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Effect of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on the Surface Hardness, Corrosion Rate, and Crystal Structure of Pure Aluminium

Effect of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on the Surface Hardness, Corrosion Rate, and Crystal Structure of Pure Aluminium

The effect of nitrogen ion implantation in micro hardness properties of samples was tested by using Vickerss Tester Microhardness Tester type MTX7 type (see Figure 1). It can be concluded that the hardness of samples improves after nitrogen ion implantation and extend of improvement increases with dose. The maximum hardness appears at a nitrogen ion dose of 0.706×10 16 ion/cm 2 . In this condition, the hardness increases from 18.7 VHN (raw material) to optimum 37.50 VHN or increase by factor 100.53%, while the corrosion rate reduces from dose 0,012 mmpy to 0,011 mmpy or reduces by factor 8.3%. Over this dose the hardness decreases, this decrease is may be caused by defect due to the excess ion irradiation. Effect of nitrogen ions doses on the surface hardness of implanted samples is presented in Figure 1.
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Influence of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on the Disc Brake Material of Motor Vehicles Component

Influence of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on the Disc Brake Material of Motor Vehicles Component

Abstract: Weaknesses of local disc brakes are cover several conditions such as low hardness, wear, and corrosion resistance. To improve this weakness, it is necessary to modify the surface properties of the material. The aim of this research is to study the influences of nitrogen ion implantation on the surface properties of a disc brake material. The implantation process was carried out for various of ions dose such as 3.107×10 16 ions/cm 2 , 3.148×10 16 ions/cm 2 , 3.728×10 16 ions/cm 2 , 4.039×10 16 ions/cm 2 , 4.350×10 16 ions/cm 2 at a certain energy and beam current of 60×10 16 ions/cm 2 , 30 µA respectively. Hardness and wear properties were tested using microhardness tester and wear testing machine, respectively. Meanwhile, the crystalline structure for un-implanted (raw) and implanted materials at the optimum dose was analyzed using XRD. From the hardness test results, it can be obtained that the hardness of raw material is 59.82 VHN and after implantation it reached the highest value of 109.78 VHN or increases by factor 83%, while the wear test results is 22.9×10 -9 mm 2 /kg for raw material and after implantation it reaches the highest value of 2.5×10 -9 cm 2 /kg or decreases by factor 88%. These conditions were obtained at 3.728×10 16 ions/cm 2 of dose. Based on the XRD analysis, 45.5% Fe 2 N and 54.55% Fe 3 N compounds are formed.
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Analysis of corrosion fatigue for commercially pure titanium using nitrogen ion implantation

Analysis of corrosion fatigue for commercially pure titanium using nitrogen ion implantation

The current research on the effect associated with nitrogen ion implanted commercially pure titanium (Nii-Ti) in body fluid environment are important to understand and keep up to date as it changes with the latest technology and materials. Establishing a framework for the present study, the basic concept involved in surface modification, corrosion and corrosion-fatigue are reviewed. Later, specific examples are outlined to show basic trends found in the literature. Finally, empirical model of fatigue-life time prediction was briefly described.

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Effects on gene expression of yeast Hansenula anomala by low energy nitrogen ion implantation

Effects on gene expression of yeast Hansenula anomala by low energy nitrogen ion implantation

The original yeast strain, Hansenula anomala 2340, was implanted by low-energy nitrogen ion and the mutant library was obtained. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to detect the newly generated red substance produced by mutant strain N6076 and to evaluate the change of metabolic pathways. In order to explore the change in metabolic pathways of mutant strain, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology was used to construct a forward subtractive cDNA library of mutant strain N6076. Through sequencing analysis, a total of 14 gene fragment sequences with high expression levels were obtained, which included 9 differentially expressed genes. Among these genes, 7 differentially expressed genes revealed the mutation in bases. Meanwhile, among these 7 differentially expressed genes, 4 genes with base mutation resulted in the change of protein sequences. In addition, the base deletion was also observed in one gene fragment sequence.
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Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

simulated field for a sample implanted and annealed at 450 °C at a reverse bias of 1 V is shown in Fig. 9. High electric fields can be observed across the p-i junction, these fields reach peak values at the corners of the implanted regions. The peak electric field is ~150 kV/cm, which is well in excess of the value for the onset of tunneling currents and impact ionization in InAs [5] leading to a sudden and sharp increase in the current and potentially causing the failure of the device when stressed under this high current. These results indicate that for the development of planar InAs APDs either the implantation depth will have to be much deeper or inclusion of guard ring will be required to suppress edge breakdown.
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Ion Implantation As A Route To Enhancing Osseointegration On Modified Titanium Surfaces

