presented as an engine of growth since they cause economic growth in the short term. But exports are not carried out and treated with a solid and fair manner according to their negative effect on economic growth in the long run, which offer new insights into Tunisia’s openness policy for promoting ec onomic growth.
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The Nexus between Industrial Exports and Economic Growth in Tunisia: Empirical Analysis

The Nexus between Industrial Exports and Economic Growth in Tunisia: Empirical Analysis

Government intervention in the economy is strong, but it began to decline in the 1990s with the trend towards privatization and the simplification of the tax structure. In the 1990s Tunisia achieved real growth of 5.0% and the rate of inflation slowed. The main factor in this economic growth was the increase in tourism and trade revenues. The target of this work, therefore, is to econometrically inquire the linkages between Industrial exports and economic growth of Tunisia, using yearly data for the period 1969-2015. Particularly, this mission antagonizes to empirically find out an answer for the query of whether Industrial exports lead to economic growth. To reach this goal the paper is structured as follows. In section 2, we present the literature review concerning the nexus between exports and economic growth, and between Industrial exports and economic growth. Secondly, we discuss the Methodology Model Specification and data used in this study in Section 3. Thirdly, Section 4 presents the empirical results as well as the analysis of the findings. Finally, Section 5 is dedicated to our conclusion.
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The Nexus between Industrial Exports and Economic Growth in Tunisia: Empirical Analysis

The Nexus between Industrial Exports and Economic Growth in Tunisia: Empirical Analysis

For years, the Tunisian industrial sector has made enormous efforts to increase its growth, despite the four-year period of social and economic turmoil in Tunisia. Today, the industry plays a vital role in the country's economic life in terms of operational capacity and material profitability, with a contribution of 28.6% of gross domestic product (GDP) and 34% of the active population, according to the 2013 publication of the Tunisian Institute of Statistics. The target of this work, therefore, is to econometrically inquire the linkages between Industrial exports and economic growth of Tunisia since it never been studied before. By using yearly data for the period 1969-2015, we will try to bridge this gap by investigating the nexus between industrial exports and economic growth in the long run and the short run. To reach this goal the paper is structured as follows. In section 2, we present the literature review concerning the nexus between exports and economic growth, and between Industrial exports and economic growth. Secondly, we discuss the Methodology Model Specification and data used in this study in Section 3. Thirdly, Section 4 presents the empirical results as well as the analysis of the findings. Finally, Section 5 is dedicated to our conclusion.
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The Nexus between Colonialism and African Underdevelopment: A Critical Perspective

The Nexus between Colonialism and African Underdevelopment: A Critical Perspective

While some people continue to blame the continent’s woes on its initial contact with the Western world characterized by centuries of slavery and later colonialism which [r]

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The nexus between public expenditure and inflation in the Mediterranean countries

The nexus between public expenditure and inflation in the Mediterranean countries

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on the nexus between public expenditure and inflation, using recent econometric techniques. So, we studied the relationship between public expenditure and inflation for Mediterranean countries, using annual data covering the period 1970-2009. The time-series properties of the data were assessed using several unit root tests (ADF, DF-GLS, PP, and KPSS). Furthermore, in order to evaluate the presence of eventual structural breaks, some tests (ZA and CMR) have been conducted. Empirical findings indicate that public expenditure is clearly a I(1) process in five countries (Cyprus, France, Greece, Portugal and Spain); and a I(0) process for Italy and Malta. While, prices index is a I(2) process everywhere, except Malta.
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Nexus between electricity generation and economic growth in Bangladesh

Nexus between electricity generation and economic growth in Bangladesh

where X t is a k u 1 vector of I (1) variables of * 1 ..... * k 1 . 3 is k u k matrices of unknown parameters 3 , coefficient matrix contains information about long-run relationship. The reduced rank condition implies that the process ' X t is stationary and X t is non-stationary. Three cases are possible for 3 . Firstly, if 3 is of full rank, all elements of X are stationary, and none of the series has a unit root. Secondly, if a rank of 3 = 0 implies an absence of stationary combinations and no cointegrating vectors. Finally, if the rank of 3 is between r and k, the X variables are cointegrated and there exists r cointegrating vectors.
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Sphingolipids: the nexus between Gaucher disease and insulin resistance

