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 Estimation of leaf area index and assessment of its allometric equations in oak forests: Northern Zagros, Iran

 Estimation of leaf area index and assessment of its allometric equations in oak forests: Northern Zagros, Iran

The oak forests of Baneh (a small town in Iran) are among the most important natural ecosys- tems located in the northern Zagros Mountains, and despite their importance, they have not been studied comprehensively so far. These forests are the richest in the number of oak species in com- parison with forests of central and southern Za- gros, and Lebanon oak (Quercus libani Oliv.) is one of the dominant tree species in these forests. Although the policy of Iran’s Forest and Rangeland Organization is to conserve these forests, due to the lack of social acceptance and participation, this policy has not been successfully implemented yet (Ebrahimi-Rastaghi 2001; Ghazanfari et al. 2004). Consequently, traditional exploitations by local communities living in these regions have still continued. Long-term heavy dependence of forest dwellers upon forests resulted in the construction of special relationships named traditional forestry (Valipour et al. 2009). Because of grinding pov- erty of the local people, the villagers cut branches off oak trees as fodder supply. This process is as follows: each traditional owner of an area of the forest divides his forest area into 3 or 4 sections; every year in the late growing season, all branch- es of trees in one of these sections are pollarded; thereafter, the leaf-bearing pollarded branches will be stored to be used in winter. The principal objec- tive of this traditional forest management pursued by forest owners in the region is the production of fodder for domestic animals, firewood and timber (Ghazanfari et al. 2004). In addition, grazing prevents natural regeneration of trees (Ebrahimi- Rastaghi 2001) and leads to old even-aged stands in the forests; hence, the stability of the ecosystem would be threatened. Under present circumstanc- es, basic information such as biomass, LAI and its allometric relationships is needed to choose a cor- rect forest management strategy before the valu- able forests of this region are totally destroyed.

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Crown Biomass Relationships of Lebanon Oak in Northern Zagros Forests of Iran

Crown Biomass Relationships of Lebanon Oak in Northern Zagros Forests of Iran

Allometric relationships for estimating the biomass of the crown of Lebanon oak (Quercus libani Oliv.) have been developed through using biometric parameters such as the diameter at breast height, tree height, crown length, and crown width. The study was conducted in Ar­ mardeh forests in Iran’s northern Zagros mountains; for a long time the local people have been pollarding the crown of oak trees in these forests for their traditional uses. After the local people entirely cut the crowns of 48 sample trees, the weight of the crowns and their constitut­ ing components (leaves and branches) were measured. The results showed that the amount of the crown biomass of Lebanon oak at the stand level is about 4.98±0.81 tons ha –1 (95% confi-

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Study of plant diversity in the Northern Zagros forest (Case study: Marivan region)

Study of plant diversity in the Northern Zagros forest (Case study: Marivan region)

2 | Page 1988). The study of plant diversity in the zagros forest showed in the northern Zagros Mountains since there is 165 woody species (tree and shrub) in Zagros and 182 bush and herbaceous species only in northern Zagros (Jazirehi and Rostaghi, 2003). Study of floristic and plant species diversity of the Lebanon oak site (Quercus libani) in the western Iran and results showed the mean diversities were found the highest in northern and northwestern and lowest in northeastern aspect in the shrub layer (Pourbabaei and Navgran, 2011). Researcher studied the Structural diversity of oak forests in Kurdistan Province and results showed that Quercus libani Oliv and Quercus infectoria Oliv were the most dominant woody plants. The results showed with increase of diameter and height classes species diversity decreased. A significant different was observed between tree diversity of the diameter and height classes (level of 1%). Thus, the study of biodiversity changes in different diameter and height category cause ecologically precise perspective in management of forest stands (Haidari et al, 2012). Researcher studied the impact of single selection method logging on the tree and shrub diversity in the Hyrcanian forests and results showed that Results showed that shrub layer had the higher diversity indices (richness, diversity and evenness). In total Single selection method Logging has negative effect in the tree and shrub diversity (Haidari et al, 2012). Researcher studied of the plant biodiversity in grazed and non-grazed areas in the Iran-o-Turanian Ecological zones and results showed that Gramineae, Compositae, Labiatae, Rosacae and Anacariaceae families have the highest number of species. Pistacia atlantica and Amygdalus communis were the most dominant woody plants for class of tree and Acantholimon sp. And Astragalus spp were the most dominant Shrub plants, respectively. Bromus tectorum and poa sinacia were dominant herbaceous species. Herbaceous layer had the highest richness, evenness and diversity (Haidari et al, 2012).The aim of this study is evaluating of the plant diversity in the Kurdistan province, Northern Zagros forest, and west of Iran.

