the high nitrate content in the year 2012, a statistical signiﬁ cance in comparison to years 2010 and 2011 was found (P < 0.05). When looking at individual years in detail, the year 2010 belonged to years with the lowest nitrate content in potato tubers. This can be put down to the fact that in 2010, there were above the average precipitation amounts and as a result, the vast majority of nitrogen contained in soil had ﬂ ooded out, which also corresponds with the yield that was at its lowest in 2010. Likewise, the year 2011 belonged to years with the lowest nitrate content in potato tubers. This is the result of the fact that the year 2011 was an ideal year not only for potatoes but for all agricultural crops as the temperatures as well as the precipitations were optimal and thanks to that, the dilution took place and the yield was one of the highest overall. Finally, the year 2012 will be evaluated. 2012 was characterized by extreme dryness. Nevertheless, the highest yield as well as the highest nitrate content was measured which seems illogical. However, we think there is some logic to it. Until June 2012, there was minimum rainfall (the drought had lasted since autumn 2011), so mineralization of nutrients in soil almost did not proceed at all. At the end of June, there were abundant precipitations, the mineralization started to take place and thanks to that a large amount of nutrients came loose, including nitrogen which the plants did not have the time to build in their plant tissues. This assumption is also supported by Prugar (1992), who claims that if a dry period is followed by abundant precipitations, a temporary increase in nitrate accumulation occurs because plants had not been able to absorb the nitrates due to lack of moisture. Furthermore, this statement is maintained by the reaction of farmers who grow malting barley, because in 2012 there was a main problem with malting quality – high content of N-substances. IV: Tukey HSD test: Year and nitrate content (mg.kg −1 fresh mass)
content increases Chung J.C. reported a similar finding that during storage at ambient temperature (22 ± 1 O C) nitrate level in vegetable dropped significantly from the third day while nitrite levels increased dramatically from the fourth day of storage.Nitrate content of freshly harvested cauliflower also varies. This may be due to different agricultural practices.
Nilem in West Java has not been developed, and maintenance is still byproduct so that its production is still low. To produce a high production can be done with the addition of stocking density. Solid dispersion has a significant effect on water quality degradation, requiring better water quality management. Handling that can be done on this cultivation is with the addition of aeration. Aeration added to cultivation container in this research is diffuser aerator. The purpose of this research is to see the consistency of ammonia and nitrate content which is non toxic compound for nilem by comparing from some stocking density. The treatments were A treatment (50 fish/m 3 ), B (75 fish/m 3 ), C (100 fish/m 3 ) and D (125 fish/m 3 ). This research was conducted in February - March 2018 in Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran. Diffuser Aerator has an influence on ammonia and nitrate, all treatments tended to decrease in ammonia levels with treatment A having the lowest ammonia of 0.004 mg/L. While for the greatest nitrate content found in treatment C that is 1.096 mg/L. Stocking of 100 fish is the best number during the study with 86% survival rate with fish population of 86 fish.
In recent years, an increasing interest concerning determination of nitrate levels in food products has been observed, essentially due to the potential reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is known to cause adverse effects on human and animal health. The main goal of this study was measuring nitrate content of pear and apple derived canned products samples commercially available in Iran market in comparison on fresh fruits. Series analyses were performed with 80 canned pear samples produced at a large-scale local enterprise and purchased at recognized market and simultaneously fresh and 150 untreated samples was collected by going to the chosen areas of recognized farms in region of Fouman in Giulan province, Iran. In order to conduct a comparison between the content of nitrate in the studied samples, dry matter content was determined according to the association of office analytical chemists (AOAC). A ten gram sample of the prepared pear and apple was blended with 50ml distilled water in a home blender. The mixture was filtered and was passed through a glass 39 column fitted with a tape and filled with Activated alumina, in order to separate the color of Chlorophyll and get a transparent solution. The eluted solution by water filtered using 0.45um filter paper in order to eliminate the turbidity and get a clear solution. Nitrite concentration in pear samples was determined by spectrophotometric methods at a wavelength of 538 nm, after reducing nitrate to nitrite by using cadmium column. Nitrate content in analyzed fresh pears ranges between 63.22 – 143.76 mg/kg FW with an average of 101.743 mg/kg. The highest nitrate content was found in ‘Abkhoj’ (143.76 mg/kg) and the lowest content was in Amrud’ genotypes (63.22 mg/kg FW). For canned pear the nitrate level ranges between 166.11 – 374.02 mg/kg with an average of 266.08 mg/kg. All the nitrate values in canned food samples are higher than those for corresponding fresh fruits. The nitrate levels in pear compotes are much higher than those for corresponding fruit due to the concentration process that takes place during pear processing . It is clear that the result of our study shows a variation in the nitrate and nitrite levels in the different genotypes samples and processing products.
