Background: Tumors of the oropharynx affect a common pathway for deglutition, respiration and speech and therefore pose a challenge to both the patient and clinician. This paper attempts to present clinical and histologic patterns, and therapeutic challenges of oropharyngeal tumors from three selected health facilities in North Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The medical re- cords of patients seen in the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Federal Medi- cal Centre Birnin Kebbi and Shepherd Specialist Hospital, Sokoto with oropharyngeal tumors over a fourteen-year period were reviewed (January 2000 to December 2013). Results: A total of 36 pa- tients were seen. Twenty (56%) were males and 16 (44%) were females, making the male:female ratio, 1.3:1, (P value of 0.004 for the null hypothesis). The age range was 3 to 80 years, with a mean age of 45.5 years. Majority of patients were in their 5 th decade of life (33%). Nineteen (53%) pa-
This study examines how strengthening the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) contributes to poverty reduction in north western Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the administration of Questionnaire from a sample of 400 SMEs in Sokoto and Zamfara states that sought information on their main features and the manner of their operations. Also secondary information was obtained from publications of the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to look at the performance of the listed companies (large corporations) and both intra and inter-sectorial comparisons of the two sets of enterprises were made with regards to their employment generation and utilization of indigenous technology. T-test analysis was used in analyzing the information obtained. The major findings of the study is that large enterprises contribute more in the area of employment provision than the SMEs going by the country – wide data. This contradicts the a priori assumption that small and medium enterprises do contribute to employment generation and use more indigenous technology than large corporations, The study concludes that employment generation capacities of any organization is vital in reducing the incidence of poverty among economic agents. A major recommendation of the study is that government should make a practical approach to poverty alleviation by emphasizing on the strength of the poor and their productive capacity and not on their weaknesses.
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Gynaecological malignancy is a major cause of in-hospital death . Developing countries accounted for 820,265 cases (77.7%) of global estimates for new cases of the commonest gynaecological cancers  . In Nigeria squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest gynaecological malignancy followed by ova- rian cancers . Carcinoma of the ovary is the fourth most common cancer among women and continues to be a leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies worldwide . Most patients with ovarian malignan- cies presents late to the hospital. The developing countries have only 5% of global resources for cancer control and limited means of treatment .
DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2019.93007 63 Open Journal of Blood Diseases Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto and Specialist Hos- pital Sokoto. The hospitals are located within the Sokoto metropolis, in Sokoto State. Sokoto State occupies 25,973 square kilometers and is situated along lati- tude 13˚3'39''N and longitude 5˚14'2''E. The state is located in the extreme North Western corner of Nigeria near the confluence of the Sokoto River and the Rima River. It shares borders with Niger Republic to the North, Zamfara State to the East, Kebbi State to the South-East and Benin Republic to the West. The major indigenous tribes in the state are the Hausa and Fulani and other groups such as Gobirawa, Zabarmawa, Kabawa, Adarawa, Arawa, Nupes, Yorubas, Igbos and others. The Majority of the Hausas’ are farmers while Fulanis are nomadic and are engaged in animal rearing. Sokoto is a very hot area located in the dry Sahel, surrounded by sandy savannah and isolated hills, with an annual average tem- perature of 28.3˚C (82.9˚F). However, during the dry season daytime tempera- ture is about 40˚C (104.0˚F). With annual growth rate of 3%, Sokoto state has a population of 4.2 million as of 2006 . The calculated projected population for Sokoto State is now standing at around 5.3 million. The state is a major com- merce center in leather, crafts and agricultural products.
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Abstract: This paper examined the level of farmers awareness and experiences in use of the Internet for sourcing agricultural information by farmers in the north-western Nigeria who are also privileged to have Internet services and cafes’ available in their communities. The study adopted survey method using questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The population sampled for the survey was farmers who as well leave in both semi-urban and rural areas of Kaduna and Kano State of the North West agro-ecological Zone, of Nigeria. A total of one hundred (100) farmers were randomly selected using purposive sampling technics to form the sample size. Findings revealed that farmers lack awareness for using the Internet as an alternative means of getting Agricultural Information easily even with the shortage of extension agents. The study further identifies the farmer’s constraints in using the internet for information to low awareness, low access and lack skills. The study thus, recommended that agricultural agencies and other stakeholders in Nigeria should embark on advocacy and awareness campaign to farmer’s cooperative societies/groups on the uses of Internet for sourcing agricultural information.
