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State Authority and Local Campus Governance: Accountability Measures and Performances Standards for North Carolina Community Colleges

State Authority and Local Campus Governance: Accountability Measures and Performances Standards for North Carolina Community Colleges

For North Carolina community colleges, student selection is based upon an open door admission policy. According to North Carolina Administrative Code, Title 23, Community Colleges, “Each college shall maintain an open-door admission policy to all applicants who are high school graduates or who are at least 18 years of age. Student admission processing and placement determination shall be performed by the officials of each college” (North Carolina Administrative Code, 23 NCAC 02C .0301). Thus, there are no selective admissions criteria; any student who has earned a high school diploma or General Education Development (GED) certificate or who is at least 18 years old is admitted to the college. However, admission to the college does not ensure admission to a specific academic program. For all curriculum programs and for some continuing education courses, students are required to take placement tests to assess their academic skills in reading, English, and mathematics. Students who do not meet required minimal test scores must take one or more pre-college-level developmental courses prior to enrolling in specific academic programs or courses. Furthermore, some curriculum programs with limited enrollment capacity have additional admission requirements.

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Enabling Persistence of Veteran Students at North Carolina Community Colleges through Institutional Support Programs and Policies.

Enabling Persistence of Veteran Students at North Carolina Community Colleges through Institutional Support Programs and Policies.

Operation College Promise (OCP) and the Pat Tillman Foundation are working together to develop the nation’s first multi-state, cross-institutional veterans’ Graduation Probability indices (GPI) TM to track student veterans utilizing educational benefits under the Post-9/11 GI Bill. Utilizing factors commonly used to track a traditional cohort (i.e., GPA, percent of students earning all credits pursued, retention rate) as well as a veteran-specific factor, campus service utilization rate, the GPI TM will provide continuous assessment of veteran students’ progress while taking into account their unique needs as nontraditional students. A pilot study, conducted in the summer and fall of 2011, followed a cohort of 160 veteran students attending seven four-year public colleges and universities (where total veteran and active duty enrollment was approximately 6,000). The initial findings revealed that the veteran students are progressing towards degree completion consistently or more rapidly than their traditional peers in the categories that comprise the GPI TM —on average, veterans had comparable course loads and had higher GPAs and retention rates; the results also showed that the veterans were making use of the support services established to facilitate their success (Lang & Powers, 2011). The GPI TM is a much-needed step forward in tracking

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Technology Integration for Vocational and Technical Faculty in North Carolina Community Colleges.

Technology Integration for Vocational and Technical Faculty in North Carolina Community Colleges.

According to Sproull (1995), a population consists of all members of a defined group or category of elements such as people, events, or objects. The population of this study is all full-time vocational and technical faculty who are in one of the 58 community colleges in the NCCCS. Instead of using selected or random institutions to serve as the sample, this study included all 58 institutions, knowing that not all of the targeted population will participate in the survey. However, to be sure a sufficient sample is obtained to satisfy the statistical component of the data analysis; a sampling plan will be created. According to Trochim & Donnelly (2008) sampling is defined as “the process of drawing a subset of people or objects from a population so that results with a subset may be generalized to the population (p. 36). In this study the targeted sample is all full time vocational and technical faculty in the NCCCS who officially respond to the survey that was sent to all the Presidents or VPs at each of 58 institutions for distribution to their specific qualified faculty. Since there is no official listserve of this population the researcher decided it would be best to contact each individual institution to seek support and guidance in which the President of VP could much easier determine their own qualified faculty who could be included in the study. This

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The Cost of the Accreditation Process: A Case Study of North Carolina Community Colleges.

The Cost of the Accreditation Process: A Case Study of North Carolina Community Colleges.

Loss of accreditation is the ultimate cost; however, it is essential to note that this is never the intent of the process. Interviews with seasoned accreditation veterans (March 3, 2017; April 17, 2017) reiterated that the intent of the accreditation process is to encourage institutional self reflection and improvement and that loss of accreditation status is rare. A SACSCOC executive committee member (July 28, 2017) confirmed that accrediting agencies do not want to revoke accreditation status and make every effort to assist those in trouble. Tools and guidance are provided to institutions to assist in the process and to keep institutions out of trouble. Interviews with one of the secondary case study sites (August 3, 2017) confirmed this through experience stating: “They will work with institutions to correct offenses.” Resource guides from the accrediting bodies provide clear areas of focus in preparing for an accreditation cycle. A SACSCOC executive (July 28, 2017) revealed that the most common reasons for loss of accreditation is due to the QEP, faculty credentials, and financial stability to be an ongoing concern, but the resource guides make this quite clear and offer suggestions as to documentation that can help an institution build its case for affirmation (Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, 2012).