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Evaluation of different sampling method to study of tree density (tree/hectare) in the Zagros forest

Evaluation of different sampling method to study of tree density (tree/hectare) in the Zagros forest

Results of table 4 showed that by used the (T × %E 2 ) criteria best suitable sampling was rectangular sample with 20 m×50methods. Collection of appropriate qualitative, quantitative and diversity data is necessary for proper management and planning (Naghavi et al, 2009). For maintaining of Zagros forests role in wild life, water and soil conservation, the suitable solutions and methods for assessing the existing conditions and planning for management of this forests should be given (Karamshahi et al, 2012). To determine a suitable method, based on precision and cost, of inventory in Western oak forests (Nimvari et al, 2002). rectangular sample with 20×50 m and 10×50 in the 100× 100 m net, random sampling method with 40, 50 and 60 circle sample plots which everyone was 1000 m 2 and Transect (with 100 meter length in the 100× 100 m net, and this sampling methods compared with perfect inventory. The tree and shrub species that identified in the studied region belonged to six trees and shrub species in four families. The presence of six tree and shrub species in 40 ha area indicates not considerable diversity in the study area (table 1). Rosacae family had high number of species (table 2). Quercus libani Oliv was the most dominant woody plants for the class of tree. Table 2 showed that the rectangular sample with (20 ×50m) and (10 ×50m) have a maximum of accuracy, minimum of inventory error and nearest of density (tree/ha) in compere of real quantity (Perfect inventory). These sampling methods are suitable methods for study of tree density. Results showed that the rectangular sample with (20 ×50m) and (10 ×50m) have a maximum of accuracy, minimum of inventory error and nearest of density (tree/ha) in compere of real quantity (Perfect inventory). These sampling methods are suitable methods for study of tree density (table 2). After the statistical analysis and detected of significant and non-significant different between sampling methods use the compering the accuracy and costs index (%E 2 × T) to determination suitable sampling methods. Results showed that by used the (T × %E 2 ) criteria best suitable sampling was rectangular sample with 20 m×50methods (table 4). Overall results showed that the rectangular sample with 20 m×50m sampling methods were the suitable methods was suitable to study of density (tree/ha) and Heidari et al, 2009 emphasis this this results. Authors suggested to study of tree density (tree/hectare) in the northern zagros forest used the rectangular sample with 20 m×50m sampling methods.

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Study qualities and quantities tree parameters in the protected and non-protected areas in the Dena Biosphere Reserve

Study qualities and quantities tree parameters in the protected and non-protected areas in the Dena Biosphere Reserve

in the degraded forest stands can be suggested as a suitable approach for natural restoration and increasing plant diversity (Haidari et al, 2012a). The researcher studied of tree regeneration in the grazed and non-grazed areas in the Iran-o- Turanian Ecological Zones and results showed Regeneration in non-grazed region was less than grazed region. T-test indicated significant difference between non-grazed and grazed region for sound and height seedlings. Overall results showed that the grazing have a negative effects on regeneration. To manage of this forest authors suggested that continue preservative plans (non-grazed area) and provide foliage for cattle (Haidari et al, 2013b). The researcher study of vertical and horizontal forest structure in Northern Zagros Forest and results showed that Overall results showed Blake forest was two forest story and Quercus libani Oliv and Quercus infectoria Oliv were the most dominant woody plants and located in over story (Haidari et al, 2013a).The aim of our study was comparing of qualities and quantities tree parameters in the protected and non-protected area in the Dena Biosphere Reserve, Kohkeloye va Boyrahmad province, central zagros forest, southwest of Iran.