The current climate change is affecting the environment in diverse ways. Some of the effects are good and some others bad. The good side has not been given its deserved attention in Nigeria, nor has it in most parts of the world. Some areas are becoming warmer and wetter, which could en- hance agriculture. This paper therefore examined the rainfall and temperature trends as tools of climate change over Kano State, north-western Nigeria, which is an area well known for agricul- ture. Rainfall and temperature data covering a period of 43 years (1971-2013) were collected and analyzed using the moving averages, regression and correlation statistics. Results obtained showed gradual but steady increases in both temperature and rainfall. The results indicate that Kano State is warming at an average annual rate of 0.011˚C and becoming wetter at a rate of 21.26 mm per annum. An implication of this increased rainfall for farmers in the area is the opportunity to in- crease crop and animal production. This is because more rainfall can now be harvested. Also, soil moisture, rivers, dams, and ponds are being recharged more, thus making water more available and longer lasting for crops and animals.
As in most other developing countries, sexual assaults go mostly unreported in the subregion. Hence, the need for this audit. The objectives of the study therefore, are to determine the incidence, pattern of presentation and management of sexual assaults in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, North-West Nigeria.
Background: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer among women in Nigeria. The incidence is on the increase and poses a public health problem. The etiological agent is the human papilloma virus that is sexual transmitted. The cervical cancer incidence is related to lifestyle, poverty and sexual practices. Fortunately, it is a preventable disease as it is preceded by a pre-invasive phase that can be detected and treated. There is paucity of report in literature on cervical cancer screening in Sokoto North-West Nigeria. Aim: To determine the uptake, indications and results of cervical cancer screening in Usmanu Dan-fodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto. Materials and Methods: A 3-year descriptive study of the results of cervical cytology among women who attended the gynaecological out-patient clinic of UDUTH, Sokoto. Results: During the period of study, 126 cervical smears were taken and 96% (121/126) of them were considered adequate for cytological evaluation thus constituting the subjects of the study. The average annual uptake of cervical smear was 1.29%. The main indications for cytologic smears were abnormal uterine bleeding 33.9% (41/121) and suspected carcinoma of the cervix 28.1% (34/121). Cytologic study was positive for dysplastic cells in 7% (25/121) of cases. Ten percent (12/121) of them were high grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions while invasive carcinoma was seen in 3.3% (4/121) of the smears. Conclusion: Presence of abnormal cervical smear in 20% of the study subjects underscores the need for routine screening for cervical cancer. While organized national screening policy is awaited, opportunistic screening should be maximized.
Abstract The geochemistry of surface soils and stream sediments from the Birnin-Gwari area in the north-western Nigeria Schist Belt was studied in order to assess the environmental impact of small-scale artisanal mining of quartz-gold-sulfide mineralization. Total elemental concentration was measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results show elevated concentrations of silica, zirconium and paucity of base cations due to intense tropical weathering, accompanied by removal of fine labile fractions by wet season flooding and dry directional winds. This has implication for water chemistry in the area, especially with respect to pH due to low buffering capacity. The results further show that artisanal mining has not caused severe potentially toxic elements contamination. The consistently higher arsenic concentrations, relative to baseline values, were found not to vary between the mine-impacted and background areas. It is therefore interpreted to have been contributed by the use of agrochemicals in the area. The study has not found a significant human health risk associated with potentially toxic element uptake from mine wastes. It is however recommended that the distribution of arsenic in the soils, sediments and surface water in the area should be further studied in order to ascertain the sources and possible human health implications.
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Europe and America, as been proposed . This possibility is further enhanced by our findings with the parotid having 27 (26.2%) cases and the submandibular 9 (8.7%). The sublingual gland had 4 (3.9%) cases, and this supports various reports about the rarity of SGTs in the sublingual gland . Traditionally, the distribution of salivary neoplasms between sites has followed a rule of 1:0.1:0.1:0.01 ratio for parotid, submandibular, minor salivary glands and sublingual tumours, respectively. Oti et al.  in Ghana, found a ratio of 3:2:1:0, while the site distribution ratio from our study was 3:1:7:0.44. With regards to the individual site distribution of the minor salivary gland tumours, palate was the most affected 23 (22.3%), while the floor of the mouth was the least af- fected 2 (1.9%) and is consistent with findings from previous studies in both Western and African continent   .