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Crisis Intervention and Management: Are North Carolina Community Colleges Prepared to Prevent a Crisis on Campus?

Crisis Intervention and Management: Are North Carolina Community Colleges Prepared to Prevent a Crisis on Campus?

higher education, specifically two-year community colleges can occur in many forms. By planning strategically, colleges are able to reduce threats and prevent violence (Eels & Rockland-Miller, 2011). Facing multifarious times, college leaders must provide services to students to help them succeed. Leaders no longer live in a culture where focusing solely on goal achievement is possible, but in a culture that also requires involvement of a team who strives to provide quality service (Bhindi & Duignan, 1997). As crisis intervention and management becomes part of providing safety and security to staff, faculty, and students, colleges are struggling to gain support in the implementation of these plans (Lee, Woeste, & Heath, 2007). As colleges work to implement successful plans to decrease potential threats on campuses, the connection to theoretical concepts will make the plans more substantial. Keller, Hughes, and Hertz (2010) provide methods for which to “improve the ability to identify, map and assess disparate pieces of data that may ultimately be connected in a way to help administrators anticipate issues created by disruptive individuals and manage these individuals and situations to a less threatening level” (p. 92). The appropriate connection to a theory could support the model utilized by colleges to transition to a culture where crisis intervention plans are in place. Two specific theories which could be applied to study crisis intervention planning in the community college are Kholberg’s Theory of Moral

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Characterization and Community Analysis of Three Carolina Bays in Bladen County, North Carolina

Characterization and Community Analysis of Three Carolina Bays in Bladen County, North Carolina

Carolina Bays are depressional landscape features that are abundant in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain from Florida to Virginia, particularly in North Carolina. An estimated 13,000 Carolina Bays exist in North Carolina and South Carolina alone (Nifong 1998). Unaltered Carolina Bays are elliptical in shape, with the long axis oriented northwest to southeast. They have a sand rim along the eastern side of the depression, range in size from 50m to 8km across, and contain deepwater or depressional wetland habitat (Sharitz and Gibbons 1982). Prouty's (1952) estimate of 400,000 - 500,000 total Carolina Bays is a gross overestimate that probably led to a low conservation priority and, consequently, a high exploitation rate. Humans have cleared the native vegetation and altered the hydrology of 79% of Carolina Bays (Nifong 1998). Unaltered bays support an array of unique plant and animal communities, provide habitat for several endangered species (Clark et al. 1985, Zeveloff 1983, Weakley and Scott 1982), function in stormwater storage on a landscape level, and accumulate carbon (Richardson et al. 1981, Bridgham et al. 1991). A better understanding of community distribution and associated soil chemistry trends in Carolina Bays is important so that these bays can be conserved, managed, and restored to their maximum functional capacities.

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Maneuvering on the Margins: Free Black Women and the Law in Antebellum North Carolina.

Maneuvering on the Margins: Free Black Women and the Law in Antebellum North Carolina.

emancipation. This conclusion has an added caveat by examining the kind of slavery a woman was exposed to prior to emancipation. Amrita Chakrabarti Myers’ study Forging Freedom: Black Women and the Pursuit of Liberty in Antebellum Charleston builds and explores some of the questions raised in previous works and provides insight into the myriad of definitions of freedom held by free black women living in Charleston, South Carolina prior to the Civil War. Unlike Alexander’s study of the free women in rural Georgia, Myers repeatedly stresses that free women in the port city were not isolated or unattached to their enslaved counterparts. Many of the women introduced in the book either had been enslaved or had family members in bondage. As opposed to the free women discussed in King’s chapter on activists and abolitionists, the women in Myers geographical space had different “visions of freedom.” Myers argues that legal status, color, age, wealth, and marital status shaped the methods they used to design their own freedom. 18 The Myers study does not note

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The North Carolina Public Opinions on Fracking Survey: Developing an Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Fracking Outcomes

The North Carolina Public Opinions on Fracking Survey: Developing an Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Fracking Outcomes

readability, length, and consistency; reduced bias and ambiguity; offered more neutral wording (i.e., ‘potential outcomes’ replaced the use of ‘risks’ and ‘benefits’); appropriately expanded answer choices; and corrected errors. The final draft was then pilot tested with three volunteers representing educational backgrounds equivalent to levels of less than high school, high school diploma, and some college. Included was one person who spoke English as a second language. Volunteers were asked to complete the survey, highlight or circle any words they could not define or did not fully understand, provide an average completion time, and discuss their survey completion experience in general. Feedback from the pilot test resulted in additional changes, including the addition of a “Don’t Know” option to question 5 (“Fracking is exempt from common laws and rules that protect the environment”) and the addition of a “None/Not Applicable” option to question 6 (“I turn to the following for information on fracking in North Carolina”). A more basic definition for gas leases and fracking was also provided. The average survey completion time was 25 minutes.

