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CONFLICT AND PEACE IN MANIPUR (NORTH EAST INDIA)

CONFLICT AND PEACE IN MANIPUR (NORTH EAST INDIA)

Manipur also known as Kangleipak/Sanaaleibak/Meitrabaak is a state in North-eastern India, with Imphal as its capital city. Its people include Meetei, Pangal (Muslims), Bishnupriya Manipuris, Naga, Kuki and many other ethnic tribes who speak different languages of the subdivision of the Tibeto-Burman family. It is surrounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, Assam to the west and Burma to the east. It spreads over to an area of 22,327 sq. Kilometres. Manipur, before being a part of India, was one of the kingdoms of the South and Southeast Asia. The history of Manipur dates back from nearly 3000 B.C. Nongdaa Lairen Pakhnagba was the first king who ruled Manipur in 33 AD. Manipur has its own conventional way of living. It has rich culture featuring martial arts, dance, theatre and sculpture. Its verdure with the temperate climate makes it captivating to tourists. Due to its natural beauty, Manipur is known as the ‘Switzerland of India’. The seasonal Shirui Lily at Ukhrul, Dzuko Valley at Senapati, Sangai (brow antlered deer) and the floating islands at Loktak Lake are some of the extraordinary things found in Manipur. Modern Polo, which can be called a royal game, also originated from Manipur. Yet, despite of all these rich heritage and heart throbbing landscapes, Manipur is riddled with innumerable conflicts damaging its harmony and equilibrium. Foreign travellers to Manipur must gain special permission to enter, as it is considered a ‘sensitive area’ due to its political troubles and geographical location.Having presented a brief scenario on the history and culture of Manipur, now we are going to discuss on how such a god-gifted land defiled by the presence of various conflicts and istabilities ended up being a ‘sensitive zone’.
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The Eastern Origins of the Rise of the West and the “Return” of Asia

The Eastern Origins of the Rise of the West and the “Return” of Asia

3) Standard Eurocentric world history presumes that Europe dominated world progress between 1500 and the present only to be challenged by the rise of East Asia since the 1960s/1970s. That is, the mainstream of world economic history in the last half millennium has been Western-led. But I shall argue that between 650 and 1830 significant parts of the East – again, the Middle East and North Africa, China and India – were the key global economic players and that while the West came to dominate the global economy between 1830 and 2010 the mainstream is now shifting back to China, East Asia (and India). Thus the mainstream of global progress has been Eastern for the majority of the last 1500 years and with a brief, albeit hugely significant, Western interlude, is now returning to the East whence it came. Thus I prefer to talk about the “return” of Asia rather than the “rise” of
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Sharing and Borrowing- Musical Instruments in North East India

Sharing and Borrowing- Musical Instruments in North East India

All the similarity we can observe in their musical instruments is not occurring naturally. This is one of the fashion trend which share or borrowed as it is easy to make or good to use in their culture. The attraction value may be because of its tune, sound, structure and material. As many of the ethnic groups do not have a written record of their centuries past, it is very complex to say who used first or who borrowed others culture as for their culture. Another subject like “Blame and Claim” game type of theory is possible, in which everyone can give their own statement for self validation with various legends, history, folktales and folksongs etc. But, the instrument may be originated from other country by other community, which is being used by them through sharing and borrowing. Modification and changing by nature is also possible. If there is a distinction on it (musical instrument) will be the uniqueness or characteristics of the particular culture, in which modification or changes.
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MSME IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MSME IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

