to find teacher development efforts that can be individually or collaboratively sustained by Nigerian teachers. Currently, teacher education in Nigeria has two major forms: pre- service teacher education which is provided by Nigerian colleges of education, universities and the National Teachers Institute (NTI) and in-service teacher education which in Nigerian terms largely refers to the upgrading of unqualified teachers to qualified teacher status through part time programmes, which are either run at distance or during school holidays. The pre-service teacher education providers mentioned above all contribute to this effort, especially the NTI, which has a mandate from the Nigerian government to provide in-service teacher education. My explorations of the context and the Nigerian literature show that growth in the profession would need to come from teachers themselves through development efforts that are school-based and teacher-led. A study like this will show what Nigerian teachers are capable of doing when they look critically at their professional actions with learning and learners as a focus. Therefore the research question is: ‘how do NigerianEnglish teachers use reflection?’ By answering this question, I hope to add NigerianEnglish teachers’ voices to discussions about the reflection and reflective practice.
Nigeria is one of the outer circle countries where a rich repertoire of peculiar usages have been gradually emerging over the years so much so that arguments are rife—albeit controversially—that a variety of English language has emerged. The variety serves the people who speak it efficiently, providing them with a means of “forcing” an imposed strange tongue to answer to their own linguistic whims and caprices. The question of how to place this variety has been a subject of lively debate among scholar but scholars like Selvi & Yazan (2013) and Okunrinmeta (2014) have argued that NigerianEnglish (NE) and other non-native varieties should be rec- ognized as a separate variety of English just like American English and Australian English. While the merits and demerits of argument do not fall within the scope of this paper, it is important to note that if this perspective ul- timately gains upper hand, it will crucially impact upon the teaching and learning of English in Nigeria as it would determine whether NS norms would continue or cease to be the reference point for teaching both oral and written components of the language.
Using sociolinguistic plane, Nigerian linguists often depict three levels or –lects: basilect, mesolect and acrolect. Basilect is a broad-based variety used by a majority of literate Nigerians who may not be so well educated. Between basilect and acrolect is mesolect, which is used by very many Nigerians who have some levels of education and interaction, like secondary school students and certificate holders and those who do not have higher education. Acrolect is Educated or Standard NigerianEnglish that is used by few people at the highest brackets of education and professions (Igene, 1992, pp.55-123; Ogbulogo, 2005, pp.23-4). The educated variety III of Banjo, which is also acrolect on the sociolinguistic pyramid, is often recommended or preferred as Nigerian standard. It is called Educated NigerianEnglish (ENE) or Standard NigerianEnglish (SNE), which has both written and the spoken varieties. The written is much like Standard British English (Jowitt, 2008, p.13) while the spoken is less pedantic and accommodating the features of other close varieties II and I of Banjo’s classification as well as code mixing with Nigerian Pidgin and local languages.. On the use of English words to encapsulate meanings, it has been noted that educated Nigerians display the linguistic tendency of stretching the meanings of words beyond their assigned dictionary and native meanings for sociolinguistic, cultural and pragmatic reasons (Adegbija, pp.165-77; Odumuh, 1980, pp. 69-70; Bamiro, 1994, pp.42-61). Neologisms and meaning extension have also been found to be “the defining characteristic” and recurrent features of NigerianEnglish (Teilanyo, 2008, p.29; Igene 1992, p.36). According to Effiong (2011), Nigerians coin words and expressions which may not have the same meanings in native-English usage. Such linguistic innovations or “semantic contrasts” have made NigerianEnglish “distinct and unique” (pp. 286-7) Similarly, Osakwe (2011) says that young Nigerians take advantage of Nigeria’s complex sociolinguistic background to produce “slangs (sic) and nonstandard usages” showing “semantic drift” (p.33). In this connection, this paper shows that educated Nigerians use lexicalization, compounding and reduplication to encapsulate socio-cultural concepts and experiences.
