signal on the measurement system. It does not interfere with microbial growth and reproduction, thus, electrochemical noise measurement method is very suitable for microbial-induced corrosion. Electrochemical noise analysis is generally divided into time-domain analysis and frequency domain analysis. Electrochemical noise data was analyzed by standard deviation, noise resistance, power spectral density and wavelet analysis[5-8], combined with optical microscope observation. According to the analyzed results, corrosion of stainless steel was classified. However, the basic electrochemical noise analysis must be carried out after the experiment. It is not on-line and real-time analysis, so it have a significant lag.
Abstract—Information on the future state of traffic flow provides a solid foundation for the efficient implementation of traffic control and guidance. The prediction approaches based on fuzzy logic theory is of great interests, because the rule-based inference is similar to the way humans process casual relations and fuzzy linguistic variables provide a natural way to deal with uncertainties. This paper presents a comparative study on a set of widely used Mamdani and Sugeno fuzzy inference systems in the application on the short-term prediction for traffic flow based on the historical recordings. To fulfill the comparison, a series of experiments was designed and performed to evaluate prediction performance for each fuzzy inference system in terms of model complexity, execution time, noise resistance, performance consistency, missing data, and multi-step- ahead predictability. Before discussing the primary results, a description on the fuzzy inference systems, evaluation factors and criteria was given. The analyses on the experimental results led to several findings which can be referenced when choosing a FIS for traffic flow prediction based on historical recordings.
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2. Noise level decreases in both case carburizing or spin induction hardening process. It has been observed that noise resistance is changed approximately equal in case carburizing and induction furnace hardening treatment of gears.3. The comparison of the energy consumption alone shows the superiority of the induction coil process by direct comparison with case carburizing for gear hardening. The time taken for induction hardening of gears is lesser as comparedwith gas carburizing.4. The induction hardening energy consumption decreases rapidly with increase in number of hardening gears. It is only around one- half or one-third for gas carburizing case hardening of spur gears.
The effect of thiosulfate ions on the electrochemical behavior of alloy 800 (UNS N08800, ASTM B409) was investigated in simulated neutral steam generator crevice solutions by using electrochemical noise, potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The results showed that the noise resistance, corrosion potential, breakdown potential and passive range of alloy 800 in the solution containing thiosulfate and chloride ions were lower than that in solution containing thiosulfate or chloride ions alone, whereas the steady state current density of alloy 800 in thiosulfate and chloride containing solution was larger than that in solution containing only thiosulfate or chloride ion. Under the synergistic effect of S 2 O 3 2- and Cl - ions, chloride and thiosulfate ions could
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Figure 6 presents the electrochemical noise resistance values for the steel samples, obtained for different periods of immersion. Noise resistance values vary as a function of time of immersion, reaching the highest transient values around 1E+04 ohm-cm 2 , for the titanium (blank) and the 304 stainless steel sample; followed by the 1045 sample (1E+03 ohm-cm 2 ). All the steel titanium coated samples present variable noise resistance behavior. Exception was the 4140 steel sample with the lowest noise resistance value obtained close to 1E+02 ohm-cm 2 , at the end of the experimental period. Also, the sample results present a trend to decrease as a function of time, reflecting the degrading corrosion effects suffered over time by the 4140 steel titanium coating, increasing its corrosion rate over time.
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at 12 GHz is obtained for the proposed device. Normalized noise resistance for device varies from 0.9 at 3GHz to 1.35 at 12 GHz of operating frequency. Magnitude of source reflection coefficient varies from 0.9 at 3GHz to 0.84 at 12 GHz. Angle of source reflection coefficient varies from 30 degrees at 3GHz to 50 degrees at 12 GHz of operating frequency. The model results are validated with simulation and experimental results and found to be in good agreement. It can now be concluded that the proposed device small signal noise circuit model is consistent and accurate. On the basis of extracted results it can be stated that our proposed device has superior noise performances in comparison of conventional MODFETs and can be used for design of low noise amplifies (LNA). Proposed device model can also be used for the purpose of circuit simulation in TCAD softwares.