Weinvite unpublished novel, original, empirical and high quality research work pertaining to recent developments & practices in the area of Computer, Business, Finance, Marketing, Human Resource Management, General Management, Banking, Education, Insurance, Corporate Governance and emerging paradigms in allied subjects like Accounting Education; Accounting Information Systems; Accounting Theory & Practice; Auditing; Behavioral Accounting; Behavioral Economics; Corporate Finance; Cost Accounting; Econometrics; Economic Development; Economic History; Financial Institutions & Markets; Financial Services; Fiscal Policy; Government & Non Profit Accounting; Industrial Organization; International Economics & Trade; International Finance; Macro Economics; Micro Economics; Monetary Policy; Portfolio & Security Analysis; Public Policy Economics; Real Estate; Regional Economics; Tax Accounting; Advertising & Promotion Management; Business Education; Management Information Systems (MIS); Business Law, Public Responsibility & Ethics; Communication; Direct Marketing; E- Commerce; Global Business; Health Care Administration; Labor Relations & Human Resource Management; Marketing Research; Marketing Theory & Applications; Non-Profit Organizations; Office Administration/Management; Operations Research/Statistics; Organizational Behavior & Theory; Organizational Development; Production/Operations; Public Administration; Purchasing/Materials Management; Retailing; Sales/Selling; Services; Small Business Entrepreneurship; Strategic Management Policy; Technology/Innovation; Tourism, Hospitality & Leisure; Transportation/Physical Distribution; Algorithms; Artificial Intelligence; Compilers & Translation; Computer Aided Design (CAD); Computer Aided Manufacturing; Computer Graphics; Computer Organization & Architecture; Database Structures & Systems; Digital Logic; Discrete Structures; Internet; Management Information Systems; Modeling & Simulation; Multimedia; Neural Systems/Neural Networks; Numerical Analysis/Scientific Computing; Object Oriented Programming; Operating Systems; Programming Languages; Robotics; Symbolic & Formal Logic and Web Design. The above mentioned tracks are only indicative, and not exhaustive.
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Diversity of nematodes in north east india

Diversity of nematodes in north east india

C and winter temperature a minimum of 6-8 o C) , heavy rainfall (average annual rainfall =2818mm) and high humidity 80% during summer), the state consists of tropical deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo wetland ecosystems. Endowed with the vast variations in the vegetation and climatic condition, Assam north eastern India is rich repository of nematodes. A number of plant parasitic, free living and predatory nematodes were reported from Assam and adjoining states. The year 1949 is considered as milestone in the history of Nematology in in the North East India, as the first report of plant parasitic nematode associated with tea plantation appeared in the Annual report of Tocklai Experimental Station, reported the occurrence of Meloidogyne Pratylenchus sp. and their infestation Jairajpuri (1964a, 1964b, 1964 c) described sp. n., Axonchium nitidum sp. n. sp. n., Proleptonchus teres sp. n. and striatus, Nygellus clavatus and Belondira from tea and sugarcane fields of Jorhat district of Assam.
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A Brief History of Linguistic Science with special reference to the Bodo, Garo and Kokborok

A Brief History of Linguistic Science with special reference to the Bodo, Garo and Kokborok

must have been prodigiously numerous, when they prevailed over the whole face of the land–unless, indeed, the dispersion and segregation in holes and corners of the aboriginal population have given rise to that Babel of tongues which we now find.” (2) The early enquiry aimed to access the indigenous people through expression. The endeavour for writing grammar started. The potentiality of linguistic enquiry of these languages has been noticed by Endle (1884, p. ix). He states, “But this very medley of tongues, which puts great difficulties at once in the path of the Magistrate, the Missionary, the Administrator, and the Planter, offers a promising field of labour to the student of language, whose privilege it may be to evolve something like order and harmony out of what has hitherto been little better than a philological chaos.”(3)The linguistic enquiry undertaken by the Christian missionaries in these remote areas had also in its view, the education of the indigenous people in their mother tongue. (4) In the later years, that is, in the twentieth century, the need to find out the inter-connectedness among the languages of north-east India and the languages of south-east Asia was felt. Therefore, comparative philology gained ground and the filial linkage or the genealogical relationship of the languages spoken in the whole of South Asia was attempted. Thus the stepping stones were built for the future establishment of the Stammbaum. (5)With structural enquiry of the languages in the latter years of the twentieth century, the focus of the study shifted from morpho-syntactic to morpho- phonological. This was followed by the more objective phonological enquiry which started addressing the supra-segmental phonological structure of the languages in the closing years of the twentieth century.
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THE TURBULENT NORTH-EAST INDIA

