Abstract: Blood samples were obtained from 155 NorthAmericanriverotters (Lontra canadensis; 94 adult males, 38 adult females, 10 juvenile males, and 13 juvenile females) to establish baseline hematology and from 50 adult riverotters (40 males and 10 females) for baseline serum biochemistry parameters for the species. The otters were livetrapped from eastern North Carolina (USA) during a 4-yr period. Data for 14 routine hematologic parameters and 22 serum chemistry assays showed significant differences in total leukocyte count and absolute neutrophil and monocyte numbers for adults versus juveniles, red blood cell counts and hemoglobin between adult and juvenile males, and calcium and alkaline phosphatase values for adult males between years of the study and an increase in leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophils with increased degree of trap injury sustained.
NorthAmericanriverotters (Lontra canadensis) are members of the Mustelidae family in the Carnivora order and belong to the suborder Caniforma. The Mustelidae family consists of 22 genera and over 50 species and includes weasels, badgers, and otters. Fossils of the earliest known mustelids date back to the early Oligocene and were found in Eurasia. Mustelids are characterized by their prominent anal scent glands, as well as by their elongate body shape and short legs. Mustelids have well-developed carnassial teeth and all extant species have no more than one molar after the carnassial teeth. Most genera exhibit induced ovulation and delayed implantation during reproduction (Feldhamer et al., 2015b). Of the over 53 mammalian species known to exhibit delayed implantation, nearly half are mustelid species (Renfree & Shaw, 2000; Sandell, 1990). The Lutrinae is a recognized subfamily of the Mustelidae and encompasses the seven genera and twelve defined otter species (Feldhamer et al., 2015b). There are seven
The piroplasma of NorthAmericanriverotters appears to reside in a monophyletic clade with Babesia microti, is most closely related to the B. microti-like parasites of other small carnivores and shares the highest degree of sequence similarity with the B. microti-like organism isolated from dogs in northwest Spain. As it is unclear whether or not the organism described in this study represents a new species, subspecies or is one of the over 100 existing Babesia spp. that have not been characterized at the molecular level, the authors feel that it is inappro- priate to propose it as a novel Babesia species or subspecies at this time. With the advent of molecular techniques and their application to the phylogenetics of piroplasms, the nomenclature and status of many organisms is either questionable or in a state of ﬂux. For example, the B. microti-like piroplasma from dogs in northwestern Spain that appears to be closely related to the piroplasma in these NorthAmericanriverotters, has been referred to as ‘ Theileria annae. ’ However, there was no evidence presented to demonstrate lymphocytic stages in the life-cycle (Zahler et al. 2000). Meanwhile others, including this study, have found the piroplasma from dogs to be more closely related to B. microti (Goethert and Telford, 2003). In our analyses there are unresolved relationships within this class including some of the deeper branches diﬀerentiating some of the newly described ‘Babesia ’ species (B. duncani and B. conradae) identiﬁed in humans and dogs, the Theileria organisms and the Babesia sensu stricto clade. To the authors’ knowledge there is no com- prehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of piro- plasms, and even if one existed it would be subject to change as more organisms undergo molecular characterizations and DNA sequence analysis. The ‘ ﬁnal ’ taxonomic resting place of the piroplasma of otters characterized in this study, especially in the shallow branches of the tree, cannot be determined with the currently available data, However, the authors feel there is strong support for this organism to be placed in the B. microti-like clade of organisms. The pathogenic potential of the parasite described in this manuscript for otters or other species has not been investigated. The index case was in good body condition, exhibited no haematological or serum biochemical abnormalities (Tocidlowski et al. 2000), and continues to do well in captivity without treat- ment. Further studies are indicated including association of babesiosis with clinical disease, epi- demiology of the infection in North Carolina and other areas in which the NorthAmericanriver otter is endemic, screening other otter species for babesiosis,
Our study was one of the first to examine diseases in otters in North Carolina. We determined that leptospirosis occurred at low levels throughout North Carolina. Because L. interrogans can spread through contaminated soil or water and stays in the soil of an infected area for months or longer (Thibeaux et al. 2017), the potential of zoonotic exposure and impact on aquatic ecosystems is a primary concern. Aquatic and semi-aquatic species such as seals (Pusa capsica), mink (Neovison vison), and nutria (Myocastor coypu) have tested positive on multiple continents (Aviat et al. 2009, Barros et al. 2014, Vein et al. 2014, Namroodi et al. 2018), and leptospirosis is lethal to sea otters (White et al. 2018). Although our low prevalence is encouraging, it may be explained by the difficulty of isolating L. interrogans. However, Shearer et al (2014) detected higher prevalence rates using similar methods. We suggest continued monitoring of prevalence rates in aquatic mammal species in North Carolina along with the further study of the transmission routes and effects on various wild aquatic species.
