Nuclear Waste Management/decommissioning and Dismantling

Top PDF Nuclear Waste Management/decommissioning and Dismantling:

Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD)

Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD)

• In February 2006, the IAEA initiated a new project on providing technical assistance to Iraq. The objective of the project is to assist the Government of Iraq with the evaluation and decommissioning of the facilities that have used radioactive material in the past and were damaged by the Gulf wars and subsequent looting. The Agency project has progressed well and continued support is being given by experts from France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, South Africa, Canada, United Kingdom, Ukraine and the USA. Project information and results are available on the Agency’s website. A draft nuclear law was been prepared in 2008, as well as regulations covering decommissioning, radiation protection and waste management. The project has enabled Iraqi experts to draft policy and strategy documents for the management of radioactive waste. In addition, the Government of Iraq has begun decommissioning a few lightly contaminated sites in line with the prioritisation of decommissioning activities agreed in 2007. Support for these decommissioning activities is provided to Iraq via a practical training programme in decommissioning, radiation protection, waste management and waste disposal. • As part of its wider programme of technical assistance to Member States, IAEA is providing
Show more

55 Read more

DECOMMISSIONING COST ANALYSIS. for the MONTICELLO NUCLEAR GENERATING PLANT

DECOMMISSIONING COST ANALYSIS. for the MONTICELLO NUCLEAR GENERATING PLANT

The Monticello site consists of a single boiling water reactor nominally rated to produce approximately 653 megawatts of electricity (MW). The currently projected cost to decommission the station (Scenario 1) is estimated at $1,146 million, as reported in 2011 dollars. Two additional estimates are provided for extended spent fuel storage scenarios (Scenarios 2 and 3). The estimates are based on numerous fundamental assumptions, including regulatory requirements, low-level radioactive waste disposal practices, high-level radioactive waste management options, site restoration requirements, and project contingencies. The estimates incorporate a minimum cooling period for the spent fuel that resides in the storage pool when operations cease. Any residual fuel remaining in the pool after the cooling period is relocated to the ISFSI to await transfer to a DOE facility. The estimates also include the dismantling of site structures and non-essential facilities and the limited restoration of the site.
Show more

140 Read more

Decommissioning of nuclear installations and waste management. Nuclear liabilities arising out of the activities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) carried out under the Euratom Treaty. SEC (2004) 621 final, 19 May 2004

Decommissioning of nuclear installations and waste management. Nuclear liabilities arising out of the activities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) carried out under the Euratom Treaty. SEC (2004) 621 final, 19 May 2004

For the other sites, taking into account the uncertainty over the shutdown dates for the installations, the programme has been designed as if decommissioning were to start in 2015 at Petten and 2025 at Geel and Karlsruhe. Before final shutdown of the installations, programme activity at these sites will basically consist of processing existing waste and nuclear materials (fuel). At Karlsruhe, some limited dismantling of obsolete equipment (glove boxes) is also planned to take place before final shutdown of the installations. The JRC sites at Karlsruhe and Petten will also be drawing up a provisional decommissioning plan in 2004-2005. Such a plan already exists for Geel, where it is a national legal requirement, and also for Ispra, as would be expected since the programme is already well under way. This plan makes it possible to record the physical and radiological state of the installation and the estimated decommissioning cost. It is regularly updated to take account of physical and radiological changes and background developments (legislation, cost of works, storage costs, etc.).
Show more

42 Read more

Risk, Scale and Exclusion in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management

Risk, Scale and Exclusion in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management

