Our analysis was limited to women aged 18 – 49 years, as in Bangladesh, ever-married adult women are considered from the age of 18 years and BDHS 2011 did not collect in- formation of women aged above 49 years. BMI was defined as weight in kg divided by height in meter squared (kg/m 2 ). According to the WHO definition, a BMI of <25 kg/m 2 was not considered to be overweight or obesity while a BMI of ≥25 kg/m 2 was considered to be overweight and obesity. In our study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was considered the primary outcome of interest (dependent variable). We used 14 predictor variables, such as type of residence (rural and urban), administrative division (Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Barisal, Rangpur, and Sylhet), number of household members (cate- gorized as 1–2, 3–4, and ≥5), wealth index (poorest, poorer, middle, richer, and richest), status of food security of house- holds [categorized as food secure (according to BDHS 2011, ever-marriedwomen who reported that they did not experience any food insecurity, i.e., lack of access, or had to worry about food were considered as belong- ing to food- secure households ) and food inse- cure], status of contraceptive use (never user, current user, and past user), menopausal status (not menopause and menopause), number of living children (categorized as 0 ref. , 1–2, 3–4, and ≥5), current marital status (mar- ried/living with husband, and widowed/divorce/sepa- rated), educational status (no education, primary completed, secondary completed, higher secondary completed or more), occupation (jobs that required manual labor, jobs that required mostly sitting, and un- employed/housewife), age in years (categorized as 18– 22, 23–27, 28–32, 33–37, 38–42, and ≥43), and watching TV at least once a week (yes and no). The SPSS software (version 20), STATA (version 16), and R (version 3 · 0 · 0) were used for analyzing data.
Evidence shows that in most developing countries, prevalence of overweight surpassed prevalence of under- weight among women in both urban and rural areas .
Overweight and obesity with NCDs are continuously in- creasing in Asia though this region is top ranked having highest number of underweight people, with 163 million and 300 million in East Asia and South Asia respectively . According to the Balarajan and Villamor (2009), the prevalence of underweight declined modestly in Nepal and India but substantially in Bangladesh during the period of 1996 to 2006. By this time, the prevalence of overweight and obesity inclined from 2.7 to 8.9% in Bangladesh; from 1.6 to 10.1% in Nepal and from 10.6 to 14.8% in India . Several other studies confirmed that Bangladesh is currently facing double burden of malnu- trition. The prevalence of underweight decreased sub- stantially from 1996 to 2011 whereas the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased at an alarming rate over the same period [22–24]. Both types of malnutri- tion; underweight and overweight have been emerged as severe health problems which mean that country is in verge of double disease burden. A little knowledge is known about this new epidemic of double burden of malnutrition. However, the correlation of child ’ s health with maternal health made us concern about women’s health pertaining this specific issue [17, 25]. The present
cluster correlation coefficient of 0.05 (Abramsky et al., 2011). The final sample size was increased to 700 by adding 10% for non-response or non-participation errors and to include 35 clusters with 20 participants each. The multistage cluster sampling technique comprised of random and systematic sampling methods was used to select the participants. Primary sampling units were the randomly selected ten public health midwife (PHM) areas. The second stage was the selection of 35 villages within chosen PHM areas as clusters, where a number of clusters within a PHM area was decided based on probability proportional to size. Finally, 20 participants satisfying the eligibility criteria were randomly selected within each cluster. Initially, the study instrument was developed by the Principal Investigator using the existing literature. The questions on IPV attitudes were developed considering the studies reported in the Sri Lankan context (Jayasuriya, Wijewardena, & Axemo, 2011; A. Jayatilleke et al., 2011). The prevalence questions were adapted from the questionnaire on multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women conducted by the WHO (Ellsberg & Heise, 2005). The clarity of questions and adapting to the specific context was improved with the inputs of health, medical and IPV experts, comments of field health staff and community members. The study instruments were translated to local languages i.e. Sinhala and Tamil and pretested in a different MOH area in the same district which represented a similar ethnic and socio-economic characteristic to the study area. Four research assistants were recruited and trained for data collection. The training aimed at six aspects: improving understanding of IPV; validity of data collection; safeguarding the confidentiality and privacy, respecting the autonomy of every individual; safety measures for both interviewee and interviewer; ethics and practice on field data collection and field sessions on conducting study protocols (Campbell et al., 2002; Ellsberg & Heise, 2005). During data collection research assistants were randomly checked at least once during two weeks to maintain uniformity of questioning and to avoid information bias.
Aim: To determine the burden of depression, to identify the related factors and assess its effects on functionality and suicidal ideation.
Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in urban area of Haldwani, Kumaon Region, Uttarakhand, India. Taking anticipated prevalence of depression as 24.9% and taking non-response rate of 15% the sample size was estimated to be 320. Evermarriedwomen of age group 18- 59 years who gave informed consent were included. Population proportional to size method was used to determine the number of women to be interviewed and individual households were selected
marital status may not be married. The data are presented in the numerator of each ratio is the sum of the number of persons who are currently married and those who are either divorced, widowed or separated. The denominator is the total number of persons in the corresponding age group. The number of women with unknown marital status is excluded from both numerator and denominator, implying that they are assumed to have the same distribution by marital status as the population that reported that status. The BDHS 2011 measured the height and weight of 17,640 ever-marriedwomen of reproductive age (15-49 years) from the total 17,842 interviewed women. For analytical purposes, the data was restricted to ever-marriedwomen, who were not pregnant at the time of survey. So, pregnant women were excluded because anthropometric measurements, like body weight, increase rapidly during the pregnancy and indicate both nutritional status of the women and growth of the foetuses, and reduce the specificity of the indicator. Women with unusual BMI values (BMI<12.0 kg/m 2 and BMI>50 kg/m 2 ) and women with missing information on any covariates were also excluded from the analysis. After excluding pregnant women, women with unusual BMI values, women aged less than 15 years, and women with missing information on the outcome variables and covariates, the final sample size become 16,206.
normal looking cervix in 44.3% in their study. The number of abnormal cervices could have been more because that was a hospital based study.
Out of the 664 women interviewed & tested, VIA was found to be positive in 18.5% women and VILI was positive in 23.2% (Table 3). Some pathology was detected in more than half of the ladies in Pap smear examination: Non-neoplastic cellular changes 36.9%, and epithelial cell abnormalities in 6 (0.9%) cases consisting of 4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL and 1 HSIL (Table 4). Singla et al. 12 in a hospital-based cross-sectional study found similar findings for VIA and VILI; but the proportion of Pap smear results was much higher, which is expected in a hospital based study. Differences in findings were also observed in the results of studies conducted by Ghosh et al. 13 and Bhatla et al. 9 The variation of the results could be due to small sample size and subjective variations in interpretation of results.
The estimates corresponding to past latent participation and presence of other unemployed people at home are significant for most of the groups. But the lack of significance of interest rates, labor income taxes, and the number of children under age 6 13 is noticeable.
To check again the relevance of our intuition, we disaggregate the variable children under age 6 to verify the explanatory power of fertility. This is replaced by children between ages 0 and 1, between ages 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4, 4 and 5, and 5 and 6. In this case we have disregarded the variable “age” since the inclusion of children at different ages could induce some collinearity between these variables. Table A2 presents the results of these regressions which are, again, focused on Groups 3 to 6 given the variability of the dependent variable 14 . There are two regressions which differ only because the first includes children between ages 0 and 1 while the second does not.
capture the behavior of participation within a life-cycle framework (see among others, Heckman and MaCurdy, 1980; MaCurdy, 1981;
Goldin, 1982; Altonji, 1986) taking into account aspects related to state dependence, persistence, asset accumulation, interest rates, labor income taxes, and fertility. Unfortunately, for the case of Colombia, there is a lack of research that focuses on the life-cycle behavior of the extensive margin of the labor supply regardless of the advantages of this approach. The explanation of this shortage may be in the fact that, in Colombia, there is no panel data on labor participation and household´s income. In spite of this weakness of Colombian statistics, Sánchez and Núñez (2002) undertook a pseudo-panel approach to study some household behavior characteristics including labor force participation. The empirical work of Sánchez and Núñez addresses a fair amount of aspects of the households such as the structure and size of the family, stock, investment and returns of human capital, and participation rates. The main contribution of this article consists of the number of stylized facts on each of the aforementioned aspects that it shows for the Colombian case.
Married females’ working behaviors vary a lot during the career period. This heterogeneity is shown in cumulative career experience in TABLE B1.5. This evidence suggests that the traditional measure of career experience (first birth age – education - 6) is not adequate for describing married females’ working behaviors. One of my date sets is from the NLSYW. All respondents were 14-24 years old when first surveyed in 1968. The career experience is based on NLSYW “key” variables reporting the number of weeks worked since the last interview or in the last year. There are often gaps when I do not know how many weeks worked. When gaps arise, I subtract the missing time from both the numerator and denominator of my “weeks worked” measure. The other date set is from the NLSY79. All respondents were 14-22 years old when first surveyed in 1979. These individuals were interviewed annually through 1994 and then on a biennial basis. The career experience is based on NLSY79 variables reporting LABOR FORCE
As one of the core codes, deficiency needs, which include opportunities the person could have and right now wishes she could have them, play an essential role in inclining the person to engage in infidelity. A 46-year-old woman, who also has a son in law, says: "If it was not for my husband's going to his family and paying so much attention to them, and stopping to pay attention to me, I would not look for attention somewhere else. I was only looking for attention." Another woman, 39 years old, says: "I always wanted to be someone in the society; I wanted to have a high social standing." With regard to the subject of need, a number of factors including desire for financial independence, hope for an acceptable social position, and lack of the experience of emotional intimacy with the spouse, can be effective in the persons' inclination to infidelity. Scholars have investigated the ability of the couples' relations in satisfying their needs and their effects on infidelity; scholars argue that need-fulfillment has a high level of correlation with positive thrills, emotions, and well-being (34). In one of the related studies, Lewandowski Jr. and Ackerman (35) investigated the role of need- fulfillment and self-expansion in romantic relations, in the prediction of inclination to infidelity between 50 male and 59 female students; the information related to five types of needs including intimacy, companionship, sexual relationship, security, and emotional involvement, and three self-expansion styles including self-expansion, including others in oneself, and the ability to expand the self were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both variables of need-fulfillment and self- expansion significantly predict the inclination to infidelity. Finally, the scholars prove that when there is no possibility of need-fulfillment