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Evaluation of different sampling method to study of Diameter at Breath Height in the Zagros forest

Evaluation of different sampling method to study of Diameter at Breath Height in the Zagros forest

as a dependent variable in multivariate linear regression improved the results (Gharamani et al, 2012). The researcher studied different sampling method to study of tree density (tree/hectare) in the Zagros forest and Results showed that the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sample methods was the best methods and have maximum of accuracy. Overall results showed that the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sampling methods was (have minimum of time and %E2×T criteria) the suitable methods to study of density (Haidari et al, 2013a). The researcher study of vertical and horizontal forest structure in Northern Zagros Forest and results showed that Overall results showed Blake forest was two forest story and Quercus libani Oliv and Quercus infectoria Oliv were the most dominant woody plants and located in over story (Haidari et al, 2013). The aim of our study was comparing the accuracy and precision of several of the sampling methods to study of tree diversity and tree parameters in northern zagros forest.

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Determination of suitable sampling methods for study of canopy cover in the Oak Forest

Determination of suitable sampling methods for study of canopy cover in the Oak Forest

2009). The researcher Comparison of circular plot and transect sampling methods in the Zagros Oak Forests, for this purpose and based on cost and precision (E% 2 × T) criterion. Results showed that the more suitable method for these forests in west of Iran is the circular sample plot with 1000m2 area (Heidari et al, 2009). The researcher studied the estimation of Basal Area in west Oak forests of Iran using remote sensing imagery and results showed that the square root of basal area without consideration of aspects has a high correlation with band B1 (r = –0.60). The consideration of aspects resulted in corre-lation of different indices with square root of basal area such that in northern forests, band B1 had higher correlation coefficient(r = –0.67) among other indices. In Eastern forests, the same band showed correlation of basal area with dif-ferent correlation coefficient (r = –0.65). In southern and western forests, the square root of basal area had higher corre-lation (r = –0.68) with RVI. The use of the square root of basal area as a dependent variable in multivariate linear regression improved the results (Gharamani et al, 2012). The researcher study of vertical and horizontal forest structure in Northern Zagros Forest and results showed that Overall results showed Blake forest was two forest story and Quercus libani Oliv and Quercus infectoria Oliv were the most dominant woody plants and located in over story (Haidari et al, 2013). The aim of our study was comparing the accuracy and precision of several of the sampling methods to study of canopy cover (%) in northern zagros forest.

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Plant Species Diversity in Jokhaneh Plain and Southern Slope of the Nil Mt. in Kohgilouyeh va Boyerahmad Province (Central Zagros Region of Iran)

Plant Species Diversity in Jokhaneh Plain and Southern Slope of the Nil Mt. in Kohgilouyeh va Boyerahmad Province (Central Zagros Region of Iran)

72 and 6.11, respectively. Low average sp/gen ratio, appears to be related to Zagros region being a refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM) (Mashkour et al., 2009), where, many species did not survive. Species to family, species to genera and genera to family ratios in this region were comparable to those for another study in northern part of central Zagros region, with 24 local floras mainly located in Lorestan, Hamedan, Kermanshah and Khuzestan provinces (Veiskarami and Sharifi-Tehrani, 2017). γ- diversity value which is defined by Whittaker (1972) as the total species diversity in the region, in our dataset comprising 28 local floras showed that about 27% of the known species in flora of Iran exists in this region. β- diversity between all pairs of local floras (Appendix 2) ranges from 27 (between floras of Savers; ID: 303, and flora of Mt. Pahn, ID: 313) to max 926 (between floras of Parishan Lake; ID: 44, and flora of Ardakan, ID: 312). Values demonstrated high floristic variations between 28 local floras.