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Fig.4 shows the potential and current noise of copper corrosion in 0.06 mol/L NaCl solution at different testing temperatures by ZRA technique. It can be seen that with increasing testing temperature, the corrosion potential moves in the negative direction, whereas the current density did not change much. Arman  has studied the corrosion protection performance of an epoxy zinc-rich coating implanted with different particles. They calculated the noise resistance R n values based on the
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Welding process between dissimilar metals during rehabilitation of damaged structural reinforcement by corrosion, has a number of microstructural changes due to the heat generated at the time of joint. These transformations propitiate the heat affected zone to be more susceptible to damage by corrosion. The present work evaluates the corrosion behavior of the area affected by heat between AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel and A615 carbon steel, by means of the electrochemical noise technique. The results of this technique indicate that the connection between the two steels have sufficient corrosion resistance in an alkaline medium, but not in a saline one. Also, the technique showed the predominant form of corrosion. The results show that the use of stainless steel welded with carbon steel in alkaline medium is possible, which represents the pH of a rehabilitated structure.
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Wiener2 is a 2-D adaptive noise removal filter. The wiwner2 function applies a wiener filter which is a type of linear filter to an image adaptively, tailoring itself to local image variance. Where the variance is large, wiener2 performs little smoothing. Where the variance is small, wiener2 performs more smoothing. This approach often produces better result than linear filtering. The adaptive filter is more selective than a comparable linear filter, preserving edges and other high frequency parts of an image. In addition, there are no design tasks; the wiener2 function handles all preliminary computations, and implements the filter for preliminary computations, and implements the filter for an input image. Best suitable to remove Gaussian noise.
In this study we present a theoretical framework that identifies the essential mechanisms for the emergence, evolution and reversibility of adaptive resistance. We constructed a single-cell dynamic model of a prototypic efflux pump regulatory network (EPRN) that incorporates the most updated information available in the literature. We calibrated this model with experimen- tal observations for wild type and mutant E. coli strains. We then grew a population of such sin- gle cells with growth dynamics obeying simple rules such as division, death, variability and inheritance of gene expression patterns. For each cell in the population we compute their EPRN temporal dynamics. Through this model we demonstrate that heterogeneity and moth- er-daughter correlations affecting transcription rates, specifically those of the EPRN main regu- lators, can explain the gradual amplification of the multidrug resistant phenotype. By contrast, mother-daughter correlations implemented in the pump efficiency, and developing at longer timescales, were not sufficient to make the population adapt and survive to successive antibiot- ic shocks (but had a role in fixing resistance when the population had contact with antibiotics for a very long time). We also found that introducing a cost associated with the functioning of the EPRN was enough to explain the observed reversibility to the susceptible (non-
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Noise to be any degradation in the image signal caused by external disturbance .If an image is being sent electronically from one place to another via satel- lite or wireless transmission or through networked ca- bles, we may expect errors to occur in the image sig- nal. These errors will appear on the image output in different ways depending on the type of disturbance in the signal. Usually we know what type of errors to ex- pect and the type of noise on the image; hence we ex- amine some of the standard noise for eliminating or reducing noise in color image. Image Noise is classi- fied as Amplifier noise (Gaussian noise), Salt-and- pepper noise (Impulse noise), Shot noise, Quantization noise (uniform noise), Film grain, on-isotropic noise, Speckle noise (Multiplicative noise) and Periodic noise.
The bolometer is fabricated by post-processing on CMOS wafers in Fraunhofer IMS Microsystem Lab. The realization of a microbolometer is shown in Fig. 1 as a cross section. A micromachined membrane consisting of amorphous silicon is suspended by two via stacks of metal from the CMOS sub- strate. The membrane forms with two other layers a good interferometric structure for radiation absorption. On top of the membrane an antireflection layer with a sheet resistance of 377 /sq is deposited. The bottom structure consists of a nearly perfect reflecting metal layer (Ruß et al., 2007). To increase the thermal resistance the membrane is fixed by two small legs (Fig. 2). The optical distance between membrane and reflection metal reaches an optimum for one quarter of the radiation wavelength. To reduce thermal losses by gas conduction a vacuum package is required. The bolometer converts the infrared radiation into heat energy and this in- duces a temperature rise resulting in a change of the electri- cal resistance. Typical bolometers have pixel pitch values of 35 µm or 25 µm. Figure 2 shows a bolometer array with 4 × 4 sensor elements.
