Abstract:- The study examines non-alcoholicdrinks advertisements on bill boards in Cameroon with Special Pamplemouse, Planet, Top and Malta Guinness placed on road side from a Multimodal Discourse Analysis approach. The focus of the work is to look at language use and linguistic tools employed by the producer in the non- alcoholic drink advertisements and how these devices control, manipulate and influence readers to effect purchases. The method of analysis is “Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design” by Kress and Leeuwen’s (2006). in studying the images and written texts in the advertisements. The study unveils how ideology and power of ‘Special, mon gout, l’effort, reconfort, fuel your greatness” is produced in these popular non-alcoholicdrinks advertisements. The study uses a qualitative research which was carried out on the advertisements on road side “bill boards”. Our findings were that, the advertisers used different strategies to manipulate their audience including linguistic devices as power and ideology. The study brings out how the “ideology of Special, Mon gout, l’effort – reconfort, Fuel your greatness” and represented participants ‘celebrities’, young males, Muslims in the ads manipulate consumers and promote the ideology of ‘better life, greatness, taste, effort and reconfort, fuel, greatness’. The images and written texts of the advertisements are used by the producers to control the consumers minds. The producer uses power and ideology to manipulate and control consumers mind.
they were consuming AMED than on a typical drinking occasion where they were not consuming energy drinks. Similarly Peacock, Bruno, and Martin (2012) also reported signi ﬁ cantly greater alcohol intake in AMED versus alcohol sessions within-subjects. However, although statistically signi ﬁ cant, as noted by the authors the differences in alcohol consumption levels across the two drinking occasions were not considered clinically meaningful. The only other study (Price, Hilchey, Darredeau, Fulton, & Barrett, 2010) that found clinically meaningful increases in alcohol consumption on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions was underpowered (N ¼ 9), In contrast, more robust within-subjects surveys (de Haan, de Haan, Olivier, et al., 2012; de Haan, de Haan, van der Palen, et al., 2012; Woolsey, Waigandt, & Beck, 2010) have found signi ﬁ cantly less alcohol consumption on AMED occasions compared to AO occa- sions. For example, Woolsey et al. (2010) found that when reporting on the greatest number of alcoholicdrinks consumed on a single occasion in the past year, the AMED group reported signi ﬁ cantly less alcohol consumption (10.83 drinks) when combining alcohol with energy drinks compared with a session of alcohol without energy drinks (18.23 drinks), a reduction of 41%. Therefore, the latter ﬁ ndings suggest that the between subjects differences in alcohol consumption between those who consume AMED and those who consume AO do not appear to be driven by the addition of energy drinks to alcohol but by pre-existing differences between the groups.
Abstract: Food represents everyday need and from this point of view is stable and computable demand on the con- sumer market. Based on the current development of households’ net money income and consumption expendi- tures, the aim of the paper is to point at the development of food consumption and changes in the cost of living of the population in Slovakia. Previous food consumption analyses proved that eating habits of the Slovak population comply neither with healthy lifestyle nor recommended doses, due to the low level of disposable net money income. In the analysis, linear and nonlinear functions were used in order to evaluate the development and saturation of de- mand for basic foods in Slovakia in the period 2008–2017. During these years, the share of expenditures on food and non-alcoholic beverages did not significantly change the consumption expenditures; they moved in intervals from 19.2% (2017) to 23.1% (2013), which is still a high share in comparison with EU countries (12.2%). The analysis provided in the paper is a suitable base for food businesses to create a product portfolio based on different net money income and saturation demand for basic foods.
The soft drinks sector is one of the fastest growing, most innovative and rapidly changing areas of the food and drink industry. From high energy to no / low sugar, functional to long life, carbonated or still, soft drinks and their assosiative preservative and packaging systems have their own microbiological issues.many have adapted to growing in the unusual environment within a beverage factory and can be extremely difficult to remove once established. Many micro organisms are found in soft drinks as environmental or raw material contaminants, but relatively few can grow within the acidic or low oxygen environment. Yeasts are the most significant group of micro organisms associated wih the spoilage of soft drinks and fruit juices. Spoilage will be seen as the growth and production of metabolic by products, e.g co 2 , acid and tainting
Our results indicated that within a contemporary nationally representative sample of 11 year old children in the UK, children with intellectual disability were significantly more likely to: have used alcohol in the last four weeks; to have had five or more alcoholicdrinks on one occasion; to have had five or more alcoholicdrinks or been intoxicated on one occasion; to have more positive attitudes about the psychological and social benefits of drinking; to have less negative attitudes about the social and physical costs of drinking. Potentially harmful levels of drinking (intoxication or having had five or more alcoholicdrinks on one occasion) among children with intellectual disability were associated with child smoking and having friends who use alcohol.