The NWMO’s scaled representations of the knowledges of Aboriginal peoples, suggest that they have little to no experience of the nuclear fuel chain, have no experience or knowledge of the effects of radioactivity or NFW, and that they have nothing to contribute to understanding the effects of NFW management or the “nature of the hazard” of radioactive waste. The accounts of the SRFN however, reveal the existence of knowledge about radioactivity, and make visible a lived nuclear landscape of which they, as an Aboriginal people, have a disproportionate experience. As one Elder poignantly states, “The impact it had for our people is, is far greater than what happened to ah, the white society. It was. It’s a sad thing when you look at it in that respect to see what happened to our people” (Elder SRFN July 27/04). Accounts such as those of the SRFN provide evidence of the existence of nuclear oases (Blowers 1999) where the externalities of the nuclear industry, in this case peripheral geographies of uranium mining, milling and tailings disposal, are concentrated, and who they are concentrated on. The oral histories of the SRFN bring into focus whole dimensions of the nuclear industry carefully kept out of view. Further, in privileging knowledge which is tied to a specific experience of place and rooted in direct lived experience, their accounts implicitly challenge the nuclear industry’s apparent ability to transcend the epistemological constraint of space-time to make (optimistic and positive) claims about the nature of radioactive material far into the future.
Show more

34 Read more

Decontamination   and Decommissioning Activities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez   (W528)

Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez (W528)

Centre of Radioactive Waste Management (further also Centre) performs decontamination and decommissioning activities as well as management of RAW. The Centre provides complex services, i.e. the taking-over of RAW, characterization, storage, processing and conditioning into a form allowing the disposal into the repository for RAW. The Centre operates the technology for RAW treatment and also provides the storage of spent fuel from the research nuclear reactor LVR-15 operated by NRI in the High level waste store. Laboratory of RAW characterization, which is an integral part of the Centre, develops new radiological waste characterization procedures. Laboratory of decontamination is also an important part of the Centre.
Show more

8 Read more

Final Report of the National Cooperation Group on Nuclear Waste Management

Final Report of the National Cooperation Group on Nuclear Waste Management

In June 2017, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment appointed a working group to explore the objectives, development measures and alternative solutions for safe and cost- efficient nuclear waste management and other radioactive waste management from today well into the future. It is the working group’s opinion that it is important to ensure appropriate management of all existing and future radioactive waste regardless of its origin, producer or production method. Finland must have in place procedures that cover the processing, storage and disposal of all nuclear waste originating in Finland, as well as other radioactive waste. It is expedient to primarily use the existing infrastructure to implement waste processing and disposal. This will require cooperation and development of the nuclear facilities’ licence procedures. From the licence holder’s perspective, cooperation is feasible if it does not affect companies’ electricity production or the sociological acceptability of operations. However, making changes to the licences of nuclear facilities is slow and expensive, and it will complicate cooperation with other licence holders. If licence procedures are to be developed by legislative means, every effort should be made to ensure flexibility while upholding the important principles of the Nuclear Energy Act such as risk-conscious approach to safety, the correct level of decision- making, the opportunity of local municipalities to influence, and society’s participation. In the future, steps must be taken to develop cooperation in areas affected by the Nuclear Energy Act, Radiation Act and Waste Act. Waste exempted from supervision under the Nuclear Energy Act and Radiation Act is harmless with respect to its radiation properties, in which case it is supervised under the Waste Act. However, certain prejudices are still attached to such waste, which makes its appropriate management more complicated.
Show more

90 Read more

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT AT THE NUCLEAR SCIENTIFIC AND EXPERIMENTAL CENTRE OF THE INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH AND NUCLEAR ENERGY - BAS

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT AT THE NUCLEAR SCIENTIFIC AND EXPERIMENTAL CENTRE OF THE INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH AND NUCLEAR ENERGY - BAS

One of the most important regulations aiding the implementation of ASUNE is the Regulation for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste [6]. This regulation stipulates that, for activities and facilities for RAW management, an individual effective dose for the critical group members of the public cannot exceed 0.15 mSv per year for new facilities and 0.25 mSv per year for existing facilities. Radioactive waste is stored in a manner ensuring adequate isolation from the environment and the population for the entire planned period of storage and facilitating the subsequent stages of their management. The licensee shall conduct safety assessments to assess the compliance of the facility or activity for RAW management with the objectives, requirements and criteria for safety and to determine whether an adequate level of safety has been attained.
Show more