Sphingolipids: the nexus between Gaucher disease and insulin resistance

been known for more than 20 years, but the mechanisms are yet to be clarified. Evidence exists that these mechan- isms at least in some part, involve sphingolipids through both their bioactive and structural (membrane) properties, and thus converge on the lipid raft hypothesis. On reflec- tion, much has been learnt about the role that sphingoli- pids play in the biochemistry of disease, but we are a long way from knowing the exact permutations and combina- tions of sphingolipids involved. The manipulation of sphingolipid metabolism using drugs and siRNA to speci- fically alter the cell ’ s sphingolipid composition will be an important experimental avenue to pursue. To this end Gaucher disease will be a useful human model to study the relationship between sphingolipid metabolism and insulin resistance. One of the questions that remain unan- swered is whether blocking the catabolism of ceramide or other sphingolipids has any impact on insulin sensitivity? Technology is advancing rapidly and tools such as mass spectrometry now enable a detailed analysis of sphingoli- pids in complex biological samples [110]. Unfortunately we are still faced with the limitation of only being able to take a snapshot of a cell at one particular point in time which makes it difficult to put the pieces of the jigsaw together to unravel what is going on biochemically in “ real time ” . Thus, we are left with the paradoxical aim of inte- grating both the biology and function of sphingolipids in a dynamic system, yet at a stage where only static measure- ments can be made. No doubt animal models will be used to simulate the framework of interconnected events in the immediate term, until this shortcoming can be overcome.
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The Nexus between Economic Growth and Intra-Industry Trade

The Nexus between Economic Growth and Intra-Industry Trade

does not want a commodity for itself, but the characteristics embodied in that. In this case, if consumers have different tastes about these features, they will demand a different variety of the product. Both of these preferences approaches lead to a monopolistically competitive equilibrium in which different firms produce differentiated goods (Krugman, 1990). On the production side, it is assumed that technology and factor proportions are the same between countries and there is no comparative advantage. Due to the fact that monopoly profits are larger than duopoly profits and consumers like variety, each firm produces a differentiated product. In addition, the firm has a monopolistic condition for its varieties and will have a monopoly power (markup). Similarly, firms face similar demands since consumers like all varieties with the same intensity and free entry leads to zero profit. In the autarky if the taste for varieties is high, the consumer will be reluctant to replace varieties with another, the demand curve will be inelastic and markup will be high. In other words, with a higher taste for variety (markup), the balanced price will increase and the size of firms will decrease. Since in the autarky, the total demand is constant, the smaller size of the firm is possible only by increasing the number of varieties. Therefore, in the autarky there is an inverse relationship between the firm size and number of varieties. In free trade, based on the two preference approaches, the varieties are both domestically demanded and exported. This kind of trade is done because of the love of variety and single-plant production (with scale economies), and it is intra-industry trade, and it is also formed in the absence of comparative advantage. In free trade, due to the love of variety, each variety is domestically demanded and exported, thus the total demand, firm production, volume of trade, and market size of countries are increased, but because the total demand also increases there is no indication of increase or decrease in the number of varieties produced and exported in each country. Based on the new trade literature, the effect of trade on the economic growth depends on the outcome of the effect of differentiation, scale economies, markup, and research and development expenditures. The effect of economic growth (market size) on trade is also uncertain. Therefore, there is no obvious theoretical relationship between intra-industry trade and the economic growth.
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Causal Relationship Between Exports and Agricultural GDP in Pakistan

Causal Relationship Between Exports and Agricultural GDP in Pakistan

This paper is an attempt to investigate the causal relationships among agriculture gross domestic product (GDP) and exports in Pakistan by using time series data for the period between 1971 and 2007. There are several efforts reflecting greater interest in exploring the possible relation between the international trade and economic growth. Increasing of GDP is the main target of almost every economy. Promoting exports of the country is one of the ways of achieving economic growth. Pakistan is among the developing countries, emphasizing to boost its exports since its inception. The major share of Pakistan’s export has strong backward linkages with the agricultural sector both in terms of primary and value added commodities. The findings have significant implications on Pakistan’s economic policy as both the variables have shown strong long-run relationship. There is also a bi- directional Granger-causality between the total exports and agricultural GDP. However, for short-run, both the variable does not cause each other in either direction.
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Nexus Network Defra Fellowship report: Nexus approaches at Defra

Nexus Network Defra Fellowship report: Nexus approaches at Defra

offer valuable evidence about managing the interdependencies between the nexus domains. This would help identify valuable new evidence and insights about the type of governance arrangements that exist to manage the nexus of food, water, energy and environment and best practice on the ground. How could such ongoing learning from existing initiatives be best carried out?