Four pure yeast isolates from feta cheese whey beverage were phenotypically characterised and D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region were sequenced. These isolates were identified as Clavispora lusitaniae (84), Candida sp. YS12A (86), Clavispora lusitaniae (B82), and Candida hyderabadensis (S82). The fer- mentation potentials of all yeast isolates were determined in plum, amla, lemon, guava, kinnow, and pineapple, and Clavispora lusitaniae (84) was reported as the best yeast for carrying out fermentation with CO 2 levels of 1.5 bar. Using Clavispora lusitaniae, a reliable, controllable, simple, and reproducible technology from astringent fruits has been developed for the production of non-alcoholic naturally carbonated beverage with improved tangy taste, appearance, aroma, extended shelf life, and retention of all the nutrients. This yeast on inoculation @ 0.5% in astringent in amla juice (13%), TSS adjusted to 16.0°B, and fermentetion at 20 ± 5°C for 36 h produces a new non-alcoholic naturally carbonated beverage. The physicochemical parameters of freshly prepared beverage juice 13%, pH 3.0, TSS 16.0°B, acidity 0.38%, Brix acid ratio 42.10, ascorbic acid 120.0 mg/100 ml. The physicochemical parameters did not change significantly during storage. The volatile components like propanol, butanol, acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, and isopropanol were found to be absent while the percentage of ethanol was 1.16% after three months of storage. Shelf life of the beverage is three months under refrigerated conditions (4°C).
Number of documents about the role of miRNAs in physiopathology of fatty liver disease has increased in recent decade. These small non-coding RNA molecules can regulate a large number of genes and have a huge impact on the initiation and progression of many com- plex diseases such as fatty liver. MiRNAs can be used as either interesting therapeutic targets to treat fatty liver disease or biomarker to diagnose it. Including pro-an- thocyanidin supplementation that decreases postprandial lipemia and MIR-33a or MIR-122 levels can be used in prevention also treatment of NAFLD. 63 In all, further and
Subjects (n = 15) took beer (5% v/v ethanol) or shochu (16% v/v ethanol) at an ethanol dose of 0.32 g/kg of body weight within 15 min. In the meal intake condition, subjects took the test diet of the Diabetes Society (Kewpie Corporation, Japan) with alcoholic beverages. The data are expressed as mean ± SD in each drinking condition. ◇: beer intake [B(–)], □: shochu intake [S(–)], ◆: beer + meal intake [B(+)], ■: shochu + meal intake [S(+)]. a, b and c: Means not sharing a common letter are significantly different among drinking conditions at p < 0.05 by Tukey’s test.
Altogether, 114 species of plants from 38 botanical fam- ilies are involved in the production or flavouring of alco- holic drinks (Table 2, Figs. 2, 3, and 4). The largest families represented were Lamiaceae (19 species), Rosa- ceae (18), Asteraceae (12) and Rutaceae (6). The largest category is composed of wild plants (52 species, 46% of species). If we add the species which are gathered both from wild localities and from gardens (17 species), they constitute over half of the species list (Fig. 2). Forty- three species are exclusively cultivated, and only two species from one genus (coffee) are imported. The most important plant is of course grape (Vitis), which was not usually mentioned in interviews, regarded as being too obvious since wine is a basic everyday drink in southern Croatia. The remnants from the pressing of wine must, called ‘pomace’ in English (and drop in Croatian), are distilled into rakija. Rakija is a general term for any li- quors distilled from fruits or their juices. Specifically, lozovača is the one made from grapes. Spirits have also been distilled from dried figs Ficus carica L. (the drink is called smokovača) and strawberry tree Arbutus unedo L. fruits (the latter species ceased to be used in 1950– 1960s) or more rarely plum species šljivovica (Prunus spp.). The distillation of dried figs is still common on a very small scale (and the product is highly prized by al- cohol gourmands). On the other hand, we have not found a single contemporary producer of strawberry tree distillate. At one time, this was so common that people from the Šibenik islands brought boats full of strawberry tree fruits and sold them in the Šibenik market.
So it is of prime importance to screen for Non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) before it progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) especially in patients with risk factors like T2DM. (4) T2DM patients manifest increased risk of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) both because of the high prevalence of obesity in T2DM and the effect of insulin resistance on fat metabolism. Early data suggest that some of the pharmacological agents commonly used in the management of blood glucose and dyslipidemia in T2DM may also be efficacious in treating Non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). T2DM patients thus represent a population that should be screened for Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Current study estimates the prevalence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among T2DM patients and also look for an association between lipid profile, central obesity, and presence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
The current research also builds on the existing literature by examining more closely the appetitive nature of the stimuli that are used within many studies of inhibitory control (see Monk, Qureshi, Pennington, & Hamlin, 2017 for more description of the nature and use of appetitive vs non appetitive cues). For example, Wilcockson and Pothos (2015) assessed attentional bias by examining the difference score between mean break frequency 1 to alcohol- related (e.g., a pint of beer) and non-alcohol-related neutral cues (e.g., office equipment). Indeed, there has been extensive research which does so and suggests an increase in disinhibition in response to alcohol-related cues (e.g., pictures of bottles of beer) in contrast to neutral stimuli (e.g., a stapler - Kreusch et al., 2013, or a stool, bus or umbrella – Jones & Field, 2015). However, by contrasting appetitive and non-appetitive cues (non-palatable/ingestible), it is unclear from the existing literature whether utilising other consumable products would elicit the same findings. To wit, more recent research has demonstrated the importance of using adequate control stimuli (see Adams, Ataya, Attwood, & Munafò, 2014). A recent empirical study demonstrates further that decreases in inhibitory control in response to alcohol-related cues on a Stop-Signal Task might generalise to other appetitive liquids but not to non-appetitive cues (Monk, Qureshi, Pennington, & Hamlin, 2017). As such, it remains to be seen whether observed findings of bias to alcohol-related stimuli may be attributable, at least in part, to the appetitive content of the stimuli used, as opposed to comparing alcohol versus non-alcohol related appetitive cues.