Ion Implantation As A Route To Enhancing Osseointegration On Modified Titanium Surfaces

Sputtering of the surface during implantation has been shown to remove the thin oxide film leading to a Ti implantation substrate, which is rapidly re­ oxidised upon removal from the implanter UHV environment. It is probable that the Ca-Ti and K-Ti surfaces are immensely active which may lead to the re­ growth of a thicker oxide film (than the original native oxide on control Ti surfaces) containing elevated OH concentrations. The O/Ti ratio on the Ar-Ti is somewhat lower than that on CP Ti. These samples were generally implanted at the highest dose and, hence underwent the most sputtering. Furthermore, the inert nature of the Ar may subsequently discourage further surface interactions with O or OH. Surface hydroxylation may result in favourable biological interactions as hydroxyl groups have been proposed as nucléation sites for hydroxyapatite formation (Li etal. 1997).
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Tantalum/ Nitrogen and n-type WO3 semiconductor/FTO structures as a cathode for the future of nano devices

Tantalum/ Nitrogen and n-type WO3 semiconductor/FTO structures as a cathode for the future of nano devices

nanostructures characteristics, sample surface topography property were investigated on Tantalum nitrides (Ta/N) structures by looking at current– voltage (I–V) curves. In addition to Ta/N, WO 3 powders as a famous Electrochromic (EC) metal oxide, a silver metal deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass and multilayer structure with using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) apparatus are determined. Some techniques such as UV- visible, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) have been appropriated. The obtained results show the formation of hexagonal tantalum nitride (TaN0.43), and more trap centers of the sample surface (in comparison to current cathode material of EC device (ECD)). The electrical resistivity of the tantalum following nitrogen implantation is also perceived to increase with ion doses. Consequently, Ta/N with more trap centers (rough surface) can be suggested as a good element of the future of EC and nanodevices.
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Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

This work has shown that it is possible to use He implantation with InAs to produce highly resistive areas and that when combined with post implantation annealing, a sufficiently high resistive region can be formed to allow the fabrication of a planar photodiode. Due to the implantation conditions used in this work an isolation depth of only around 2 µm has been achieved despite the total device thickness being 8 µm. As such this appears to have limited the upper voltage limit that the diodes can be operated to due to the onset of edge breakdown. We have measured similar external quantum efficiencies for an implanted and subsequently annealed device as we would obtain for a reference etched device. These results also suggest that it may be possible to use implantation techniques to fabricate photodiodes in narrower bandgap materials such as InSb to allow the realisation of long wavelength planar detectors.
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Ion implantation of calcium and zinc in magnesium for biodegradable implant applications

Ion implantation of calcium and zinc in magnesium for biodegradable implant applications

In this study, pure magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion. The chemical composition of pure magnesium is given in Table 1. Prior to implantation, the samples were incrementally ground from 120 to 2500 grit SiC paper and then polished with diamond paste. After polishing, the samples were ultrasonically cleaned in acetone and then in ethanol and dried. Ion implantation was performed at Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation (ANSTO) using an in-house designed equipment capable to mass-analyse the ion beam, produced by a penning ion source. Implantation was done at room temperature on one side of the sample with an accelerating ion energy of 15 keV and ion-beam current density of 2 µA/cm 2 . Three fluences were used for the implantation of ion, i.e., 10 15 , 10 16 and 10 17 ion · cm −2 . The vacuum in the target chamber was
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Ion Implantation Induced Martensite Nucleation in SUS301 Steel

Ion Implantation Induced Martensite Nucleation in SUS301 Steel

Therefore, we should consider the process of the trans- formation under ion implantation based on mechanisms which are not directly depend on the peak concentration of ion and/or defects. Furthermore it was observed that the transformation started after a given dose of ion implantation, namely the damage defects were introduced before the phase transformation took place. Thus it is sure that defects might have a role for the phase transformation and simultaneously the implanted ion concentration might contribute it even

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Chemical Modification of Titanium Nitride Films via Ion Implantation