Background: Otitis media is one of the most common childhood infections, the leading cause of doctor’s visit by children in ENT clinic. The acute form if not recognized early is commonly char- acterized by suppuration from the middle ear following perforation of the tympanic membrane otherwise referred to as acute suppurative otitis media (ASOM). If not adequately treated, it pro- gresses to chronic suppurative otitis media with attendant challenges in management. Ceasation of ear discharge is an indication of resolution of disease. The objective of this study is to appraise the value of local ear suction toileting and dressing in the ceasation of ear discharge in acute sup- purative otitis media. Materials and Method: Consecutive new cases of acute suppurative otitis media seen at the Ear, Nose and Throat clinic of a tertiary health centre in north western Nigeria were assessed for efficacy of aural toileting and dressing with antibioctic impregnated guaze in the treatment of acute suppurative otitis media and compared with patients with similar disease without aural toileting and dressing or dressing with normal saline soaked guaze in addition to systemic antibiotic and antihistamine medications. Ear toileting was done by suctioning the dis- charge with suction machine, and cleaning the external auditory canal with hydrogen peroxide and methylated spirit. They were then dressed with gauze impregnated with antibiotic ear drops daily until there was no more ear discharge. The period of ceasation of ear discharge in each group was assessed. Results: There were 39 patients with acute suppurative otitis media (ASOM). Eight- een were females (46.2%) while 21 were males (53.8%), giving M:F ratio 1:2.1. Their ages ranged between 1 month and 45 years. About 36 (92.3%) were children and out of this, 28 (77.8%) were less than 5 years old. The average period of ceasation of discharge was 24 - 48 hours with those undergoing ear toileting and dressing but varied between 7 and 10 days with those without ear dressing or dressing with normal saline soaked guaze. This finding compelled us to stop the study
In this study we did not collect data on how many blood donors are vegetarians. Significant populations in So- koto, North Western Nigeria are predominantly Muslims. The number of vegetarians in the area is significantly low. It may have been useful to provide some discussion on the correlation between vegetarians and iron defi- ciency. Predominant numbers of blood donors in Nigeria are family replacement donors. Family replacement donor is one who gives blood when it is required by a member of the donor’s family or community. The number of voluntary donated blood in Nigeria is significantly lower compared to developed countries. In this present study we had only 2 voluntary donors among our consecutively recruited 150 blood donors. We have had to base our conclusions on comparing 148 family replacement donors to 2 voluntary donors. The disparity of the numbers in two groups may be too big to compare and to draw a conclusion. Similarly subjects recruited into this study were predominantly male. The number of women who donate blood in this environment is signifi- cantly low compared to observation in developed countries. Education, awareness and religious misconceptions may be responsible for this low female gender-related participation in the blood donation process in Sokoto, Nigeria.
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The species composition of western North Carolina varies greatly from eastern North Carolina and has a direct effect on products harvested and purchased by mills. More valuable hardwoods in the western region cause the demand for sawtimber to be the main product, while more abundant softwoods and domination of yellow pine species create the demand for pulpwood as the main product in eastern North Carolina (Frederick & Sink 2010). International markets for wood pellets as fuel have driven biomass markets in eastern North Carolina because of the availability of raw materials, cheap logging rates and less regulation. The proximity to eastern seaboard ports also makes eastern North Carolina an ideal supplier for this international market. Sustainability requirements for biomass markets abroad are often more stringent than in the United States. Certification is an important market influence because of the social pressure for the growing biomass markets to prove their sustainability.
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The majority of anaemic children (76.2%) are under the age of 5 years: The most frequently affected age is 2 years (23.8%) with a male to female ratio of 2:1 . In various African settings about 12 to 29% of hospitalized children have severe anaemia with hospital case fatality rates ranging from 8 to 17% . Severe anaemia is a major paediatric problem in Nigeria. It is associated with many untoward effects, such as congestive cardiac failure, chest pain, jaundice, splenomegaly, joints pain, fever, and swelling of the limbs . Severe anaemia, which is a life threatening condition, is a common occurrence in paediatrics emergency units in hospitals in developing countries .