This study investigated perceptual convergence as a measure of the intelligibility and acceptability of three NigerianEnglish (NE) accents with a view to arriving at a possible norm of usage for teaching and communication purposes. The subjects were one hundred and eighty Nigerians of varied socio-economic, educational and ethno-linguistic backgrounds drawn from various offices, institutions in Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan. Two researcher-designed instruments were used. First is the Oral Reading Test for Accent identification made up of phonological difficulties usually exhibited by NE language users. Next is a questionnaire in the form of an intelligibility and acceptability rating scale. Based on the findings, the educated NE accent was the most intelligible and acceptable, followed by the mother-tongue based NE accent and the Regional NE accents. It was recommended among others that language policy makers confront the problem of the NE corpus to be used in teaching and the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council be commissioned to produce texts on the phonology and phonetics of the Educated NE accent.
The use of this word in the Nigerian context demonstrates the principle of conversion which is popular in the English Language (Atchison, 1989). Joint in SE means quite different things from its meaning in NigE. Its possible meanings in SE are a part of the body and owned by more than one person, while in NigE it means a hidden place of relaxation or a hidden place where one relaxes with a member of the opposite sex. Cannon (1985) makes a prognosis of the activeness of such converted words in the future. Little wonder joint has now gained currency, especially in the social circles in NigerianEnglish.
categories as constituents which have grammatical and semantics features but lack audible phonetic features and are so silent or inaudible. Also, null categories occur after transformation process or deletion of a constituent in the D-structure, thereby resulting in an empty position in the S- structure. In this study, the null categories identified in Nigerian newspaper headlines are null subjects and null verbs.
Effective communication plays some vital roles in any given society. If such communication is to be facilitated in the Nigerian society, there is the need to fashion out a model of English that will be more suitable or appropriate to Nigerians. This is because in this study, it has become very clear that most Nigerians, no matter how highly educated, do not approximate closely to the Standard British English, the RP. Even if they wished to do so, the exonormative model sounds quite affected and socially unacceptable to the majority of Nigerians. Besides, at present, there are three identifiable varieties of SBE, the RP (Jowitt, 2007). It is, therefore, apparently difficult to know which one Nigerians should choose from these three since all of them seem alien to NigerianEnglish users/learners, moreso, since it is difficult to anticipate the number of new varieties that would emerge at the end of the day. This is because language is as dynamic as the society where it exists. The explanations we have attempted to make so far suffice for the need to fashion out an endonormative model of English to suit Nigerian communicative needs. This may ultimately halt the “so-called” falling standard of English in Nigeria.
The main aim of this article is to discuss how pronunciation of some English language sounds by Nigerian speakers of English who are non-native speakers creates identity dilemma. This particular dilemma is as a result of audience expectations, pedagogical issues, examiners expectations, and employers’ expectations. The study found that most Nigerians speakers of English as a second language find themselves in a stage of identity dilemma because they want to maintain their status as African and in the same vain speak English as native speakers. The study demonstrates this using some illustrations from Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo ethnic groups as the three major Nigerian languages. In this regard, this study has a pedagogical implication to the stakeholders such as policy makers, syllabus designers, and English teachers at all levels of education to device a means of solving the speakers’ identity dilemma in NigerianEnglish language classroom context. The paper recommends that further studies should be conducted to explore identity dilemma among other non-native speakers of English language across the globe using empirical evidences.
message. The goal of the project is to help bridge the gap that exists between providers and consumers of agricultural information and thus support farmers in making timely and informed decisions. The hope is that the information provided will help Nigerian Farmers to improve their agricultural practices and thus improve their livelihoods. We are planning pilot deployments of the MobileAnswers service to two groups of 25 farmers each in the Sokoto and the Abuja areas to begin in March of 2011. The plan is to run the pilots for six months each. During that period we will observe usage and modify the service as needed in response to problems and opportunities that arise with the farmers’ use of the service. In this paper we describe how the service was designed and developed in a partnership among three institutions – the Digital Bridge Institute (DBI) in Abuja, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in New York and Usmanu Danfodiyo University ((UDUS) in Sokoto.