THE TURBULENT NORTH-EAST INDIA

http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- irjmss@gmail.com Page 162 Nagaland by NSCN(IM) and the demand for Alternative Arrangement(AA) by the United Naga Council(UNC), the apex decision making body of the Nagas of Manipur, outside Manipur are making the Meiteis apprehensive of the possible territorial fragmentation of Manipur. The Nagas, asserting the uniqueness of their history, maintain that before the British annexation, they were never ruled over by any power, including the Maharaja of Manipur. It was, they maintained, the British who divided their land purely for their administrative convenience. The Nagas, therefore, wanted the integration of Naga dominated districts in Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh with existing state of Nagaland; and create Nagalim, a state with maximum power, if not sovereignty. The NCSN(IM), which entered into a cease-fire agreement with the Government of India in 1997, has been persistently insisting that any solution to Naga problem should include the territorial integration of Naga dominated areas in bordering Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. 17 Years has passed by now, no solution to the vexed Naga issue is insight as yet, basically on territorial integration issue. On more than three occasions, the talk between the two negotiating parties broke down due to persistent demand of NSCN(IM) for the creation of Nagalim by amalgamating all Naga inhabited areas of the region. On June 14, 2001, the Government of India extended the territorial jurisdiction of cease-fire between the two beyond the boundary of Nagaland which sparked widespread violent protest in valley areas of Manipur. Agitations were organized by different organisations, including an influential United Club of Manipur(UCM). The protest in the capital city of Imphal turned violent and the mob started burning a building of Manipur Legislative Assembly. The security personnel, to control the violent mob, opened fire and killed 18 strikers and injured many more. The Government of India, then issued an order limiting the territorial jurisdiction of the cease fire to be operative only within the state of Nagaland. The government of Manipur, to subside the violent protest, declared June 18 as ‘State Integrity Day’ in honour of 18 persons killed into police firing.
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Myth, Language, Empire: The East India Company and the Construction of British India, 1757-1857

Myth, Language, Empire: The East India Company and the Construction of British India, 1757-1857

Committee’s report defined the tone of Lord North’s Regulating Act of 1773, which introduced clauses to control abuses of power by the Company’s officers. After a brief hiatus following the passing of this Act, the issue of Company reform was picked up again in the late 1770s with renewed energy, when Edmund Burke began to take a deep interest in India affairs. The Regulating Act had little consequence in India and reports of the Company’s aggressive policy of imperial expansion led to the British government’s intervention again. Now dominated by Burke, a new Select Committee was formed and its proceedings culminated with the introduction of Fox’s East India Bill in 1783. Though defeated, many of its recommendations were included in Pitt’s India Act of 1784. Its provision for a joint government of the Company and the Crown in India was hardly a measure for preventing the history of colonization from unfolding itself, but it did open the British Constitution to its own inadequacy in handling the ethical implications of building an empire. With Burke’s personal legal triumph in persuading the House to impeach Warren Hastings, the next decade in British history saw the
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Indications, outcomes and complications of therapeutic endoscopic   retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in a tertiary care centre in North East India

Indications, outcomes and complications of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in a tertiary care centre in North East India

ERCP was performed with patients under conscious sedation with midazolam and pentazocine administered by gastroenterologist. Arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure were monitored using automated devices. Data contained demographics, clinical history, blood test results, procedural details, technical procedures, procedural findings, diagnosis, type and grade of severity of post-ERCP complications. All patients were admitted for at least 24 hours for observation.