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The average annual pearl millet production in Nigeria during 2005-2010 is estimated at 6.28 million tons representing about 13.4% of total world production which ranks Nigeria as the second World largest producer after India and made it the third important cereal after maize and sorghum at national level. Despite its role in food provision, economic gains and long history as one of the northern people’s staple food in the northern region of Nigeria, pearl millet production is still at subsistence level. This could be attributed to the dearth of studies that empirically present the profitability of this vital crop which would serve as a means of providing information for prospective investors in pearl millet production in Nigeria. This study would therefore inform farmers on how to increase returns in pearl millet production and improve both productivity and their standard of living thereby having positive implications on food security and economic growth in the country.
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Comparing of probability density functions according to the observed data with Weibull and Rayleigh models for the investigated sites as illustrated in Figures 1-4 below. It can be seen from Figures 1 and 2 that Bauchi and Maiduguri shows peak values of 1.01795 and 1.06044 for Weibull while values for Rayleigh are 0.29367 and 0.14886 respectively. It can also be seen from Figures 3 and 4 that Sokoto and Kano shows peak values 0.24150 and 0.31089 for Weibull while values for Rayleigh are 0.81073 and 0.09162 respectively. Table 6. Weibull distribution parameters for northwest (Kano & Sokoto) and northeast (Bauchi & Maiduguri) Nigeria.
There is an average increase in temperature in Zaria and also an increase in the average solar radiation over Zaria. Hence, the rise in temperature over Zaria could be attributed to the rise in solar radiation over Zaria. It is also clear from analysis that there is a 1.87% decadal changes in minimum temperature around Zaria area, Kaduna State, Nigeria in line with the general knowledge of global warming and climate change.
Abstract : This study assessed Information Communication Technology (ICT)integration in four state Colleges of Education in North Western, Nigeria. The study focuses on three criteria of technology adoption: availability, utilization and integration. This becomes imperative given that the prospective teachers the colleges produce will operate in school systems and with students that were influenced by global trends in information explosion. Also, like most educational innovations, the use of ICT in schools should satisfy the key demands of availability and accessibility to learners who demand its effective utilization, and, above all, integration into all facets of curricular and pedagogical practices. The study used the cross-sectional survey design since it aims at a description and evaluation of existing characteristics of a large population of respondents, by concurrently studying different samples drawn from the population. Data werecollated using questionnaires administered on lecturers and computer laboratory technicians of the selected Colleges. The data was analyzed using percentages and means. The major finding of the study is that ICT presence in these colleges was still peripheral due to lack of access to internet connectivity. It was therefore recommended that the schools should expand their ICT capability, the students be given proper orientation and training on the uses and benefits of ICT and that ICT integration must begin from the teacher training curriculum of the institutions.
II. S OURCE O F D ATA F OR T HE P RESENT S TUDY Four aeromagnetic maps sheets numbers 29, 30, 10, and 11 that cover Dange, Gandi, Sokoto and Rabah respectively were used. These maps were produced by the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA), which carried out an aeromagnetic survey of substantial part of Nigeria between 1974 and 1980. The data were collected at a nominal flight attitude of 500ft along N-S flight lines spaced approximately 2km apart. The maps are on a scale of 1:100,000 and half degree by half degree with a contour interval of 10 gammas. The regional correction applied to the aeromagnetic data was based on the international geomagnetic reference field (IGRF) epoch data of 1 st January 1974 was applied to all the data.
Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in the semi-urban area of Argungu, Kebbi State Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty five pregnant women were included in the study after informed verbal consent was obtained. For each participant, the socio-demographic profile, stage of pregnancy and attitude to the use of insecticide- treated nets (ITNs) were investigated using a questionnaire. Peripheral blood samples were collected and thick blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa stains to check for malaria parasitaemia. The associations between age, education level and use of ITNs with occurrence of malaria infection during pregnancy were analysed using the chi-square test. Results: One hundred and six (41.6%) out of 255 pregnant women were infected with malaria parasites, with a mean parasite density of 800 parasites μ l −1 . It was found that prevalence and parasite density decreased as age increased. The chi-square test indicated that a lack of education and non-usage of ITNs were significantly associated with malaria infection.