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Nexus between Spot & Futures Price of Cardamom

Nexus between Spot & Futures Price of Cardamom

Johansen’s Co-integration approach and Granger causality have been employed to investigate the price discovery process in spot and futures market of cardamom in MCX. It is necessary to test the stationary of the series before doing co-integration analysis. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (1979) test was employed to infer the stationary of the series. If the series are non-stationary in levels and stationary at differences, then there is a chance of co-integration relationship between them which reveals the long-run relationship between the series. Johansen’s co-integration test has been employed to investigate the presence or absence of long-run relationship between spot and futures price of cardamom. The co-integration statistics is based on comparing the number of co-integrating vectors under the null and alternative hypotheses. The empirical results presented in this paper were calculated by using a simple Granger-causality test so as to find out whether futures prices” Granger cause” spot prices and vice versa.
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Software piracy and scientific publications: knowledge economy evidence from Africa

Software piracy and scientific publications: knowledge economy evidence from Africa

The issue of endogeneity has two main justifications. Firstly, whereas scientific publications could be influenced by the degree of software piracy, the reverse effect cannot be ruled-out because as an economy grows in scientific knowledge, it tends to have better IPRs laws (on software piracy) hence, the concern of reverse-causality. Secondly, in the empirical IPRs literature, Bezmen & Depken (2004) have insisted that studies investigating the IPRs- development nexus are subject to potential endogeneity problems, because it is likely that a nation’s level of development is a crucial factor in the choice of, or adherence to, a particular IPRs regime. This justifies an earlier position by Ginarte & Park (1997) which states that, the height of economic development explains the strength of patent protection provided by individual countries. Before addressing this endogeneity concern, we shall briefly examine its presence with the Hausman test and then employ an estimation technique compatible with the outcome of the test.
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Analysis of the nexus between Environmental quality and Economic growth

Analysis of the nexus between Environmental quality and Economic growth

This Paper inquiries into analysis of the nexus between environmental quality and economic growth for the period 1990-2018. In an attempt to realize the major objectives of the study various researcher’s’ works on relevant studies were exhaustively reviewed. The study utilizes annual time series data for its analysis and data on Carbon emissions metric tons per capita, GDP, Energy use and Access to electricity as a percentage of total population were collected for the period under review. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model approach was applied to estimate long run and short run relationship among the aforementioned variables. Both the short run and long run levels result fairly distinct with each other that GDP is positively and
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Improving The Nexus Between Research And Teaching In Undergraduate IS Education

Improving The Nexus Between Research And Teaching In Undergraduate IS Education

This study outlines a framework to assess the merits of integrating IS research into undergraduate teaching. Though the general merits of such integration have been explored, with limited empirical evidences in many previous (non-IS related) studies, this integration is particularly much needed in the IS field. This urgency is justified by many factors, such as the rapid pace in the rollout of IS tools, technologies and terminologies and the shallow focus on research in most IS curricula. Our study adds to existing literature in at least two aspects. First, to our best knowledge, this is the first reported study that reflects upon the integration of research into teaching within the IS context. Second, our research is a first initiative that contributes to establishing a formal framework for the planning and the assessment of such integration. Such an assessment framework will be very useful for continuous improvement to ensure that the integration achieves the learning outcomes it was designed for. Based on the proposed assessment framework and research methodology, this research proposes multiple sources of evidence to assess the merits of incorporating IS research into undergraduate teaching. The paper also shares the experience of a three-semester case study that aimed to diffuse research into teaching in an undergraduate computing and information systems course. Our research underlines the need for formal frameworks to assess the learning outcomes of undergraduate research dissemination into the curriculum. Objectives, performance criteria and measurement indicators should be clearly defined. Careful planning, judicious implementation, based on best practices and thorough assessment, are some basic ingredients for successful integration of research into the classroom. These requirements need to be integrated in the overall assessment strategy of the program curriculum. The assessment tools and research methods presented in this study can be very useful in assisting other IS departments establish a permeable boundary between undergraduate teaching and research.
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Mixed Methods Research on the Nexus Between Mathematics and Science