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"Their Look is Onward": The Politics of Cherokee Removal in North Carolina.

"Their Look is Onward": The Politics of Cherokee Removal in North Carolina.

Pasteur purposefully introduced the New Bern Spectator in August 1828 to oppose Jackson’s presidential aspirations. The timing and tenets of his prospectus illustrate how National Republicans wrestled with removal policy in the months leading up to the election, uncommitted to a particular stance. Pasteur, perhaps Jackson’s most vociferous opponent in North Carolina, both prior to and during his time in office, had in fact advocated for removal in the months leading up to the 1828 election. Excerpting a recent discourse by Justice Joseph Story that would comport with his readers’ “christian” sentiments, Pasteur published, “Every where at the approach of the white man they fade away…. They should soon be at rest in fairer regions, where the Great Spirit dwelt, in a home prepared for the brave beyond the western skies.” Native peoples were not threats. Instead, they were to be pitied as whites proved a “mightier power, a moral canker … , a poison.” Indians could not continue in the East, claimed Pasteur, but not because they refused to civilize. They just could not withstand the white flood. Indians were to be admired for their virtues and fearlessness, but ultimately, this courage was “absorbed in their despair…. Their look is onward…. They know, and feel that is for them still one remove farther,

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Evaluation of methods for identifying spawning sites and habitat selection for alosines

Evaluation of methods for identifying spawning sites and habitat selection for alosines

The probability of collecting at least one egg from a site depends not only on the efficiency of the gear and sampling effort, but also on the species’ population size and spawning periodicity, proximity of the sampler to the spawning location, river current and morphology, and other physical and environmental factors. Our samples were from presumed spawning sites, but many studies focus on locating and characterizing spawning sites throughout a river (Marcy 1972; Bilkovic et al. 2002; Smith 2006). To address efficiency under those objectives, we used published data from studies on the Neuse (Burdick 2005) and Tar (Smith 2006) rivers (both in North Carolina; Figure 1) to calculate the probability of collecting American shad and hickory shad eggs from multiple sites over a large portion of a river. Both studies employed the same plankton sampler as we used and both sampled each of their sites at least once per week for two complete spawning seasons. As in this study, Burdick (2005) completed 15-min oblique tows, whereas Smith (2006) completed 6-min tows consisting of 2 min on the bottom, 2 min in the midwater column, and 2 min near the surface (if water levels were very low, then 4-min tows were completed). The methods we used to estimate spawn- ing periods and the probabilities of collecting at least one egg in both of these studies were the same as those we used for our field data.

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Partial Views and Private Interest: Corruption and Politics in Colonial North Carolina, 1754-1760.

Partial Views and Private Interest: Corruption and Politics in Colonial North Carolina, 1754-1760.

Both Rutherford and Murray were merchants, eastward-looking men who tended to view colonial policy in terms of its impact of their interest in the metropole. 43 Yet paper money seemed to many policy-makers, especially in the lower house, to be a necessary evil, if indeed it was an evil at all. Like virtually every other American colony, North Carolina consistently faced a shortage of currency. One colonial politician estimated that in 1731, there was not enough specie in the colony to pay one tenth of the quitrents owed, and in 1765, newly appointed governor William Tryon made a similar observation. For many years, provincial politicians had attempted to alleviate the problem by a number of means, most of which were commonplace, if not successful, in other colonies. Many North Carolina farmers simply traded in commodities such as tobacco, wheat, furs, or pork which, until mid-century, were acceptable as payment for quitrents or other taxes at rates set by the colonial legislature. While the colony briefly experimented in commodity notes, which were based on the value of warehouse stores of tobacco and other commodities, and a land bank, which emitted notes on mortgaged land, by far most currency in the colony (aside from Virginia and South Carolina bills) was proclamation money, which by mid-century had come to refer to any currency emitted and rated at a set value by the Assembly. Proclamation money nominally traded at a 133:100 ratio with sterling, but after repeated currency emissions, the market rate was closer to 2:1 by 1759. 44

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Roles and Practices of Community College Presidents in the Governance of the North Carolina Community College System