Chemical Modification of Titanium Nitride Films via Ion Implantation

Ion implantation is a typical tool in the material processing related to the silicon technology. 1) Various kinds of doping element or chemical species are implanted into the originally pure silicon to modify its intrinsic properties in electronics. Furthermore, the kinetic energy, the amount of doses, or, the penetration depth profile for implanted species, can be controlled by varying the process parameters. These advanta- geous merits are also attractive to surface modification for structural parts and components. 2) The previous research works for application of ion implantation to surface mod- ification 3–5) were categorized into two groups. Most of heavy ion implantation studies aim at investigation of irradiation damage effects or the intense ion beam solid interactions. On the other hand, light element ion implantation might well be favorable for physical modification of near-surface structure of materials. Being free from the excessive damage of solid materials, light-element physical modification is effective in hardening, strengthening of solids via ion implantation. In particular, since the ion implantation can be used as a simulator to investigate the role of alloying elements or species in the coating design, various studies have been reported in the surface modification of metallic and ceramic coating films. Table 1 summarized the recent works related to the light-element ion implantation to titanium nitride films. Most of studies aim at improvement of the wear resistance by surface strengthening and hardening via ion implantation. Generation of high dislocation density induces the work hardening at the vicinity of surface.
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The enhanced anticoagulation for graphene induced by COOH+ ion implantation

The enhanced anticoagulation for graphene induced by COOH+ ion implantation

We have shown here that functionalized graphene was successfully acquired by COOH + ion implantation while microstructural aspects, microstructure, and valence bond were systematically investigated. The interaction of red blood cells and platelets with pristine graphene and COOH + /graphene were investigated and compared de- tailedly. Three kinds of COOH + /graphene were shown to exhibit lower platelet adhesion, aggregation, and platelet activation than pristine graphene under the same condi- tions, especially for the COOH + /graphene with 5 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . No significant toxicity effects could be found on COOH + /graphene. The COOH + /graphene showed an ob- servable improvement in anticoagulation as the COOH + ion was implanted. This study demonstrated superior anticoagulation of COOH + /graphene with 5 × 10 17 ions/ cm 2 as promising and effective biomedical material for biomaterial industry.
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Optimization of Manufacturing of Operational Amplifier Manufactured by Using Field effect Heterotransistor to Decrease Their Dimensions

Optimization of Manufacturing of Operational Amplifier Manufactured by Using Field effect Heterotransistor to Decrease Their Dimensions

Dependences of optimal annealing time are presented on Figs. 4 for diffusion and ion types of doping, respectively. It should be noted, that it is necessary to anneal radiation defects after ion implantation. One could find spreading of concentration of distribution of dopant during this annealing. In the ideal case distribution of dopant achieves appropriate interfaces between materials of heterostructure during annealing of radiation defects. If dopant did not achieves any interfaces during annealing of radiation defects, it is practicably to additionally anneal the dopant. In this situation optimal value of additional annealing time of implanted dopant is smaller, than annealing time of infused dopant. At the same time ion type of doping gives us possibility to decrease mismatch-induced stress in heterostructure [21].
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Characterization of ion implanted antimony

Characterization of ion implanted antimony

Table 5: Summary of Ion Implanted Buried Layer Process Parameters Process Parameter Version A Version B 600 250 140 50 Implantation Screen Oxide Thickness A Implantation Energy keV Impla[r]

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Physiological proprieties from corn influenced by the differentiate application of nitrogen and phosphorus

Physiological proprieties from corn influenced by the differentiate application of nitrogen and phosphorus

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPRIETIES FROM CORN INFLUENCED BY THE DIFFERENTIATE APPLICATION OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ION BOZGĂ1, OLIMPIA PANDIA1, ION SĂRĂCIN2 Abstract: The paper enumerates severa[r]

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[N,N,N′,N′ Tetra­kis­(2 benzimidazolyl­methyl) 1,2 ethanedi­amine]­zinc(II) dinitrate ethanol solvate

[N,N,N′,N′ Tetra­kis­(2 benzimidazolyl­methyl) 1,2 ethanedi­amine]­zinc(II) dinitrate ethanol solvate

range from 76.88 (10) to 126.89 (11)° for cis atoms and from 154.65 (10) to 163.56 (9)° for trans atoms. The largest deviation for ideal geometry is the cis N2—Zn—N7 angle of 126.89 (11)°. The phenyl and imidazole rings are planar, the deviation from the least-squares planes being less than 0.02 Å. Two non-coordinated nitrate ions are hydrogen bonded to benzimidazole N atoms and there is also a hydrogen bond between the ethanol molecule and the benzimidazole nitrogen atom. The data of hydrogen-bonding geometry are listed in Table 2.