amount of methanol and ethanol concentrations among the analyzed samples in all cases. From Table 2, it was also observed that eight of the alcoholicdrinks (sample codes; S2, S6, S8, S9, S11, S12, S13 and S16) recorded no amount of methanol concentration whereas twelve of the analyzed samples (sample codes; S3, S4, S5, S7, S10, S14, S15, S17, S18, S19 and S20) showed traces of metha- nol at different concentrations. Among the samples that tested positive for methanol content, sample S10 (a for- eign wine) recorded the lowest amount of methanol con- centration (0.003%) while sample S20 (Akpeteshie) showed the highest methanol concentration (0.161%).The results show that low amounts of methanol were recorded in the foreign drinks as compared to the local drinks.
Many of retrospective studies report that ADs trigger migraine attack in about one‑third of MO population. A higher percentage of patients (over 50%) referring ADs as a trigger is found in CH. The role of alcohol in other types of primary headaches is less uniformly defined. The more detailed study shows that ADs are a trigger Table 3: Percentage of tension‑type headache patients who report alcoholicdrinks as a trigger. Comparison with migraine patients
Conclusion: Spinal cord injury patients using condom catheters should be made aware of the risk of urine retention when they consume large amounts of alcoholicdrinks in a short period of time. Patients and caregivers should be informed to consider intermittent catheterizations for 24–48 hours or insert indwelling urethral catheter when planning for an evening out.
normative behavior among peers of the same age and older. Compared with those who see alcohol use portrayed less frequently, adolescents who gain the impression from their elder peers’ Facebook profiles that it is normal to drink alcohol are at higher risk of developing an attitude shown to predict alcohol use . SNS usage has become ever more popular and common, even to the point of giv- ing rise to a clinical disorder associated with abuse-like signs, such as an excessive, compulsive online social net- working. Several authors have claimed in recent times that this becomes a sort of behavioral addiction , and some argue that addiction to SNSs has grown since the latest technologies (tablets, smartphones) arrived on the scene . It is still difficult to find reliable statistics concerning the prevalence of SNS addiction, however . Studies on addiction to Facebook have focused mainly on samples of undergraduate students, reporting prevalence rates ran- ging from 1.6 to 21.7% . Whether it is actually addictive or not, social networking excessively and compulsively is unlikely to have positive effects over time, and can be de- fined, quite simply, as unhealthy [2, 21]. In fact, the out- come of some research points to SNS addicts experiencing problems in the sphere of their emotions and social relations, and with their physical health and performance . A disordered SNS use also seems to lead to a heightened susceptibility to substance and other addictions in undergraduate students . In older adoles- cent populations, several studies have found associations between inappropriate substance use and a behavioral de- pendence apparently associated with spending too much time on Facebook , and a problematic Internet usage. For instance, when  examined Internet addiction and the factors associated with it in 1392 teenagers (13 to 18 years old), the use of alcohol emerged as a risk factor for a diagnosis of addiction to the Internet. This implies that substance use may be associated with problem- atic social networking sites usage (PSNSU). Recent re- search findings  also point to adolescents becoming addicted to Internet and experimenting with substance use having family-related issues in common. These may involve a more conflictual rela- tionship with their parents, brothers and/or sisters who routinely drink alcohol, the impression that par- ents do not disapprove of adolescents drinking or smoking, and dysfunctional families generally. It seems reasonable to expect factors relating to the family domain that have anything to do with illegal substance use (such as a teenage sibling who drinks alcohol) to relate to PSNSU as well. Along much the same lines, the association between the experience of gambling and substance use (as demonstrated in earl- ier research by ), may be linked with PSNSU too.
The most accurate way for assessment of NAFLD is liver biopsies, which is expen- sive, painful and need to be repeated for assessment of the progression . Because of the previous reasons, it is advantageous to take benefits of the high advances of In- formation technology in the medical field . Therefore, finding a non-invasive pro- cedure and easily repeatable way of diagnosis was the aim of some researches. In , , ultrasound elastography techniques were applied on liver tissue to detect fibrosis, but as mentioned in the same reference, those techniques had limitations on the assess- ment of liver fibrosis.