6 Read more

Nuclear Waste Management Decision-Making Support with MCDA

Nuclear Waste Management Decision-Making Support with MCDA

The paper proposes a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework for a comparative evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies taking into account different local perspectives (expert and stakeholder opinions). Of note, a novel approach is taken using a multiple-criteria formulation that is methodologically adapted to tackle various conflicting criteria and a large number of expert/stakeholder groups involved in the decision-making process. The purpose is to develop a framework and to show its application to qualitative comparison and ranking of options in a hypothetical case of three waste management alternatives: interim storage at and/or away from the reactor site for the next 100 years, interim decay storage followed in midterm by disposal in a national repository, and disposal in a multinational repository. Additionally, major aspects of a decision-making aid are identified and discussed in separate paper sections dedicated to application context, decision supporting process, in particular problem structuring, objective hierarchy, performance evaluation modeling, sensitivity/robustness analyses, and interpretation of results (practical impact). The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of the MCDA framework developed to a generic hypothetical case and indicate how MCDA could support a decision on nuclear waste management policies in a “small” newcomer country embarking on nuclear technology in the future.
Show more

21 Read more

Annual progress report 1996 on exploring innovative approaches, reactor safety, radioactive waste management and disposal and decommissioning research areas of the 'Nuclear fission safety' programme 1994 98

Annual progress report 1996 on exploring innovative approaches, reactor safety, radioactive waste management and disposal and decommissioning research areas of the 'Nuclear fission safety' programme 1994-98

of passive safety injection system CMT -modification of the instrumentation -calibration and testina of equipment Third test series M16 Reconstruct the test facility MI 7 Deliver test da[r]

424 Read more

A Case Study: The First Coastal Nuclear Decommissioning Project in California

A Case Study: The First Coastal Nuclear Decommissioning Project in California

More up-front planning would have drastically changed the delay times due to permitting issues. SCE should have executed more extensive investigation on the permitting process early on to figure out what needed to be performed for permit approval. Once it was investigated by the owner, they should have begun educating the public on the dry cask storage, the structural integrity of the casks and the structural integrity of the ISFSI from the moment it was decided to decommission should have occurred. All that was found online to support SONGS’ on-site dry cask storage was merely facts, which to many people does not mean much; real-life examples must be included. The delays could have been mitigated by holding community engagement panel meetings more often than once every two months, including case studies of the 80 other nuclear sites that contain on-site storage and highlight the success in this approach, as written by (SONGS “Environmental Oversight”, 2019). It would also be important to search for articles posted by the public, and include an agenda item to discuss the concerns raised in the article and to highlight false statements.
Show more

9 Read more

Temporal Imaging CeBr3 Compton Camera: A New Concept for Nuclear Decommissioning and Nuclear Waste Management

Temporal Imaging CeBr3 Compton Camera: A New Concept for Nuclear Decommissioning and Nuclear Waste Management

Abstract—During nuclear decommissioning or waste management operations, a camera that could make an image of the contamination field and identify and quantify the contaminants would be a great progress. Compton cameras have been proposed, but their limited efficiency for high energy gamma rays and their cost have severely limited their application. Our objective is to promote a Compton camera for the energy range (200 keV – 2 MeV) that uses fast scintillating crystals and a new concept for locating scintillation event: Temporal Imaging.
Show more

5 Read more

Investigation of Nuclear Waste Management for Advanced Fuel Cycles.

Investigation of Nuclear Waste Management for Advanced Fuel Cycles.

the UREX process has never been operated in large enough scale to carry the waste generation data. To fill this required input parameter, the data was translated and derived from the French reprocessing waste treatment facility at La Hague[78]. It is unfortunate that the PUREX process flow data is not available. Otherwise it would be best to use all the relevant data from the same French facility. The document described the major waste from the facility in term of the total inventory (i.e. without specific detail on where each type of the wastes originated), as well as their treatment methodologies. The waste type included high and low level liquid wastes; and solid waste, which in the document was referred to as process waste and plant waste. These wastes were assumed to equally: (1) distribute across the waste types and (2) result from the process segments employed. The reprocessing scheme employed was assumed to include all head-end process with the exception of voloxidation, PUREX, off-gas treatment (Most of the effluent gas was released from that facility, hence very little waste from off-gas treatment process was assumed from the document) and no fuel fabrication process. The waste associated with fuel fabrication process was subtracted from the total IWMS waste before making a comparison. The comparison results are given in Table 3-23.
Show more