Roles and Practices of Community College Presidents in the Governance of the North Carolina Community College System

The interviews also offered personal descriptions of the collective body of presidents. The interviewed presidents, or Internal Influencers, were asked to describe the NCACCP. The NCACCP was treated as the collective body of North Carolina community college presidents; and, the presidents’ responses were edited for grammatical clarity. The presidents were numbered to conceal identity, and I numbered each president according to the order in which the interviews occurred—I interviewed President 1 first and President 8 last. President 5 described the NCACCP as “a group of presidents that lead the North Carolina system of community colleges and meet on a regular basis to discuss issues that are common to the various colleges.” Regardless of how the interviewees generically described the NCACCP, respondents ultimately gave positive descriptions of the group, using words such as “pride,” “valuable,” “beneficial,” and “great purpose.” Even the one participant who indicated reservations about responding to the query stated, “I have never had that question, describe the association…I may not be the right one. I’m not that actively involved any more. I think this is a group of individuals who are committed to the community college mission”

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Narrowing the achievement gap on a state-wide scale: Student success in North Carolina early colleges

Narrowing the achievement gap on a state-wide scale: Student success in North Carolina early colleges

States and the federal government have spent billions of dollars in response to the Coleman report (Coleman et al., 1966) and more recently as a result the release of a Nation at Risk (1983). During that time there has been vigorous discussion and policy development intended to address the concerns raised in both reports; however, despite 45 years and several reform efforts the results of these efforts are mixed (Center on Educational Policy [CEP], 2009; Rampey, Dion, & Donahue, 2009; United States Department of Education, 2008). In an effort to use accountability as a vehicle to reform schools, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasized the need to develop effective reforms to meet the required student achievement targets and raise high school graduation rates. Despite the relative success of NCLB in closing achievement gaps (Lee, 2006; NCES, 2009, 2011) and in improving the graduation rates of some minorities (Bernstein, Millsap, Schimmenti, & Page, 2008) disparities in these areas as defined by race and gender persist. In a comprehensive study on the black-white achievement gap Braun, Wang, Jenkins, and Weinbaum (2006) found that most states have experienced little success in improving the achievement gap. As discussed in Braun et al., North Carolina was part of a group of ten states studied and it was found that in North Carolina although black student achievement improved the overall gap did not. Therefore, while black students improved, their position relative to white students did not change. During the past 15 years, efforts in North Carolina designed to address the increased student performance demands have included the adoption of prescriptive reform initiatives, revised curriculum, improved teacher preparation and in-service, and a comprehensive accountability system (NCDPI, n.d.).

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Increased Opportunities for Supporting Continuing Care Retirement Community Stability through Designed Built Environment with Supportive Services.

Increased Opportunities for Supporting Continuing Care Retirement Community Stability through Designed Built Environment with Supportive Services.

The next commonality between the three sectors is the sense of community. California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York have supportive regulations to encourage residents’ participation in their CCRC management; in order to improve CCRC operation by reflecting residents’ needs; for the effectiveness and efficiency of the improvement, it is necessary to synthesize opinions of community through the sense of community. In practice, several POEs reported a lack of sense of community between residents in different care levels; the POEs analyzed the reason for this lack of community as due to the provision of appropriate facilities at different levels of care. However, there is another interpretation in the academy. Lucksinger (1994) warned that the stigma of CCRC residents closer to the end of their lives could weaken the sense of community. Additionally, Pastalan and Schwarz (1994) suggest that a more able- bodied resident may not want to mingle with less-able residents in continuing care facilities because independent residents may not want to feel as though they are living in a hospital. Consequently, the second common issue is the necessity of understanding how to enhance the sense of community and resident satisfaction.

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Building the Performance Cluster in North Carolina: Providing Assistance to Enhance Global Market Competitiveness of the North Carolina Textile Industry

Building the Performance Cluster in North Carolina: Providing Assistance to Enhance Global Market Competitiveness of the North Carolina Textile Industry

A current analysis of the North Carolina textile complex and its position in a changing industry was provided by North Carolina State College of Textiles researchers (Cassill et al, 2006). North Carolina State University’s College of Textiles conducted a research project with funding from the North Carolina Department of Commerce entitled State of the Union of the Textile Industry in North Carolina: Improving Global Market Competitiveness with Identification and Assistance of Core Competencies. Rather than only focus on the traditional manufacturing sectors of the textile industry, the entire textile value chain from raw materials to retail, intangible value-adding activities, auxiliary industries, and the supporting environment were included in the analysis (Frederick, 2007). Outcomes of the study indicate that North Carolina is still a recognized leader in textile marketing and manufacturing as well as university and industry research and development (Frederick, 2007).