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Prevalence of Type2 Diabetes in North East India: A Review

Prevalence of Type2 Diabetes in North East India: A Review

Diabetes may be caused by different factors while environment or life style plays great role, however, almost 50% of the Diabetic patients have at least one of their parents or family members affected with the disease (American Diabetes Association 2010). Till now the genes responsible have not been isolated but a strong correlation exists. Stress of our life like frequent quarrelling, live threatening, work pressure etc. are also found to be strongly related with diabetes due to the released hormones called adrenaline and cortisol. Both genetic and environmental factors have tremendous capacity to increase blood glucose (Chhajer, 2009). Many studies have elaborated the associations between several risk factors and occurrence of T2DM. Body mass index (BMI), lipids, smoking, physical inactivity, low education, dietary patterns, vitamin D deficiency, family history, and recently specific genes polymorphisms are the most frequently documented risk factors for developing T2DM (Valdes et al., 2007; Lyssenko, 2008). Many longitudinal studies have reported that increased BMI is a strong risk factor for T2DM (Meisinger et al., 2002; Almdal et al., 2008). A strong positive association between obesity and T2DM is found both in men and women (Skarfors et al., 1991). In one of the study smoking cigarette is associated with small increase in diabetes and alcohol consumption with decrease risk of diabetes. Being overweight or obesity was the single most important predictor of diabetes. Lack of exercises, a poor diet, current smoking and abstinence from alcohol use were all associated with a significantly increased risk of diabetes (Frank et al., 2001). Several prospective studies reported that current smoking is a risk factor for developing T2DM (Yeh et al., 2010). The association between smoking and T2DM was stronger for heavy smokers ≥ 20 cigarettes/day compared with light smokers or former smokers (Nagaya et al., 2008). In addition some studies found an increased risk of T2DM the first 2-3 years after smoking cessation (Hur et al., 2007). Type- 2 diabetes is produced by both genetic and environmental factors. It is learnt from the study that genes are thought to play major role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, sedentary life style is considered as a main risk factor for DM-II. Prolonged television watching as a surrogate marker of sedentary lifestyle, was reported to be positively associated with diabetes risk in both men and women. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of T2DM (Krishnan et al., 2009).
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Growth of cities in North East India

Growth of cities in North East India

The world population is becoming predominantly urban and the distribution of urban population takes place among settlements of differ sizes. According to their functionality indicates that dwelling place develops as hamlets, villages, towns, cities and metropolitan cities through time. Metropolitan cities are most developed dwelling sites with their complex, and dynamic activities, functionality and assimilation of people. Generally, cities grow initially by benefiting from the increasing agglomeration economy, but after a certain stage due to congestion and crowding diseconomies set in and subsequently urban sprawl existed into the adjoining area. In such manner the mono-centric urban structure becomes multi-centered and dominates the rest of the urban system. In this process the small and intermediate towns are growing slowly compared to large cities. Later on the smaller towns have grown as a result of congestion and crowding in the large and intermediate towns. In the North- East context, as being happened to other states, the growth of urban population is more influenced by economic development. In fact people tend to migrate to towns and cities for employment opportunities and all types of economic activities that take place in urban economy.
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Agricultural backwardness analysis of north east india: a cause of concern for national development

Agricultural backwardness analysis of north east india: a cause of concern for national development

The North East Region (NER) constitutes eight states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. Its population of 45 million (2011 Census) constitutes 3.8% of country’s population. Rural Population of 327.71 lakh is 84.34% in NER as against 72.20% in India. Agriculture provides livelihood support to 70 % of region’s population. It produces only 1.5 % of country’s food grain production and continues to be a net importer of food Agricultural land including fallow is 22.20% as against 54.47% in India. Cultivators [41.61%] and agricultural labourers [13.07%] together constitute the majority of the workforce as against 31.65 % and 26.55% respectively in India. Land is held almost by all. Share of marginal and small farmers is 78.92 %.Land distribution is mostly egalitarian rooted in the principle of community way of living and sharing. This region is inhabited by 100 major tribes and vironmental conditions this region is rich in biodiversity and is one of the hot spots of the world. Mostly tribal people and immigrant communities depend on farming and forest products for their food and livelihood. Local people have been biodiversity and knowledge. Generally farmers practice jhum or shifting agricultural system with other sedentary agricultural practices. Other agricultural system are wet rice cultivation which is practiced in valley land and Aji system where rice and millet are cultivated with fish in deep water. In valley land mono cropping as well as mixed cropping is practiced by farmers. Terrace land cultivation system introduced by government could not mers due to high input of labour and fertilizers. Farmers also have forestry that link their families to the forest organization have introduced agri-horti- silvipastoral system for good harvest and yield. The current scenario of agriculture, horticulture,
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DIVERSITY OF SOME MINOR FRUITS OF NORTH EAST INDIA