most other nations. One of the rationales for financial liberalization is to improve the efficiency of the financial system. Chirwa (2001) notes that the McKinnon-Shaw hypothesis of financial liberalization has been popularized within the efficient financial system argument. This is because for the banking sector, studies have shown that the problems of inefficiency are more important than scale and scope issues (Berger, Humphrey, 1991; Berger, Hunter and Timme, 1993).Furthermore, Nyong (2005) attributes the various failures experienced by the Nigerian banks to technical inefficiency of these banks. Most studies on banking ignore issues of technical efficiency. Lovell (1993) noted that for many years, the productivity literature ignored the efficiency component. In the case of banks, attempts at investigating efficiency issues boil down to looking at transaction and search costs in the process of intermediation and interest rate spreads. This is because efficiency in the banking sector includes reducing transaction and search costs in the process of financial intermediation, reducing interest rate spreads, etc. All these however, are efficiency indicators which at best , are approximations and introduce bias into the work (Eeckaut, Tulkens and Jamar, 1993).This is opposed to efficiency scores which gives direct measure of efficiency of a firm (i.e. quantify the efficiency of firms). There have been various attempts at quantifying the efficiency of the banking sector. Most are however done for the advanced economies, and for the banking industry as a whole. Furthermore, most studies on banking efficiency have been conducted by looking at the effect of liberalization on the efficiency of banks. Financial liberalization is expected to improve the efficiency of banks by making the environment competitive. The results of these studies have been inconclusive as regards the pre- and – post liberalization efficiency status of banks. Bhattacharyya, Bhattacharyya and Kumbahakar (1997) found that deregulation and liberalization had a major impact on productivity and efficiency increase in various industries and the banking sector in some Eastern and Central European countries as well as China. Berg, Forsund and Jansen (1991)
Professor Dora Nkem Akunyili, for instance, made waves fighting against fake or adulterated drugs in National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC); Professor Jadesola Akande, an author and a former Vice Chancellor of Lagos State University (LASU) has shown, in no unmistakable terms, that she is able and capable of leading this country out of the woods if given the opportunity. Her track record as a former Vice Chancellor was intimidating. Professor Grace Alele Williams who was an iron cast former Vice Chancellor that never gave in to men’s manoeuvres as she piloted the affairs of the University of Benin as its Vice Chancellor at a very tumultuous period should also be mentioned; Okonjo Iweala who came and worked hard to give meaning to the Nigerian economy as the Minister of Finance, though made waves, is unfortunately more valued abroad than in Nigeria, her country; Obiageli Ezekwesili is a force to be reckoned with in the political realm. She, at the helm of affairs at the due process office, made sure that there was sanity in the award of contracts. She was then referred to as “Madam Due Process”. No wonder she was later appointed by the World Bank as its Vice President. She is being honoured, not in her own country but abroad.
Globalization theoretically leads countries to increase their production and consumption levels and as well ensures prosperity in line with benefits accruable from foreign trade. Foreign trade has been adjudged by many a scholar as an engine with potentials to propel an economy to desired growth as it affords the opportunities to new products, to explore new techniques, to enhance communication and a considerable positive role in the business life. This study is an empirical reassessment of the impact of foreign trade on Nigerian economy with a time series data from 1981 to 2013. The regressors conformed to a priori expectations while export (EX) alone passed the test of significance. The F-test suggests that the joint influence of the explanatory variables is statistically significant and Jarque-Bera normality test also implies that the residual is normally distributed. The non- statistical significance of most of the variables points to the relatively weak diversified Nigerian economy with the dominance of the petroleum sector. Consequently, further opening of the economy needs to be halted else it will retard the growth of the economy. In order to promote growth and development, conscious efforts should be made in the formulation of policies to create enabling environment that will promote non-oil exports, ensure growth induced imports and promote the use of local raw materials.