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Leadership Attitudes and the Implementation of Community Policing in Law Enforcement Agencies in Rural North Carolina

Leadership Attitudes and the Implementation of Community Policing in Law Enforcement Agencies in Rural North Carolina

If the goal is to encourage creative, community-based problem solving, an authoritarian management system that emphasizes control can stifle the freedom and autonomy required to generate imaginative solutions. Rigid policies and procedures that spell out every aspect of how a job is to be done put employees in straightjacket that can inhibit them from taking risk on new ideas. A shift to community policing therefore requires a new management approach based on empowering employees, with managers as facilitators whose job becomes finding ways to help them do their best. (p. 34)

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Factors that Predict Organizational Commitment for Full-time and Part-time Faculty in Community Colleges across North Carolina.

Factors that Predict Organizational Commitment for Full-time and Part-time Faculty in Community Colleges across North Carolina.

This chapter described the quantitative methods used to examine how full-time and part-time faculty differ in their level of organizational commitment as well as to identify what factors predicted their organizational commitment. The data utilized in this study were gathered from a researcher-developed survey administered via email invitation to a random selection of community college faculty employed at small-, medium- and large-sized institutions. The survey included several scales that have been previously established in the literature. Evidence of their validity and reliability were presented. Likewise, there were several scales utilized in this study that previously had not been analyzed for validity and reliability. A brief introduction of exploratory factor analysis was presented to address the validity and reliability of these unestablished scales.

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Economic Development And Community Colleges: Attributes, Attitudes And Satisfaction Levels Of Western North Carolina Stakeholders

Economic Development And Community Colleges: Attributes, Attitudes And Satisfaction Levels Of Western North Carolina Stakeholders

For at least two decades, community colleges have worked to solve problems, reach out to their constituencies and assist in ways to improve the lives of the people who live in their service areas (Boone and Vaughan, 1993). In many ways, this has been the mission of community, junior and technical colleges since their inception. Many colleges, with the guidance and assistance of the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM) at North Carolina State University, have embraced community-based programming as the means to lead problem solving activities in their respective communities. Pettit, Lee and Cameron (1998) describe how Guilford Technical Community College used the ACCLAIM model to work with the community to promote workforce preparedness. Reichard, Wood, Vaughan and Pettitt (1998) describe the environment at James Sprunt Community College and how through the processual tasks of Community-Based Programming addressed

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Comanagement of Medically Complex Children by Subspecialists, Generalists, and Care Coordinators

Comanagement of Medically Complex Children by Subspecialists, Generalists, and Care Coordinators

Historically, CCNC has focused on primary care; however, CHACC bridges subspecialty and hospital-based care at 13 North Carolina hospitals with tertiary children ’ s services with embedded care coor- dinators. The care coordinators are nurses or social workers with pediatric clinical experience. Their activities include completion of a comprehensive assessment of patient and family needs, care plan development, referrals to community services, patient and caretaker education, and collaboration with providers and caregivers to facili- tate transitions in care. They provide a “ warm handoff ” to the community-based CCNC care coordinators in primary care practices and serve as dedicated links between the subspecialist team and primary care professionals. Care plans for these children are posted AUTHORS: Alan D. Stiles, MD, a David T. Tayloe Jr, MD, FAAP, b

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Using Propensity Score Matching to Model Retention of Developmental Math Students in Community Colleges in North Carolina.

Using Propensity Score Matching to Model Retention of Developmental Math Students in Community Colleges in North Carolina.

Traditionally, modeling student retention has been done by deriving student success predictors and measuring the likelihood of success based on several background factors such as age, race, gender, and other pre-college variables also known as the input-output model (Bahr, 2013). However, in a study utilizing a quantitative regression model to determine predictors of first year student retention in the community college, several variables were found to be related to student retention: passing developmental courses, taking internet courses, participating in student support services program, receiving financial aid, parents’ educational level, and number of hours enrolled/dropped in the first semester. The study population was 9200 first-time college students, from a Texas public urban community college, and data were analyzed over a four-year period (Fike & Fike, 2008). Similarly, Hoyt (1999) defined a regression model that accounted for demographic, goal commitment, academic, and financial support variables and measured the impact of these variables on retention rates. Hoyt (1999) examined retention among remedial students in terms of demographics and enrollment status. Fall 1993, 1994, and 1995 first-time college freshman cohorts with a total population of 7683 students were included in the study. About half of the new students required remediation at various levels.

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