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Mineralogy, geochemistry and stable iosotope studies of the dopolan bauxite deposit, Zagros Mountain, Iran

Mineralogy, geochemistry and stable iosotope studies of the dopolan bauxite deposit, Zagros Mountain, Iran

The Zagros orogenic/metallogenic belt extends from the Turkish–Iranian border in NW to the Makran zone in SE Iran [37]. This belt consists of five tectonically related parallel zones: Zagros simple folded belt, the “Crushed zone” or High Zagros, the Main Zagros thrust, the Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, and the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic arc [38]. The High Zagros is characterized by earlier deformation, large offsets on basement faults, steep contacts with surrounding zones and more ductile deformation [39] (Figure 1). The geomorphology of the Dopolan area is characterized by many mountain peaks, up to 2200 m high separated by deep valleys. The Dopolan bauxite is located in a large structure called the Sabzkuh–Kelar Synclinorium, which is bounded by two thrust faults. In the studied area, the Zagros stratigraphy consists of Cambrian to Quaternary sequences. The oldest strata are located on limbs and youngest rocks in the core of sycnclinorium, uplifted by faults [32].

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Flora of Jahanbin Mountain Area: A Contribution to Flora of the Central Zagros Region of Iran

Flora of Jahanbin Mountain Area: A Contribution to Flora of the Central Zagros Region of Iran

Flora of Jahanbin mountain area in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, located between Shahrekord and Hafshejan cities, with 12’187 hectares and 2’150 to 3’300 m elevation above sea level, is investigated. Vegetation of this area comprises of 273 species, 189 genera and 42 families. Asteraceae (37 species, 13.5%), Poaceae (31 species, 11.3%) and Fabaceae (25 species, 9.1%) were the most important families regarding the number of species. The largest genera were Astragalus (9 species), Euphorbia (8 species), Silene, Hordeum, Ranunculus, Salvia (5 species each) and Galium, Centaurea, Scorzonera, Bunium (4 species each). Dominant life forms in this area were Hemicryptophytes and Therophytes. 149 species (55%) were native to Irano- Turanian region, 77 species (28%) pluri-regional, and 41 species (15%) shared elements between IT and neighboring regions (Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean, or Saharo-Sindian). This study reports also results of the first multivariate analysis of presence/absence data of floristic data in Iran, for a 14 flora x 1541 species matrix. Three main clusters of local floras emerged in resultant plots, separating the floras in western and eastern hillsides of Zagros, and based also on the climatic differences in northern and southern parts of the province in the eastern hillside. Our study demonstrated the applications of multivariate technics for comparative floristic analyses.

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Parthian Settlement Patterns in the Central Zagros Region of Western Iran

Parthian Settlement Patterns in the Central Zagros Region of Western Iran

The data were acquired through an archaeological survey in the Central Zagros region by potterycollectionand accurate sampling. Eleven townships in the provinces of Kermanshah, Hamadan, Kurdistan, and Ilam,including Kangavar, Sahneh, Harsin, Kermanshah, Assadabad, Tuyserkan, Malayer, Marivan, and ShirvanChardaval (Hulilan), were selected through locational analysis, with the aim of identifying the settlement patterns and the regional conditions during the Parthian period in this geographical area. Overall, 623 sites were identified, of which 340 mounds and areas dating to the Parthian period were described,and data was gathered from those sites to create a databankfor GIS analysis. The total survey area was approximately 11,000 square

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Modeling of Suitability Iranian Oak site for establishing of coppice regeneration in Zagros forest

Modeling of Suitability Iranian Oak site for establishing of coppice regeneration in Zagros forest

These Zagros forests cover approximately an area of 5 million ha, and because of dominancy of species of oak genus, these forests are called as western oak forests. Results showed that the approximately of 41 percent of study area have a suitable condition for coppice regeneration. Overall results showed that the physiographic element, soil depth and population center (village) was the major element on Modeling of establishment of coppice regeneration Iranian Oak. Prevention of livestock grazing and irregular tree cutting in the degraded forest stands can be suggested as a suitable approach for natural restoration and increasing plant diversity and regenerations.