Abstract- Design methodology and analysis of a 60GHz-band Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is presented in this paper. The LNA has been designed and simulated using source degenerated cascode topology in 90 nm CMOS for operation at 60 GHz. The structured LNA is minimized for its area with 50%. The designed LNA is computed with ADS and is verified its functionality in terms of Noise Figure (NF), Gain, Linearity, Power dissipation and Stability. The designed LNA uses 12 mW of dc power from a 1.5 V supply with 16.3 dB gain and a NF of 3.5 dB at 60 GHz. The designed LNA is unconditionally stable and has IIP3 of -9 dBm with FoM of 15.
Henry and Coumou  have presented a model for thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusiv- ity which are the essential properties of engineered plas- tics, ceramics, composites and other materials, whether for end-use products or processing applications. They also presents fully automated instrumentation for direct measurement of these properties on a wide variety of materials. Gaioni et al.  has discussed a measuring system that was developed to characterize the gate cur- rent noise performances of CMOS devices with mini- mum feature size in the 100 nm span. These devices play an essential role in the design of present day mixed signal
MHz where LFN is found. This irrelevance that can be accepted numerically in most cases (e.g. when there are other Admittances in parallel), leads to the misconcep- tion underlying the aforesaid PI of the pioneering works of Johnson  and Nyquist . This error is so deep-rooted in today’s research that reviewers of  were not ashamed of publishing a piling-up of electrical charge in a resistance devoid of capacitance C, which links electric charge and electric voltage
Poisson noise is a type of electronic noise which occurs under the situations where there is a statistical fluctuation in the measurement caused either due to the finite number of particles like an electron in an electronic circuit that carry energy or by the photons in an optical device. The Poisson noise is also called as shot noise. Poisson noise follows a Poisson distribution which is denoted as follows:
Therefore, as long as the noise sources arise from separate mechanisms and are independent, which is usually the case, the average mean square value of a sum of separate independent noise sources is the sum of the individual average mean square values. Thus in our example E = ∫ 4kT(R t 2 1 + R 2 )df, which is what would be expected. This is derived using voltage sources, but also is true for current sources. The same result can be shown to be true when considering two independent sine wave sources.
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ABSTRACT : The process of image restoration involves recovering the original image by eliminating noise and blur from image, since image blur is very difficult to avoid in certain situations such as in photography, radar imaging to remove the effect of image system response etc. Noise is an unwanted signal which occurs in image during image acquisition. This noise can be in the form of thermal or electrical signal. In this regard we will examine and discuss different noise models and restoration methods.
With that, the performance limit of uncooled infra-red thermo-mechanical IR imagers with optical readout less than 20 mK can be achieved for medium format imagers which is comparable with micro-bolometer imaging systems. But TM ORIs are potentially cheaper as their technology is much simpler, and have some technical advantages. However for higher format TM ORIs more powerful low noise coherent light sources are needed to keep low NETD.
The main attraction of powder metallurgy (PM) is its ability to manufacture stainless steel parts of high quality and practically of any geometry. Parts manufactured by PM can have tight tolerances, and their production costs are lower than those produced by conventional processes. This makes stainless steel PM parts represent a major and growing segment [1, 2]. However, their applications are limited due to their mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, relatively low when compared with wrought and forged products [3, 4]. The properties of sintered products may be higher when the sintering is performed in the presence of a liquid phase rather than in solid state due to an enhanced diffusivity of atoms, which promotes a high densification . The addition of boron to stainless steel powders promotes the formation of a liquid phase and lowers the sintering temperature [5, 6]. The binary phase diagram Fe-B shows the existence of an intermetallic Fe 2 B, which forms a eutectic with
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