The soils were incubated at 20°C and monitored for O 2 after 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 32 and 34 days by sampling the air in the vessels. The content of O 2 was determined by gas chromatography, using a Shi- madzu GC-14 (Japan) apparatus fitted with a ther- mal conductivity detector, at 60°C. Gas samples were analysed at 40°C with the use of column packed with a molecular sieve 5A, with He as a carrier gas flowing at a rate of 40 ml/min. Incubation vessels were repli- cated three times. A set of 30 samples was prepared for each soil. These vessels were opened in three replications after 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 32 and 34 days of the incubation and used to measure pH, redox potential (Eh) as described by Malicki and Walczak (1983) and Gliński and Stępniewski (1985) and nitrate content. Determination of nitrate in the material studied was performed with the help of the FIA-Star 5010 flow-through spectrophoto- metric analyser made by Foss Tecator.
The content of nitrogen forms in soils and their chang- es have been studied from different aspects, and with re- spect to possibilities of their utilization. Studies aimed at mineral forms of nitrogen and at readily mineralizable fractions of the organic component of soil organic mat- ter have been published in recent years. It is intelligible because these forms of nitrogen substantially influence plant growth, product quality and environment, particu- larly surface water quality, and can be utilized for practi- cal application of fertilizers (Rausch 1989, Kubát et al. 1999, Koláø et al. 2002, etc.).
This study was carried out in a field experiment at the Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute, Samsun-Turkey in 2011where the mean annual rainfall was 844 mm. The chemical and physical characteristics of the Vertisol soil determined in soil samples for each sampling depth were as follows: particle size distribution by hydrometer method, bulk density (BD) by undisturbed soil core method (Demiralay 1993), soil pH, 1:1 (w:v) soil:water suspension by pH meter, electrical conductivity (EC 25ºC) in the same suspension by EC meter, and organic C content by Walkley-Black method (Kacar 1994). According to the soil properties given in Table 1, the results can be summarised as follows: (i) soils in each depth had a clay textural class; (ii) none were saline, (iii) pH was neutral, and (iv)low in organic matter content (Soil Survey Staff 1993). Predominant clay type in the soil is was montmorillonite with a high shrink-swell potential.
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ABSTRACT. Infants for whom formula may be pre- pared with well water remain a high-risk group for ni- trate poisoning. This clinical report reinforces the need for testing of well water for nitrate content. There seems to be little or no risk of nitrate poisoning from commer- cially prepared infant foods in the United States. How- ever, reports of nitrate poisoning from home-prepared vegetable foods for infants continue to occur. Breastfeed- ing infants are not at risk of methemoglobinemia even when mothers ingest water with very high concentra- tions of nitrate nitrogen (100 ppm). Pediatrics 2005;116: 784–786; methemoglobinemia.
A vegetation pot experiment was established to explore the effect of two doses of nitrogen (0.6 and 0.9 g N in the form of ammonium sulphate) and two doses of sulphur (20.6 and 30.6 mg/kg of soil) on the yields and quality of spinach and pepper in comparison with a natural level (7.85 mg/kg). The results of the experiments confirmed that the appli- cation of sulphur by means of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 in combination with nitrogen had a positive effect on yields and also on the quality of the vegetables. In the sulphur-free variants of spinach the effect was statistically significant and also when the levels of S in the soil were higher. Lower doses of nitrogen under increased levels of sulphur increased the yields statistically significantly (on average by 47%) and the sulphur concentration in the plants increased. The N:S ratio became narrower in proportion with the level of sulphur, particularly under a lower N level. The nitrate content in spinach corresponded with the applied dose of nitrogen and the nitrogen concentration. The sulphur level did not in- fluence the content of C vitamin, but had a positive effect on the content of the essential amino acids cysteine and me- thionine. A mean level of S 1 in combination with a N 1 dose significantly increased pepper yields, narrowed the N:S ratio and was reflected in dry ma�er production per 1 g of N. The highest pepper yields were achieved with a dose of S 1 , which resulted in the highest dry ma�er production in the fruit per 1 g of N under both levels of N. At the same time increasing the sulphur level reduced the content of nitrate and increased the level of cysteine from 0.11 to 0.305 g/kg.