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The Elements of Fold Style Analysis in the Khaftar Anticline, Zagros, Iran

The Elements of Fold Style Analysis in the Khaftar Anticline, Zagros, Iran

In the Zagros fold-thrust belt, structural analysis of surface and subsurface data shows that salt layers such as Cambrian Hormuz and the Miocene Gasharan have direct control on the structural style [14]. Until now, In the Zagros fold-thrust belt, many studies have been done on to variation of structural style and effects of detachment folding on folding pattern [12] [13]. Also, many researchers discussed basement involvement and reactivated structures in the Zagros fold-thrust belt and its roll on folding pattern, e.g. [10] [15]-[18]. Several researchers, such as Kashfi (1972), Falkon (1969), Alavi (1994), Letouzey (2005) and Sherkati et al., (2005), emphasized the role of mechanical stratigraphy on the structural style as in above-mentioned.

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Assessment Hydro geochemical of Karst springs in Zagros Mountain, Iran

Assessment Hydro geochemical of Karst springs in Zagros Mountain, Iran

Saldaran Mountain is located in centeral of Zagros in Caharmahal-Bakhtiari province, Iran (Figure 2). Most of this mountain is composed of limestone-dolomite Asmari formation, which is cover, by im marl formation (or sand and marl Aghajari Formation) and underlain by shale and marly Pabdeh-Gurpi formation. Because of high elevation of the Pabdeh-Gurpi core, the hydrogeological relationship of two flanks is disconnected in most parts of the anticline (Figure 1).The highest elevation is up to 3563 m above sea level in the top of Saldaran Mountain, while the minimum absolute elevation is about 2050 m in the Pir-e-qar spring. Climate of the study area is of semiarid to Mediterranean type with a cool winter and a dry summer. The study area receives an average of about 630 mm of rainfall per year and discharge between 0.8 to 12m 3 .

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A New Approach to Permian System in the Section of Gahkum Mountain (Zagros Iran)

A New Approach to Permian System in the Section of Gahkum Mountain (Zagros Iran)

Szabo [2] studied the stratigraphy of the Permian and Triassic in Zagros basin and recognized two important unconformities in lower Permian and upper Tri- assic and one sedimentary gap between Triassic and Permian deposits. Szabo [2] reported the permotriassic stratigraphy in Kuh-e-Gahkum. He reports no out- crop at the boundary of Dalan and Faraghan Formations, and no gypsum layer was observed in Dalan Formation. In a report entitled The stratigraphy of the sedimentary units of Central Zagros and Lorestan Mountains, he assigned Lower Permian deposits to Ordovician age or even older, whereas he assigned them to Silurian age in Faraghan and Gahkum areas (northern Bandarabbas).

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Parameterization of SSM Model to Analyze Wheat Growth and Yield Potential Under Pakdasht Conditions

Parameterization of SSM Model to Analyze Wheat Growth and Yield Potential Under Pakdasht Conditions

The model was evaluated by using the cultivars Mahdavi, Narin, Pishgam, Zagros, Pishtaz, and Sirvan which were tested in previouse years in the same condition and the results of leaf area (m² / m²) LAI, fraction of available water FASW, accumulated crown dry weight (g / m²) WTOP, accumulated seed dry weight (grams per square meter) WGRN, seed growth rate (grams per square meter per day) SGR, product growth rate (grams per square meter per day) DBP, daily transpiration (mm / day) TR were shown graphically. The cultivar Pishtaz—common to the Pakdasht area—is described as an example.

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Evaluation of Crategus sp. spatial pattern in the Central Zagros Forest

Evaluation of Crategus sp. spatial pattern in the Central Zagros Forest

How to cite this article: Yousef Askari, Elmira Kafash Saei, Sehar Delpasand, Dorna Rezaei, Evaluation of Crategus sp. spatial pattern in the Central Zagros Forest. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2018, 6(4), 266- 272.

