The information contained in The NorthAmericanMarket for Third Party Payment, Payroll, and Healthcare Transaction Processing obtained from both primary and secondary research, including informal consultation with industry participants and data-gathering from myriad business sources including trade publications and newsletters; articles in consumer business newspapers and magazines; government data; information from industry and non-governmental sources; annual reports, 10Ks, and other financial releases from public companies; and related financial reports by Packaged Facts.
OPSWAT releases quarterly market share reports for several sectors of the security industry. This report includes both worldwide and NorthAmericanmarket share for antivirus software and Windows operating systems, as well as worldwide market share for backup applications. The data used was collected between November 16, 2010 and November 15, 2011*, and comparisons are made to data from November 16, 2009 through November 15, 2010. Please note that OPSWAT is not a research institution; this report aims to distribute the unique data collected to inspire public
T he ﬁrst known cases of infection caused by the USA300 clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were from outbreaks of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in a prison in Mississippi in November 1999 and in a sports team in Pennsylvania in September 2000 (1–3). By 2002, SSTIs caused by USA300 had occurred across the United States (3, 4). By 2008, this clone was the leading cause of SSTIs seen in emergency departments and was an increasing cause of health care-associated blood- stream infections (5–8). As of 2012, USA300 was the predominant MRSA from all infection sites reported in multistate surveillance in the United States (9, 10). A notable feature of USA300 infections, besides their aggressive course, is that healthy young people without risk factors for health care-associated MRSA infections are often af- fected. These types of infections were called community-associated MRSA infections and had not been observed in such a volume prior to the emergence of USA300 (11). The USA300 clone was originally deﬁned by a unique pulsed-ﬁeld gel electropho- resis (PFGE) pattern (12) that occurs with other traits, including multilocus sequence type 8, spa type t008, the presence of the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV element and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), and the ability to express the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) (2, 13). In 2005, a PFGE proﬁle and SCCmec variant of USA300 that lacked ACME was identiﬁed in northern South America with clinical and epidemiological characteristics similar to those of the NorthAmerican clone (14, 15). Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that the NorthAmerican epidemic (NAE) and South American epidemic (SAE) clones are monophyletic sister clades that have caused parallel epidemics in the Americas (16). Export of both clones to other continents has occurred sporadically (17–19).
According to results above, international trade represents a smaller proportion of economic transactions for each country, if compared to domestic exchanges; the US being the most autarchic country in the bloc. Figure 5 shows the graph of the IC resulting from the six tables of imports and exports within North America. First, as it has been said above, there are thirty-nine connections only. Second, there is one direct link from the Canadian to the Mexican industries, connecting sectors 19 (motor vehicles, ships and boats, aircraft, spacecraft and railroad equipment) in each of these countries. This sector, however, happens to be dominated by US automobile firms located in both countries and producing massive intrafirm trade, although Canada is also an important producer of railroad equipment, which Mexico is keen to import. On the contrary, sector 19 in Mexico is disconnected from the rest of the domestic economy. Indeed, this is mainly an international sector located within the Mexican territory.
(i) VGIIa. The likely most recent translocation of the VGIIa lineage, as inferred from the very short branch lengths within its respective clade (Fig. 3), resulted in its distinct emergence on Van- couver Island, spreading to the Canadian mainland and into Northwest United States. There is a distinct separation of the PNW dominant VGIIa clade and a clade of South American origin (i.e., Brazil, Argentina, and Japan [in a Brazilian emigrant]) strains. The two VGIIa clades likely have a recent common ances- tor, and the lack of its presence elsewhere suggests that this sub- type originated in South America. Additionally, WGST allowed us to identify genetic separation between the strains identified during the recent emergence on Vancouver Island and the subclade com- posed of the older, but less virulent, NorthAmerican VGIIa strains: NIH-444 (1972; Washington) and CBS7750 (1990; Cali- FIG 5 SNP phylogeny from whole genomes from VGIIb isolates. Maximum-parsimony phylogenetic analysis was performed on all isolate genomes within VGIIb. The VGIIb tree includes 528 SNPs (147 parsimony informative) from 17 isolates (CI ⫽ 1.0). For country or state abbreviations, see the legend to ⬎ Fig. 1. Numbers in black on top of branches are SNP length, and numbers in red next to branches are the bootstrap values generated from 500 generations.
Global North that has often unintentionally excluded many of the voices it was interested in supporting and amplifying. Anarchism in the Global South has been much more inclu- sive, and anarchist theory there has blossomed by both ques- tioning the primacy of hierarchy as the desired model of a complex society and engaging in the larger program of decol- onizing sociopolitical systems (for example, the Rojava autonomous zone in northern Syria [Enzinna 2015; Wein- berg 2015] and Aymara community organization in Bolivia [Zibechi 2010]). On a global scale, a more heterovocal and simultaneous package of anarchist thought has emerged that includes, intersects, and/or supports feminist, indigenous, Western, and Global South philosophical traditions.