The insignificant difference between the mean nitrite levels of vegetable populations of both locations suggests that nitrite content of vegetables may not be dependent on the environment. Nitrite content of soils is known to be smaller compared to nitrate amounts because nitrates are more stable forms of environmental nitrogen . This implies that the vegetables absorb predominantly nitrates from the soil. Much of the nitrite content of the analyzed samples could be attributed to the nitrate re- ductase activity of the nitrate assimilation pathway in plants. The nitrite content of samples may therefore not be dependent on the levels of environmental pollution but on the average level of activity of this enzyme in the two sample sets. The major concern for toxicity is there- fore associated with level of nitrate consumed in these vegetables since nitrates are readily reduced to nitrites which can form the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the presence of amines and thiocyanate, in the gut as well as pre-dispose to methemoglobinemia [12,27]. The mean nitrate content of samples from the pollution-prone Eleme environs is higher than the upper permissible limit for vegetables in China  as well as the average for fresh spinach in Europe . According to the Joint Expert
seasonal content of mobile nutrient elements in a dark brown soil in various norms of mineral fertilizers for late cabbage. Thus, average seasonal nitrate content in a control sample in the 0-20 cm layer was 16.5 mg/kg when applying nitrogen fertilizer in increasing norms (N 60,120,180 ) nitrate content increased to 26.9; 32.5 and 41.7 mg/kg, respectively. Ammonium nitrogen was also higher in fertilized samples and its Average seasonal content varied depending on the experiment sample from 10.1: 11.1 and 13.1 mg/kg while the control sample was 6.1 mg/kg of the soil.
The pH values in all the treatment options were ranged between 6.0-7.3. The result implies that the soil was favourable for microbial degradation. Obire and Nwaubeta  reported pH range of 5.7-6.8 in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Soil pH is important because most microbial species can survive only within a certain pH range. Furthermore, soil pH can affect availability of nutrients. There was no significant difference in the nitrate and phosphate values on the soil samples treated with various concentrations of the oilfield wastewater. However there was significant difference between the controls (0%) and the soil treated with various concentration of the oilfield wastewater as a result of the inorganic and organic constituents oilfield wastewater contains. There was significant reduction of the nitrate and phosphate in all the samples at the end of the experimental period. This could suggest that the indigenous microbes in the soil sample utilized the nutrients that promote microbial growth and activity. Many studies have reported the use of oilfield wastewater as nutrient supplement [11,12,13]. Benson et al.  reported decrease in nitrate content of amended soil and increase in un-amended soil. Onuh et al.  also observed a decrease in nitrogen availability with increased levels of crude pollution. Owhonka et al.  also reported reduction of nutrients as a result of microbial utilization. The total hydrocarbon content was more in all treatment options than in the 0% (control), possible reason could be that the oil field wastewater added may have contained hydrocarbon constituents. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) reduced as the experiment progressed in all the soil treatment options and the un-contaminated soils. THC reduction in all the treatment options was quite different from the one observed in the control. This confirms the view that biodegradation is impeded by nutrient deficiency. Wemedo  also reported reduction in total hydrocarbon content with time in all the
Histamine, a biogenic amine, and inorganic nitrate and nitrite are nitrogenous compounds occurring in many foods. There has been increasing interest in determination of histamine, nitrate, and nitrite levels in fruits and canned products due to their potential adverse health effects on humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine levels of nitrate and nitrite in commercially available canned apple products compared to fresh fruit collected from the Fars province of Iran. The nitrate content and histamine concentration in fresh and canned apples were determined by calorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis, respectively. The histamine content of canned apples was determined at four different storage times. Also, physiochemical characteristics, such as pH and vitamin C content of the samples, were also determined. The results revealed that nitrate and nitrite levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) (up to four-fold) in canned apples compared to fresh apples from specific regions, which might be due to genotypic variations from different geographical sources. The histamine content in canned apples tested twelve months after the date of production was significantly higher (P < 0.003) (up to three-fold) than levels in canned apples tested one month after production, suggesting that the length of storage may have an effect on histamine concentration.