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110GHz fT Silicon Bipolar Transistors Implemented using Fluorine Implantation for Boron Diffusion Suppression

110GHz fT Silicon Bipolar Transistors Implemented using Fluorine Implantation for Boron Diffusion Suppression

Abstract—This paper investigates how fluorine implantation can be used to suppress boron diffusion in the base of a double polysil- icon silicon bipolar transistor and hence deliver a record of 110 GHz. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and transmis- sion electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the effect of the fluorine implantation energy and dose, the anneal temper- ature and the germanium pre-amorphization implant on the fluo- rine profiles. These results show that retention of fluorine in the sil- icon is maximized when a high-energy fluorine implant is combined with a low thermal budget inert anneal. TEM images show that a high-energy fluorine implant into germanium pre-amorphized sil- icon eliminates the end of range defects from the germanium im- plant and produces a band of dislocation loops deeper in the sil- icon at the range of the fluorine implant. Boron SIMS profiles show a suppression of boron diffusion for fluorine doses at and above 5 10 14 cm 2 , but no suppression at lower fluorine doses. This
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Oxidation Resistance of TiAl Improved by Ion Implantation of Beta Former Elements

Oxidation Resistance of TiAl Improved by Ion Implantation of Beta Former Elements

100 mm. Coupon specimens for implantation, measuring about 15 10 1 in mm, were machined out of a thin slice of a hot-forged pancake prepared by Ar-arc skull melting. The specimen peripheries were abraded to make an angle of 45 degree so that the whole specimen surface was implanted with two steps: one for front surface and the other for back surface. The ion dose on the slant surface is a little smaller than that on the flat area. However, the oxidation resistance can be clearly evaluated. Before implantation, the whole specimen surface was polished to a mirror finish with a series of SiC polishing paper and alumina powder of 0.3 mm in size. The specimen was then washed in acetone and alcohol ultrasonically. The implantation was carried out using 200 or 400 keV implanter under conditions listed in Table 2, which contains the oxidation resistance obtained for convenience.
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Microstructure and Elasticity of Glassy Alloy Surface by Reactive and Inert Ion Implantation

Microstructure and Elasticity of Glassy Alloy Surface by Reactive and Inert Ion Implantation

The modified structure and its related elasticity of metallic glass have been investigated by non-equilibrium processing of ion implantation. At the mean penetration depth of ions, formation of nitride and void has been observed inside of glassy matrix by reactive N þ and inert Ar þ implantation, respectively. Surface elasticity of implanted film has been examined by nano-indentation test to derive normalized Young’s modulus by referenced Si. N-implantation for glassy film increases its Young’s modulus about 1.5 times larger than that of glassy film. On the contrary, Ar-implantation decreases its modulus about a half of glassy film.
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Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

Since the prediction of room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn:ZnO [1, 2] there has been great efforts to obtain this material, especially nanostructures, using a wide variety of strategies from the well-known material growth techniques to novel deposition and implantation methods [3–6]. The presence of ferromagnetism in this kind of materials was firstly claimed by Sharma et al. [7], while other authors founded spin glass, or simply non-magnetic behavior [3]. Previous works on Mn:ZnO pointed out different key factors determining the magnetic response of these novel materials, such as structural and composition changes, and atomic shared surfaces [8–10]. However, the existence of metastable phases [8] as a result of ion implantation pro- cesses can be a feasible explanation of such magnetic behavior. One of the most accepted hypotheses establishes that Mn atoms with different oxidation states sharing sur- faces with intermediate O atoms are responsible of the observed magnetism. According to that, particularly in thin films, the shared surface between Mn atoms at the grain boundaries of different phases is a key condition to obtain ferromagnetic coupling. It is therefore reasonable to expect an enhanced ferromagnetic behavior in materials where the Mn atoms are arranged in a structure with a high surface to R. Sanz ( & ) M. Va´zquez M. Herna´ndez-Ve´lez
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