that could be managed as a natural trout fishery would have to support very low harvest. States that desire quality recreational trout fisheries face high angler use demands similar to those in North Carolina. A stocked trout fishery, whether a “put-grow-and-take” (North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission; NCWRC Delayed Harvest designation) or “put- and-take” (NCWRC Hatchery Supported designation) allows greater harvest and can meet the demand for more intensive angler use. The most important reason anglers gave for trout fishing in North Carolina was for “the sport” (37%), and only a small number of anglers (10%) cited “catching fish for food” as their primary motivation (NCWRC 2007). Delayed Harvest waters are also popular among nonresident anglers possibly due to the extended period of angling opportunities (NCWRC 2009). Delayed Harvest may be more appealing to states and the serious trout angler because its catch-and-release only period before allowing harvest offers more diverse sport fishing opportunities, attracting anglers from other states. Given the interest and expenditures associated with trout angling, it is of great importance that this resource is managed for recreational, as well as conservation purposes. This includes examining how stocked trout may impact the native fish community around them, an issue that has not been fully explored in the literature.
The Rainbow Banks site is located in Greenville, NC at the Riggs’ Property along Rte 33, 6 km downstream of the Greenville Town Commons (035º 35’ 50.94”N, 077º 18’39.46”W) (Figure 11). At this location the stream channel elevation is 1 m above mean sea level. Mill Branch discharges into the Tar approximately 200 meters upstream. Land-use surrounding the site consists of predominantly forested floodplain on the North side of the river, croplands are more common at greater distances and higher elevations from the river. Some residential development is present at higher elevations on the south side of the river. The floodplain is approximately 1.5 km wide at this location and most of the floodplain exists on the north side of the river. The elevation difference between the floodplain and the uplands varies significantly between the north and the south sides of the river, on the south side of the river upland areas near the river can be as high as 19 m, whereas on the north side of the river the greatest land surface elevations are typically less than 6 m. The predominant soil type at the site is WaC (Wagram loamy sand, well drained, steep slope), at higher elevations and Bb (Bibb fine sandy loam, poorly drained) at lower elevations near the river on the south side and Ch (Chipley sand, moderately well drained) adjacent to the river and OcB (Ocilla loamy fine sand, somewhat poorly drained), at greater distances from the river on the north side of the river (Karnowski et al. 1974). The stream slope at the site is approximately 3 cm/km.
2002, she served as liaison with the Museum, which then housed the Macoun Club collections and library and provided meeting space. In the late 1990s, she took part in the Baillie Birdathon (the oldest spon- sored bird count in North America) and directed her share of the funds raised to the Macoun Club, a wel- come donation used to buy research equipment. Al - though less involved after the 1990s, Laurie always re - mained interested in what was going on in the Macoun Club.
The Problem Student on Clinical Rotations A Comparison of Malaysian and North American Views ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Problem Student on Clinical Rotations A Comparison of Malaysian and North American Vie[.]
Fish were sampled prior to hydrologic restoration in 1999 using minnow traps and seines and again in 2000 using minnow traps and throw traps. Minnow Traps were deployed for 90 minutes in panes and creeks. The seine used was 3.7 m wide with 6 mm mesh. Seining was done in a moderate-sized creek with hard bottom near the Route 1A culvert, and distance fished was recorded. The throw trap was square and 1m on each side with 3 mm mesh according to Kushlan (1981). Pre-restoration fish results are reported previously (Burdick 2002), but only throw-trap results are presented here because they provided fish density data. Large aquarium nets were used to collect captured fish and all fish were considered taken following 10 consecutive empty sweeps. After restoration in 2003 and 2005, fish use in Little River and Awcomin were assessed following
migration. Discharges up to 50 m 3 /s appeared to hinder striped bass migration upriver of the fall-line. Therefore, a minimum discharge of 75 m 3 /s is recommended to ensure that striped bass are able to pass over the fall-line. Given an upriver migration rate of 20 km/day for striped bass, (approximate rate based on 2000 data) the projected time of arrival at the fall-line would be 15 days after entry. The first striped bass might be expected to arrive at the fall-line by the end of March. In 2000, striped bass began out- migrating the first week of May. In the Neuse River, American shad began in-river migrations approximately the first week of March. Assuming an approximate up-river migration rate of 17 km/day (as found in this study), American shad could be expected to reach the fall-line by the middle of March. Therefore, to ensure that striped bass and American shad had ample opportunity to take advantage of the habitat restored by the removal of Quaker Neck Dam, a minimum discharge of 75 m 3 /s beginning the 3 rd week of Marc, through the entire month of April is recommended.