DIVERSITY OF SOME MINOR FRUITS OF NORTH EAST INDIA

North East India being one of the hot spot in India (Asati and Yadav, 2004), is the native of a large number of minor fruits which are occur in wild and semi wild condition in both plains and hills of this region. These fruits have the potential to provide great social and nutritional benefits to the human community. Some of the popular minor fruits of this region are Flacourtia jangomas (Ponial), Baccaurea sapida (Lateku), Prunus jenkinsii (Thereju), Phyllanthus acidus (Poramlakhi), Rhus semialata (Nagatenga), Syzygium jambos (Bogi Jamun), Parameria polyneura (Mirika tenga), Spondias mangifera (Amora), Averrhoea carambola (Kordoi), Dillenia indica (Ou-tenga) etc. (Mohan, 1987). These fruits are known to play an important role in food and nutritional supplement of human beings as they are rich source of vitamins and essential minerals. Apart from nutritive value, minor fruits are being used in the ethno-medicines from time immemorial and provides significant source of livelihood support for many rural communities.
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A cross sectional retrospective study to assess the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drug therapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital,  Imphal, Manipur

A cross sectional retrospective study to assess the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drug therapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Imphal, Manipur

Despite these facts and the widespread availability of effective antihypertensive medications, the vast majority of >1 billion hypertensive patients worldwide remain with Uncontrolled BP To achieve the goal of normal blood pressure (BP), practice guidelines serve as useful tools for Chobanian et al., 2003; Wagner, ., 2002) The most notable evidence based practice guideline for the management of hypertension is the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC-7) on the Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High BP. JNC- 7 provides guidelines and advisories delineated to improve treatment and control of hypertension (Chobanian et al., 2003; ent of Health and Human Services, 2004). The Hypertension Society of India, and the Indian College of Physicians closely follow the JNC guidelines (Datta et al., In spite of the presence of practice guidelines and effective drugs, hypertension management in the society is far from satisfactory. Reported studies have shown that only 50% of physicians prescribe in accordance with guideline et al., 2010; Holmes et al., 2004). OF CURRENT RESEARCH
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Pogostemon stellatus (Lour.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae) - A New Record From Assam, North East India

Pogostemon stellatus (Lour.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae) - A New Record From Assam, North East India

Fl, Cochinch. 2: 361. 1790. Dysophylla stellata (Lour.) Bentham (1830:30). Eusteralis stellata (Lour.) Panigrahi (1976:474). Anuragia stellata (Lour.) Raizada (1976:218). Mentha quadrifolia B. Heyne ex Roth (1821:256). Dysophylla verticillata Bentham, Pl. Asiat.Rar.1:30. 1830. Hooker f., Fl. Brit. India 4:639.1885; Prain, Beng. Plants 2: 635.1903; Kanjilal et al., Fl.Assam 3: 514. 1939. Anuragia verticillata Bentham. Mentha verticillata Roxburgh(1832:5), nom. illeg, non Mentha verticillata Don (1825:114). Pogostemon verticillatus Bhatti & Ingrouille (1997:115). Dysophylla benthamiana Hance (1866:234) var hainanensis C.Y. Wu & S. J. Hsuan in Wu et al., (1965:238). Dysophylla stellata (Lour.) Bentham var hainanensis (C.Y.Wu & S. J. Hsuan) C.Y. Wu & H. W. Li in Li (1975:77).
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Rural Health Infrastructures in the North East India