Mixed Methods Research on the Nexus Between Mathematics and Science

The importance of mathematics within STEM education is uncontested and yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the relationship, or nexus, between mathematics and science at university level. In Australia, growing concern over levels of participation and standards in mathematics and science education makes such research imperative. In this paper we present the methodology for a multi-phase mixed methods research project examining the relationship between mathematics and science at one Australian university. The methods include: (i) correlation between mathematics and other disciplinary attainments, (ii) measurement of the transferability of undergraduates’ learning, (iii) exploring factors associated with the transfer; and (iv) both students’ and experts’ views on the relationship between mathematics and science; and the teaching and learning factors that facilitate or hinder transfer. Importantly, this naturalistic study draws on secondary data and interviews to explore this relationship as it exists within normal university activity; transfer, for example, is observed in students’ performance in university exams. We report on initial analysis of the sample for the project: by outlining student participation in first year mathematics study in relation to various factors, thus highlighting gender and socioeconomic gaps; and by examining the high school mathematics preparation in relation to students’ pass rates in STEM degrees.
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The Nexus between Remittance Outflows and GCC Growth and Inflation

The Nexus between Remittance Outflows and GCC Growth and Inflation

The literature contains a handful of studies examining the effect of remittance outflows on GCC economies. We re-examine this topic by using panel data for 2004-2014. Specifically, our objective is twofold: First, we examine the nexus between economic growth in the GCC countries and remittance outflows by relaxing the assumption that the effect of remittance outflows on economic growth is the same across the six GCC countries. Research has shown that economic growth declines as remittance outflows increase. Our results show that remittance outflows affect growth in GDP only in the case of Saudi Arabia. For example, when growth in remittance outflows increases by 1 percentage point, then growth in real GDP of Saudi Arabia declines by 0.139 percent. Second, we examine the nexus between inflation and remittance outflows by relaxing the assumption that the effect of remittance outflows on inflation is the same across GCC countries. The literature suggests that inflation declines as remittance outflows increase. Our results for GCC countries show that growth in remittance outflows affect inflation only in the case of Bahrain. For example, when growth in remittance outflows increases by 1 percentage point, then inflation in Bahrain declines by 0.135 percent.
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Nexus between Stock Exchange Index and Exchange Rates

Nexus between Stock Exchange Index and Exchange Rates

mentioned that the exchange rate returns and stock index returns have a bidirectional relationship in their study period at longer horizons. According to Aggarwal (1981), stock market indices and exchange rates are positively associated. Ma and Kao (1990) have found that for an export dominat- ing economy, currency appreciation affects stock indices, whereas opposite impact is applicable for an import domi- nating country. Morley and Pentecost (2000) have revealed that the stock markets and exchange rates are allied, but this relationship is through a general cyclical pattern, rather than a common trend. Franck and Young (1972); and Ang and Ghallab (1976) have found no reaction of stock price to the exchange rate realignments. Soenen and Hennigar (1988) revealed a strong negative association between the exchange rates and stock price. Solnik(1987) has found that diffe- rentials in real stock return (RSR) and changes in real ex- change rates (RER) are inversely related .Morley (2002) has disclosed a stable short-term association between the stock price and exchange rates in UK and Netherlands, whereas fragile substantiation of association in Italy and France and no evidence of relationship in Germany. Mishra (2004) has found no consistent relationship between stock returns, exchange rate returns, demand for money and interest rate. Ibrahim and Aziz (2003) have revealed no interaction exists between the stock prices and the exchange rates, the indus- trial production, the money supply, and the price level. Oskooee and Sohrabian (1992) have revealed that there is bidirectional causality between stock prices and effective exchange rate, at least in the short-term, where as it has been found that there is no long-term association between two variables. Aydemir and Demirhan (2009) have revealed that bidirectional association exists between
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The Post-Colonial State and The Nexus Between Leadership and Poverty

The Post-Colonial State and The Nexus Between Leadership and Poverty

From 1957, the activities of these “fire-fighting” Africans began to yield constitutional independence for some African countries. Others who still experienced very harsh forms of colonialism especially in the Southern African sub-continent and elsewhere, resorted to a more radical and revolutionary forms of expressions- the national liberation struggles. They include Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, and Guinea Bissau. For most of independent Africa, constitutional independence has not addressed the manifold problems of poverty, corruption, boundary crises, underdevelopment and so on. The many years of slave trade and colonialism in the areas affected, have distorted and disarticulated African political economy to a point where it no longer met the aspirations of its people. To compound this situation is the massive and unabated corruption and leadership ineptitude of the national bourgeoisie which wielded power in African states after the departing colonial masters. The naked plunder and criminal economic mismanagement of African resources which characterized the post- colonial record have been vividly captured by Shikwati (2004), who noted that “far from being utilized to lift its people out of poverty, Africa’s vast mineral wealth and resources have been squandered”. Shikwati noted that Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Congo-Brazzaville produce substantial quantity of oil; both Nigeria and Angola earn over USD100 million a day from crude oil exports, yet, they ranked among the 30 poorest countries in the world.
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