Methods: A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males, 22 females) free from damage and deformity fully ossified from Departments of Anatomy in Nigerian Universities were used for this study. Spreading calliper, measuring tape were used to measure the following parameters, bregma-lambda, lambda- inion, nasion-bregma, nasion-inion, basion-bregma. Graph pad prism version 5.0 was used to analyze the data, coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, sexual dimorphism ratio were computed. Student‘s T-test was used to compare male-female and right-left measurements.
establish ties with the German culture. Evidence from the findings revealed that a majority of the participants perceived the size of the Nigerian community in Germany to be large. Probably, they perceived their size to be large because their population in Germany tended to be more concentrated around the big cities such Frankfurt, Hamburg, Berlin, Munich and others. This could have made it easier for them to identify together and form a network of cultural associations. Thus, they also perceived their intra-group contact to be cohesive. In this way, cohesiveness and size also shed some light on the concept of identity as a basic social psychological concept in SLA. With regard to ‘length of stay’, it is the perception of the majority of the participants that their length of stay in Germany played a significant role in defining the overall nature and amount of their contact and interaction with the Germans. The findings indicated that the majority of the participants believed that the more time they stayed, the more opportunity they had to interact with the Germans, learn the language and generally improve their life in Germany (see 220.127.116.11). As such, length of stay tends to relate to the outcome for most of the social and psychological distance factors. This finding is supported by the view in the literature that, as a dynamic process, acculturation takes place over time and that during the course of his or her stay in the TL environment, the learner’s social and psychological distance may change (Schumann, op. cit.).
TAFE NSW conducts courses in a wide range of industry areas, as outlined each year in the TAFE NSW Handbook. Under current arrangements, the recognition available to students of English in relevant courses conducted by TAFE is described in the HSC/TAFE Credit Transfer Guide. This guide is produced by the Board of Studies and TAFE NSW and is distributed annually to all schools and colleges. Teachers should refer to this guide and be aware of the recognition available to their students through the study of English Stage 6. This information can be found on the TAFE NSW website (www.tafensw.edu.au/mchoice). Students may be eligible for credit transfer to a number of National Communication
The Nigerian economists on their part must continue to learn from previous mistake and strive to improve on the quality and practical power of their recommendations. We must not lose sight of our main professional objective, which is to understand our economy and to prescribe remedies for its real and serious ills, to introduce rationality in the management of our economy in the interest of the greatest good for the greatest number of our people (Edozien, op. cit.). The inter-disciplinary nature of our national problems must also be fully appreciated because only then can economists ensure correct diagnosis and balanced prognosis of these problems. In this context, we want to again agree with Edozien (op. cit.) that the immediate challenges facing Nigerian economists remain that of sharpening their ability to appreciate, delineate and, where necessary, determine more realistically and optimally too, the delicate balance between the economic expediency and political feasibility of development strategies.
The above misconception and political connivance notwithstanding, there are now departments in some universities across Nigeria providing students and re- searchers opportunities to carry out studies that would expose them to latest re- searches in global creativity studies. This development has ensured that creativi- ty research in Nigeria is gradually shifting. It is moving from educational inter- ests especially primary and secondary education (Nwazuoke, 1989; Olatoye & Oyundoyin, 2007) to other areas of interests. There exists now creativity re- searches in other areas of human activities such as workplace, family, corporate world, university education, church and specialized groups (Akinboye, 2003; Obialo, 2011; Obialo, 2018). Western cultural influences have come to stay in Nigeria. Nigerian researchers in creativity are now being influenced mostly by western ideas and concepts in various areas of their work. However, there is a serious need to begin to look inward and develop Nigerian traditional, and con- temporary experiences of creativity like the Eastern/Oriental researchers are doing. Such efforts would help to take advantage of the multicultural Nigerian setting in order to grow the sociopolitical, economic and technological life. Ni- gerian researchers can also learn from the Chinese top-down approach to utilis- ing creativity and innovation for national development (Pang & Plucker, 2013). Such an interest will also help to contribute the Nigerian experience to the global gamut of creativity research and understanding. It is pertinent to note that a sig- nificant practice that creativity research in Nigeria holds dear is to ensure that measures adopted or adapted from other cultures are evaluated for cul- ture-fairness. Researchers are also encouraged to learn how to design valid and reliable tests in creativity (Obialo, 2011).
of members yet women’s numerical strength has not impacted positively on the political life and decision making structure of the nation. Men constitute a large percentage of the party membership and this tends to affect women when it comes to selecting or electing candidates for elections. Men tend to dominate the Party hierarchy and are therefore at advantage in influencing the party’s internal politics. Women usually constitute a smaller percentage of political party membership because of the social, cultural, religious attitude of different Nigerian societies.