The physico-chemical analysis like pH, conductivity, organic carbon, nitrate, phosphate and arsenic content of soil samples were done following standard methods. pH and conductivity were measured using digital pH meter and conductivity meter with automatic temperature com- pensation and calibrated with calibration solutions . Organic Carbon was determined by Walkey-Black titra- tion method , Nitrate was estimated by phenol disul-
Many growers make the assumption that the slate is wiped clean every year as far as nitrogen accumulation in their soils. However, stable organic N compounds in manure continue to accumulate in soil with annual manure applica- tions. Stable organic nitrogen compounds can take as long as 5 years or longer to mineralize into the ammonium and nitrate forms available to plants. Continued application of manures can
tive or negative linear correlations were also obtained between soil pH and DOC content for non-productive variants: Kz-AN (r = 0.424*) and Kp-CN (r = –0.455***) and for all meadows fertilized with CN (r = –0.258**). Negative correlation coefficients for meadows fertilized with CN indicate that DOC content in the mineral meadow soil decreased with decreasing soil acidity. Vegetation mown and systematically left on the plots (variant Kp-CN) limited the loss of soluble forms of organic carbon from mineral soil. On the other hand, systematic removal of mown vegetation in meadow vari- ant Kz-AN at acidic soil pH (4.34–6.76) increased car- bon losses. This observation was confirmed by positive correlation between pH and DOC content (0.424*) and
The model runs on a daily basis. The information fed into the root module from other modules includes soil water content, ammonium and nitrate concentrations, root biomass increment and crop potential water and N demand, together with the climatic data, soil clay content and bulk density from the model run setup files. All processes are calculated in 0.05 m x 0.05 m grid units within the soil domain of 2 m depth vertically and half the row width horizontally. Root density is calculated in 0.05 x 0.05 m soil units, up to 1 m horizontally (controlled by row width) and to 2 m depth vertically, and when root depth or width enters the centre of a new soil unit, root density is
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Ca(NO 3 ) 2 and KNO 3 improved plant height, root length, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, leaf number, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity, nitrogen and amino acid contents etc. Due to high RWC in Mg(NO 3 ) 2 treatment plants are able to tolerate adverse conditions such as water stress, salinity, high temperature etc. Nitrate reductase activity in leaves was also found to increase in the present study (Fig. 3) and can be well correlated with an increment in nitrogen as well as protein content in grain (Fig. 4 & 5). Further, the result presents maximum increment in yield attributes in the plants raised from Mg(NO 3 ) 2 invigorated seeds as compared to DW treated and control sets. A number of reports related to invigoration of seeds of various crops with
Proline accumulation increased due to the low water content in leaf tissue of plant, demonstrating that this amino acid has the function of adjusting the osmotic and / or indicator of stress in the species under study, which is a feature of interest in plants resistant to drought. Occurs thus protecting the membranes from the harmful effects caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus preventing denaturation of proteins, while preserving the structure of enzymes (Sharma et al., 2005). The increase in the concentration of this osmolyte in plants under water deficit could be attributed to the activity of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of this amino acid (Maia et al., 2007). Pereira et al., (2012) working with seedlings of Arachishypogaea found an increase in proline content in root tissue.
The effects of potato French fried and chips during the traditional homemade processing on the changes in the content of nitrates and nitrites were determined. The experimental material was potato tubers of spunta variety collected from nine stages of a French fries and chips homemade processing. The results of the research carried out, revealed that the processes applied during French fries and chips making, had a significant influence on the decrease in the nitrate and nitrite contents in both intermediate and final products in comparison with the raw material. The losses of nitrate ion in potato chips and French fries were almost equally. While, the losses of nitrites were greater in potato chips than that for French fries. French fries ready for consumption contained only 23 % of the nitrate and 2.49 % of the nitrite found in the raw material, while the chips contained only 24 % of the nitrate and 0.59 % of the nitrite found in the raw material.