(ii) Evidence of recombination. Beyond the clear differences of gene content between and among VGII subtypes, multiple lines of evidence demonstrate the likelihood of “genome sharing” throughout the VGII population. In addition to the “all VGII” tree consistency index of ~0.4 (meaning a high degree of homoplasy) (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material), and a significant phi test for recombination (P ⫽ 0.0), it is evident that gene content does not dictate phylogeny. We assume that recombination through- out the VGII population accounts for the high degree of ho- moplasy, which may be accomplished through larger genome content sharing events (i.e., bisexual or same-sex mating ). While the neighbor net phylogenetic network recovers a mostly star-like shape, there are apparent relationships between lineages (Fig. 2). The fineStructure analysis conducted here assigned lin- eages to specific “populations” and assessed levels of relatedness between genomes using adjacent linked SNPs to identify the near- est neighbor relationships for portions of the genome bounded by recombination events. Evidence of recombination was identified in South American isolates. For example, isolates WM 05.275 (originating in Colombia) and WM 05.529 (originating in Brazil) share many of their linked loci, although they are distinct subtypes and are separated by WGST, and they have distinct gene content by BSR. The same pattern is seen with isolates WM 05.419 and WM 05.547, both Brazilian clinical isolates. The VGIIa (R265 [British Columbia, Canada]) and VGIIb (B9563 [Washington]) representatives showed clear evidence of limited genome sharing with most isolates in the analysis. Conversely, the VGIIc genome showed almost no sharing with the vast majority of other VGII subtypes, except its nearest phylogenetic relatives from Brazil (samples WM 05.462 and IAL-3234). Taken together, these results indicate a relatively weak population structure within VGII or a recent subdivision of populations that have not yet allowed gene absence and presence to become fixed within recombining groups. Again, the high consistency indices for whole-genome SNP phylogenies of each PNW subtype (Fig. 3 to 5) indicate a lack of observable recombination occurring within these clones.
According to results above, international trade represents a smaller proportion of economic transactions for each country, if compared to domestic exchanges; the US being the most autarchic country in the bloc. Figure 5 shows the graph of the IC resulting from the six tables of imports and exports within North America. First, as it has been said above, there are thirty-nine connections only. Second, there is one direct link from the Canadian to the Mexican industries, connecting sectors 19 (motor vehicles, ships and boats, aircraft, spacecraft and railroad equipment) in each of these countries. This sector, however, happens to be dominated by US automobile firms located in both countries and producing massive intrafirm trade, although Canada is also an important producer of railroad equipment, which Mexico is keen to import. On the contrary, sector 19 in Mexico is disconnected from the rest of the domestic economy. Indeed, this is mainly an international sector located within the Mexican territory.
Efforts to restore American Shad populations focus on the anthropogenic factors typically attributed to their declines, in particular overfishing, habitat degradation, and habitat loss due to dams (Hightower et al. 1996; Cooke and Leach 2003; St. Pierre 2003). To reduce overfishing, agencies have implemented stricter harvest regulations, including eliminating the ocean- intercept fishery and a Virginia moratorium in the Chesapeake Bay system (Olney and Hoenig 2001; ASMFC 2007). Extensive larval stocking programs are intended to offset decreased egg and larval production due to low spawning stocks or degraded spawning and nursery habitat (Hendricks 2003; Olney et al. 2003; St. Pierre 2003). Providing fish passage, transporting adults, and removing dams are three methods to reconnect American Shad access to historic spawning grounds (Cooke and Leach 2003; Hendricks 2003; St. Pierre 2003; Burdick and Hightower 2006). Signs of restoration success include the return of hatchery-reared fish, increased passage rates, which affect the extent of upstream migrations, and an increase in population sizes from extremely low numbers (Cooke and Leach 2003; Ol- ney et al. 2003; St. Pierre 2003; Burdick and Hightower 2006). Nevertheless, native American Shad populations remain at historically low levels (Limburg et al. 2003; ASMFC 2007; Limburg and Waldman 2009), indicating a need to further un- derstand fundamental aspects of their biology and identify the underlying mechanisms for their declines. Prior to dam con- structions, American Shad migrated hundreds of kilometers up- river to reach spawning grounds (Stevenson 1899). However, the riverwide distribution of spawning American Shad and any potential differences between sexes were not documented in these early reports and are still unknown in many rivers. During these energetically expensive freshwater migrations, American Shad consume minimal prey, resulting in energy and weight loss that can be substantial and lead
Against the shifting ground of citizenship, the concept of race was also unstable. As observed, the historical development of the two concepts was closely linked. Both came to fruition in the eighteenth century, and were particularly associated with the Enlightenment and with the American and French revolutions. To say that we can date the emergence of the idea of race from this era, however, is not to suggest that Europeans had previously failed to recognize and act on observable phenotypical differences. Precursors are legion. One only has to cite Othello. Yet the mere fact that people have differentiated between human collectivities does not mean that they have subscribed to the ideology that today we call "race." (It would be hard to establish a connection between Othello and the bell curve, for instance*). The idea of race is but one historically distinctive mode of collective differentiation. Though most if not all of its ingredients can be found in earlier classifications, race combined these elements into a particular ideological mix that was not found before the eighteenth century.