179 Read more

Feedback control based inverse kinematics solvers for a nuclear decommissioning robot

Feedback control based inverse kinematics solvers for a nuclear decommissioning robot

Particular challenges associated with such hydraulic systems include their friction characteristics, asymmetric actuation (Taylor & Robertson, 2013), hydraulic fluid compressibility (Sirouspour & Salcudean, 2001), valve saturations and dead- bands (Mohanty & Yao, 2011). Model uncertainties encompass the accumulation of oil contamination, potential leakages in the hydraulic circuit (Mohanty & Yao, 2011) and the changing viscosity of hydraulic fluid due to temperature variations (Kotzev et al., 1992). In the construction industry, automated prototypes include hydraulic manipulators for excavation and ground compaction (Shaban et al., 2008). For nuclear decommissioning, it is also necessary to take into account the large variety of items that have to be dismantled and the geometric changes that occur during the dismantling process (Taylor & Seward, 2010).
Show more

8 Read more

Towards a Cooperative Robotic System for Autonomous Pipe Cutting in Nuclear Decommissioning

Towards a Cooperative Robotic System for Autonomous Pipe Cutting in Nuclear Decommissioning

Abstract— A mobile camera is used to support an assisted teleoperation pipe–cutting system for nuclear decommissioning. The base system consists of dual–manipulators with a single mounted Kinect camera. The user selects the object from an on– screen image, whilst the computer control system automatically grasps the pipe with one end–effector and positions the second for cutting. However, the system fails in some cases because of data limitations, for example a partially obscured pipe in a challenging decommissioning scenario (simulated in the laboratory). Hence, the present article develops a new method to increase the use case scenarios via the introduction of mobile cameras e.g. for mounting on a drone. This is a non-trivial problem, with SLAM and ArUco fiducials introduced to locate the cameras, and a novel error correction method proposed for finding the ArUco markers. Preliminary results demonstrate the validity of the approach but improvements will be required for robust autonomous cutting. Hence, to reduce the pipe position estimation errors, suggestions are made for various algorithmic and hardware refinements.
Show more

6 Read more

Study on Simulation Method of the Smoke-dust in Nuclear Decommissioning Virtual Simulation

Study on Simulation Method of the Smoke-dust in Nuclear Decommissioning Virtual Simulation

For example, CEA-LIST started a few years ago a program called CHAVIR in order to develop a software tool for the simulation of interventions in nuclear working sites [2]. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNCDI) in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the OECD/NEA Halden Reactor Project in Norway have developed a Decommissioning Engineering Support System (DEXUS) for selecting appropriate dismantling plan at the planning stage of the decommissioning. Its VRdose modular can simulate 3D decommissioning scene [3]. SCK•CEN started in 1995 with the development of VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool [4]. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) developed a decommissioning Digital Mock-Up (DMU) system for simulating the relevant dismantling processes [5]. The Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology in company with the Institute of Computer Applications, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics studied simulation of a reactor decommissioning based on virtual reality technology. They have been carrying out some preliminary studies of the scene structure, the virtual dismantling, virtual decontamination, virtual dose display and virtual operating and other key technologies, and have developed a simulation system for reactor decommissioning based on virtual reality technology [6].
Show more

8 Read more

Development of an assisted teleoperation system for a dual manipulator nuclear decommissioning robot

Development of an assisted teleoperation system for a dual manipulator nuclear decommissioning robot