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Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Potential in the Jahrom Area, Interior Fars, Zagros

Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Potential in the Jahrom Area, Interior Fars, Zagros

The study area is located in the Fars area (Interior Fars sub-basin). This area, which is part of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, is located in Zagros simple folded sub zone. It is known as one of the most important regions in the world Gas rich. In this area, anticlinal folds are a different orientation of such as the North Western-South Eastern, East-West and North Eastern-South Western. The Karbasi and Khaftar anticlines are case study anticlines in the interior Fars sub-basin (Fassa area). The anticlines in the Fars region, which are lo- cated in the Zagros fold-thrust belt, are valuable because they possess several hydrocarbons. The main aim of this paper is evaluation of hydrocarbon po- tential in the Jahrom area (Interior Fars) based on interpretation of the Iso- pach maps and well data. This paper presents part of the results of a regional study of the Coastal Fars area in the Zagros Simply folded belt, based on orig- inal fieldwork, satellite images, structural sections, geological maps and well data. In order to investigate of periods Nezamabad fault activity, Isopach maps of the study area has been prepared based on well drilling data and the thickness of the drilled formations. In this study utilizes the thickness of the drilled formations in the study area, for each sedimentary unit was carried out to prepare Isopach maps. The Isopach map prepared based on GIS software method and exploration well data. The Nezamabad fault has been lacked of activity at the deposition time of the Dalan, Kangan, Dashtak, Fahliyan, Gad- van, Dariyan, Kazhdomi, Sarvak, Gurpi and Pabdeh formations within the Khaftar and Karbasi anticline area. Accordingly, changes in basin floor, at the time of sedimentation these formations has not been affected by the Nezama- bad fault. Probably the Nezamabad fault has been activated during deposition of the Surmeh, Hith, Laffan and Ilam formations and in this area paleo-basin has been controlled by this fault. In other words, it seems that, activity of the Nezamabad fault in this area have been limited to Jurassic and Cretaceous pe- riods (Coniacian and Senomanian). This can means that in this periods time, the Nezamabad fault have been active sedimentation along with tectonic How to cite this paper: Hosseinpour, M.

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The Pleistocene Occupations of the Kohgilouyeh ‎Region, Southern Zagros, Iran

The Pleistocene Occupations of the Kohgilouyeh ‎Region, Southern Zagros, Iran

As mentioned above, through archaeological surveys in the Kohgiluyeh region twenty sites attributed to the Epipaleolithic Period have been identified (Fig. 2). Archaeological evidence of this Period mainly includes the stone tools which were obtained from four groups of sites including open sites (9 sites), rock shelters (6 sites), caves (3 caves), and mounded sites (2 sites). Open sites include the sites of Pol-e Borideh, Tamsit, Sarpari, Bibi Zoleikhaei, Dehdasht, Sargodar, Imam Ibrahim, Tang-e La Lirab, and Maroon 1. In terms of elevation above sea level, the sites of Bibi Zoleikhaei and Sargodar with elevations of 678m and 2054m asl are the lowest and the highest sites respectively. Based on the surface scatters of stone tools, the site of Imam Ibrahim is the largest (ca. 3ha) and the site of Sargodar is the smallest site (ca. 400 square meters). The distribution of open sites does not show any special focus, as from the perspective of the geomorphology; these sites are located in several different types of landscapes. In general, these sites are distributed in the margins of the Maroon River and in the landscape of rolling hills close to the river (Tamsit, Maroon 1, and Bibi Zoleikhaei), the northern parts and in the mountainous landscape of this region (Tang-e La and Imam Ibrahim), in the southern part of the rolling Plain of Dehdasht (Sarpari and Dehdasht), and in the southeast of the region (the site of Sargodar).

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Issues in the Study of Palaeoclimate and Palaeoenvironment in the Early Holo¬cene of the Central Zagros, Iran

Issues in the Study of Palaeoclimate and Palaeoenvironment in the Early Holo¬cene of the Central Zagros, Iran

Jones and Roberts (2008), question whether the isotope record from Lake Zeribar necessarily represents a period of low, predominantly winter precipitation during the Early Holocene in the Central Zagros. The negative isotope records, -7‰, which are below those of today and those further west in Turkey, could be explained by a number of other factors that influence oxygen isotope values in precipitated lake carbonates, including the greater distance of Zeribar from westerly source areas, with the heavier isotope δ 18 O preferentially rained out, and/or a change in storm tracks, which can result in up to 6‰ variation in δ 18 O values. In addition, lake system water residence times in the small relatively shallow and probably seasonally closed system of Lake Zeribar, are likely to differ from those in larger or open systems, such as at Lake Van, making comparisons difficult.

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