Rural Health Infrastructures in the North East India

The study, in particular, seeks to review the progress in rural health centres, health care facilities, the status of human resources and the quality of health care services in rural areas of the north-eastern States. The data used in the paper has been collected from the Bulletin on Rural Health Statistics in India, 2007 & 2011 published by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

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Human Population and the Environment of North East India

Human Population and the Environment of North East India

nature and lack of proper attention, this region could not flourish with its resources. The north east India is composed of seven states, namely- Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura (Sikkim is excluded). The North-East region is situated at the North- Eastern Himalayan sub-region of India. The region is located in the remote eastern corner of Indian union. The entire region is connected with the rest of the country through a narrow strip of land in West Bengal linking Assam. The region (NER) is bounded by Tibet and China in the north and east, Bangladesh in the south, Burma in the south-east and Bhutan in the west.
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Concept of Megalithism in the 21st Century Archaeology of India

Concept of Megalithism in the 21st Century Archaeology of India

This is the first kind ever reported on megaliths of India. Again in the year 1823, he brought out another work entitled Description of Pandu Coolies in Malabar. In 1872, James Fergusson published his excellent work entitled Rude stone monuments in all countries: their ages and uses. His work may still be regarded as a landmark for its wide scope and integrated approach. J.W. Breeks published his book entitled An account of the primitive tribes and monuments of the Nilgiris, in 1873. Likewise, in the same year again (i.e., 1873), Meadows Taylor wrote about his observations pertaining to the Distribution of cairns, cromlechs, kistvaens, and other Celtic, Druidical, or Scythian monuments in the Dekhan. In the year 1879, Rivett-Carnac excavated the extensive site of Junapani, near Nagpur in Maharastra on a small scale. Simultaneously, extensive exploration in the Madras region continued by Sewell, which resulted in the publication of the List of antiquarian remain remains in the Presidency of Madras in 1882. All earlier authors showed a strong bias towards tracing the ancestry of the megalithic builders of the Celts, Druids or Scythians.
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Central Assistance to North Eastern States: A Comparative Analysis

Central Assistance to North Eastern States: A Comparative Analysis

Eleven of the twenty nine states of India comprise of what is collectively called the ―Special Category States‖. These states are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand. Eight of these states constitute the entire North-Eastern part of India. By and large, these impoverished and mostly resource starved states lay at the periphery of India‘s economic development. They were created at different points of times in the history of independent India to accommodate the socio-economic as well as the ethno-cultural aspirations of their respective peoples who were at a disadvantage in various ways. These disadvantages arose not simply from the remoteness of their locations or the inaccessibility of their hilly terrains with sparsely populated habitation, nor due to their historical circumstances alone. They were caused also by the shortage of capital and natural resources within their boundaries, lack of any viable physical and social infrastructure for economic growth and development, high cost of production with low availability of resources and hence low economic base, coupled with high transport costs leading to high delivery cost of public services. Centuries of economic deprivation and neglect coupled with isolation from the mainstream of Indian States had resulted in widespread poverty, unemployment and economic backwardness of the people living within their territories.
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Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infections in HIV Infected Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North-East India

Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infections in HIV Infected Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North-East India

In our study group, the heterosexual route (75.3%) was the predominant route of acquiring HIV infections than other modes of transmission. The HIV infection rate was higher in males in comparison to females i.e. 68% and 32% respectively (P value 0.192). In case of HIV/HBV co infection the same result was noted i.e. major route of transmission was heterosexual route (81.8%) and the male gender predominance (86.4%). Studies done in various regions of India also reported that males were significantly at a higher risk of acquiring HBV co infection in HIV infected patients [12,13,14]. Present study shows that most (54.5%) of HIV/HBV co infected patients belonged to the age group of 31-40 yrs, which is the normal age group where the HIV positivity is reportedly higher as per Indian studies [14,15]. This also suggests that sexual route could also be the common mode of transmission for both HBV and HIV.
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