Snake like robots are becoming increasingly popular. Carnegie Mellon University has developed a series of modular snake robots that are very versatile and could be used for a variety of tasks [74, 75]. OC robotics [76, 77] also develop snake like robots, which have been used in a variety of applications from assembly of aircraft, to inspection of nuclear power plants. Snake arm robots can access hard to reach areas and work in confined spaces where more traditional robots cannot go. OC robotics recently provided snake arm robots with high pressure water jets mounted on the end for inspection and cleaning tasks of a tunnel boring machine in Miami [78]. The hazardous environments that tunnel boring machines operate in, makes inspection by humans dangerous and time consuming. Hence, by using a robot that is flexible enough to navigate within the large machine and provide video footage back to an operator, maintenance becomes much quicker and safer.
Show more

333 Read more

REMOTE CONTROL ROBOT FOR DECOMMISSIONING HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS OF NUCLEAR REACTOR

REMOTE CONTROL ROBOT FOR DECOMMISSIONING HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS OF NUCLEAR REACTOR

Abstract. The authors’ contribution to this paper is to present a possible designing solution concept of the remote control robot for the decommissioning of the nuclear reactor horizontal fuel channels. In this paper, the authors present several properties of geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the robot movement into the reactor fuel channel and a few considerations required due to material thickness, according to the radiation protection procedures. The main stages of the dismantling operation in terms of operational safety are: positioning, coupling and locking, operating accordingly with the approved decommissioning procedures, sorting and storing the extracted items in the robot container. All operating steps are designed to be automated and performed by one robot which shall provide radiation protection during the dismantling stages, thus ensuring radiation protection of the workers. The operations are monitored by internal sensors and transducers, by pyrometer for temperature during the cutting process and video surveillance cameras for the dismantling components, in order to ensure assembly of operating facilities and a permanent control. The remote control robot radiation protection has a safety system able to extract the robot from the channel in case of a disruption of the blocking or decommissioning activities due to any error registered, in order to ensure the environmental and workers’ protection.
Show more

7 Read more

Trends in Effective Nuclear Waste Management Procedures: Options for Nigeria’s Emerging Nuclear Power Industry

Trends in Effective Nuclear Waste Management Procedures: Options for Nigeria’s Emerging Nuclear Power Industry

Long-term above ground storage involves specially constructed facilities at the earth's surface that would be neither backfilled nor permanently sealed. Hence, this option would allow monitoring and retrieval at any time without excessive expenditure. In this method the nuclear waste is first is put in an intermediate and/or temporary storage facility, under strict safety conditions. This facility normally is a large wet storage reservoir, located next to the reactor. The wet storage reservoir is filled with boric acid, which helps to absorb some of the radiation given off by the radioactive nuclei inside the spent fuel elements. Inside this large wet storage reservoir the high-level radioactive isotopes become less radioactive as they decay and also generate less and less heat. Hence, the final disposal of HLW is delayed to allow its radioactivity to decay. Less than one thousandth of its initial radioactivity remains forty years after removal from the reactor and it is much easier to handle. Thus for at least this length of time canisters of vitrified waste, or spent fuel elements assemblies, are stored in large wet storages in special ponds, or in dry concrete structures or casks (Moeller et al, 2011).
Show more

11 Read more

An exploration of the relationship between nuclear decommissioning projects characteristics and cost performance

An exploration of the relationship between nuclear decommissioning projects characteristics and cost performance

As mentioned in section 1, the units of analysis are European NDPs, intended as site-level projects, i.e. one nuclear site undergoing decommissioning is referred to as one NDP . In the effort of collecting information on the maximum number of European NDPs undergoing decommissioning, publications in English, French, German and Italian were reviewed. The NDPs initially selected after this review are reported in Table 2, which collects and lists the publicly available information on the development of the estimates at completion of NDP. All the cost data refer the expected total cost of completing all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete , as defined by the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK 2013, p. 539)), let alone the one
Show more

35 Read more

Integrated Solutions for Nuclear New Build and Decommissioning. Engineering, Procurement and Construction

Integrated Solutions for Nuclear New Build and Decommissioning. Engineering, Procurement and Construction

Fire Protection Instrumentation & Control/ Automation Plant Engineering Process Engineering Construction Management Civil/Architect Engineering Products Integrated Solu[r]

8 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...