In the two regions we examine, considerable natural gas is used to generate electricity. Moreover, natural gas is the marginal fuel for generating electricity in both regions (Hartley et al, 2007). Consequently, fluctuations in electricity prices can be used to examine how changing regional demand affects the dynamics of U.S. natural gas markets. Accordingly, we consider the interchange electricity prices at two major nodes on the NorthAmerican electricity grid—PJM in the East and Palo Verde in the West. PJM is a system of interconnected transmission lines that 3
Loan syndication—with regards to both in its primary distribution and secondary loan trading aspects—is one of the various tools that financial institutions can use to take on or shed credit risk (BIS 2003). Credit-risk-transfer instruments have been around for years in the form of credit guarantees and credit insurance. Over the past decade, loan syndication has become more prominent, as have asset securitizations and credit derivatives (Kiff and Morrow 2000). 29 Markets in credit-risk transfer can help to more efficiently allocate credit risk in the economy. Syndications effectively represent a pooling of financing resources, which offers the potential for a broader dispersion of credit risk, including transfers to institutional investors such as insurance companies and investment funds, and even to non-regulated entities such as hedge funds. This is increasingly the case in the U.S. market but, to date, much less so in Canada. If banks truly hold more diversified credit portfolios as the result of the syndication process, they will arguably be less vulnerable to idiosyncratic or sectoral asset-price shocks. Syndication offers another means of achieving greater risk diversification, but only if banks choose to use it that way; for example, if syndications permit much larger loans to be undertaken and banks assume correspondingly larger participations in these loans, they may not be, in the end, less vulnerable.
But race was more than just science. The feature that sets the concept apart from other ideological constructs is that it reconciled the great taxonomies of natural science with the political rhetoric of the rights of man. The prestige of natural science lent authority to a contradictory ideology that tolerated the enslavement of Africans as a condition of American freedom. As Edmund Morgan and other U.S. historians have shown, the concept of race enabled slaveholding founding fathers such as Washington and Jefferson to proclaim universal liberties without apparent embarrassment. In the nineteenth century, a hodgepodge of scientific theories was used to bolster racial discrimination. The doctrine of polygenesis, for instance, held that black people and Indians were separate species to white people, descended from "different Adams." As such, they were entitled to different standards of treatment. As the nineteenth century wore on, an assortment of scientific variations on the doctrine of progress hardened into a consensus generally known as Social Darwinism, whereby nonwhite races were seen to be held back at various stages in the evolutionary history that Europeans had already passed through. Accordingly, nonwhite people were congenitally inferior to whites, whose mission it was to govern and uplift them. The bell curve has a long history.
Although ginseng has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb, little is known about the effects of NorthAmerican ginseng (NAG) on the metabolic syndrome. This study was done to investigate the effects of NAG on metabolic variables, and whether central neuronal systems involved in the control of these metabolic variables were altered by NAG treatment. Experiments were done in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a standard chow or a high fat (45 %kcal) diet. Animals were given an alcoholic extract of NAG (250 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (0.9% saline) daily for 4 weeks by oral gavage. Food and water intake were found not to be altered by ginseng. However, body weight, cumulative body weight gain, and fat pad mass were significantly lower in the NAG treated animals compared to the vehicle treated group regardless of diet. Similarly, NAG treatment reduced plasma leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and noradrenaline levels in all animal groups. Furthermore, NAG lowered arterial pressure and heart rate in animals fed a high fat diet. Within the central nervous system, NAG was found to induce the expression of the immediate early genes Fra-1/2 in brainstem cardiovascular regulatory centers (nucleus of the solitary tract, and caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla), and in several hypothalamic nuclei involved in the control of the circulation and metabolism (paraventricular, arcuate, lateral, dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei). Taken together, these data suggest that central brainstem and hypothalamic circuits involved in autonomic control and ingestive behaviour are altered by NAG, and suggest that the use of NAG can affect metabolic and cardiovascular variables.
Genotypic analysis of KS07 and SP04 parental viruses. The KS07 and the SP04 virus were selected for the in vitro and in vivo infec- tion studies because (i) they are representative NorthAmerican triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like H1N1 SIVs that were circulating in NorthAmerican and European swine herds prior to the 2009 pandemic, (ii) the genetic information for both viruses is well known (21, 22), and (iii) we found that both KS07 and SP04 virus can infect and replicate efficiently in pigs and cause severe lung lesions— both viruses displayed similar virus lung replica- tion and virulence (see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material). To investigate reassortment in cells or in pigs coinfected with KS07 and SP04 viruses, we used restriction enzyme digestion to identify each viral segment of individual viruses isolated from coinfected cells or pigs. Based on the sequences of the parental virus genes, a unique enzyme site was chosen to differentiate each segment of the SP04 and KS07 viruses from each other. The lengths of reverse
The requirements for institutionalization may evolve over time, in particular with the increase of the degree of economic interdependence measured by the relative intensity of the flows of trade and investment, or with the incorporation of new partners with a meaningful relative power. It is precisely the case of Mercosur, a consequence of the results achieved in the course of the first decade of existence; it has been gradually changing from a process of building interdependence to one of its administration. Undoubtedly, this trend will become more accentuated as long as Mercosur deepens its goals and widens the number of members, for example, with the eventual incorporation of Chile. The trend may also be strengthened by a more complex external trade negotiation agenda, especially in the context of the WTO, the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), the FTAA and with the EU. This was Mercosur’s situation beginning in 2001.