Chapter 6 assumes the wives’ demographic, social and economic determinants of marital happiness and extends the model to include husbands’ economic determinants of their wives’ marital happiness. Before adding the husbands’ economic variables, the selected sample is subject to a number of tests to assure its representativeness of the entire sample of females. A CHOW test with a value of 0.65 concludes the lack of statistical evidence of structural difference. Selecting the appropriate sample, using ordered probit, the analysis of this model concludes three main findings. Husbands’ labour market outcome has no significant impact on the wives’ marital happiness, except for the heterogeneous impact of the husbands’ annual earnings in rural areas. Moreover, time allocation of husband to household chores inside and outside the house have appeared to have no significant impact on wives’ marital happiness. Only time allocated to joint leisure activities appear to significantly improve wives’ marital happiness. Finally, social network of the husband, in the form of number of hours spent with friends and trust in the surrounding community appear to have no significant relationship with wives’ marital happiness. This chapter concludes that the role of the husbands’ characteristics is very limited in explaining the marital happiness of wives. The wife herself is in control of what makes her happy, and in that it appears that mutual relationship with the husband is the key.
Abstract: This study investigates determinant factors of fertility among marriedwomen in Ethiopia, the second most populous country in Africa with rapid population growth. The data used for the analysis was obtained from the 2014 Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey which was carried out by the Central Statistical Agency. A generalized linear model (GLM) analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the number of children ever born by a married woman of age 15- 49 years. High fertility was independently associated with residing in urban areas, increased household economic status, younger age at first birth and not using contraceptives. Current age and media exposure, household head gender and media exposure, household head gender and regional state, mother’s education and, regional state and media exposure and regional state were found to jointly affect fertility level.
After taking informed consent, women were enrolled in the study and were interviewed according to a detailed pre-structured questionnaire which included demographic details like age, educational status, area of residence, along with years of marriage, parity, family size, number of children, unwanted pregnancy and fate of those unwanted pregnancies, knowledge about various contraception methods, the knowledge, attitude and practices of contraception usage and reasons for not practicing contraceptive.
The number of retirees in the United States is projected to rise dramatically over the next decade. This rise is expected to have large effects on the sustainability of the Social Security system. In response, greater attention is being paid to private retirement saving and the promotion of “individually controlled, voluntary personal retirement accounts” (President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security, 2001). Pension systems have been shifting from defined benefit plans, which place most of the burden for action and investment on the employer, toward defined contribution plans, which place most of burden for action and investment on the employee. By 1999, workers were contributing more than employers to pension plans (U.S.
whalers after the discovery of gold in California, and competition posed by the discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania in the 1850s. 226
The three women discussed below illustrate the beginning and end of that pe- riod of transition from the common law of coverture to the initial enactment of certain property and contract rights for marriedwomen. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Anna Folger Coffin, Lucretia Mott’s mother, 227 kept shop in their large home on Fair Street when her husband Thomas Coffin was away at sea. 228 By the middle of the nineteenth century, an increasing number of islanders left to pursue other economic prospects. Two women with early Nantucket ties who later left the island are discussed in the second section below: Mary Ellen Pleasant and Margaret Getchell LaForge. Mary Ellen, an African American indentured servant and shop girl on Nantucket, left the island to marry and became a very successful businesswoman in San Francisco. 229 Margaret, whose mother was a Folger, grew up on Nantucket, and taught school for a time on Nantucket and elsewhere on the mainland. She then served as a clerk and later as a buyer and executive during the early years of R.H. Macy’s Department store in New York City. 230
Our study found notable high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bangladeshi urban women. We also found a number of socioeconomic factors for being over- weight and obese among urban women of reproductive age. These factors include age, wealth index, education and marital status. This suggests that strategies and pol- icies that place particular emphasis on older, more highly educated urban women are needed. The findings also sug- gest that strategies aimed at both poorer and richer women also need to be implemented. The expected cost associated with being overweight and obese is not only a burden for individual or families but for the country as a whole. The burden of overweight and obesity adversely af- fects labor supply and productivity, in turn reducing eco- nomic growth [ 45 ]. Further, more in-depth research including several important factors such as nutritional his- tory, physical activity level, and central obesity related in- dicators are also required to overcome the challenge of overweight and obesity.
Effects of the use of contraception are observed in each cohort, though it is more visible among younger cohorts. Within each cohort, except at the second birth for younger cohorts and up to the third birth for older cohorts, ever-users have a lower proportion having subsequent births and longer birth intervals than never- users. The use of contraception to delay the subsequent births at higher parities is more noticeable among younger cohorts than older cohorts. This pattern is consistent with previous studies showing that recent cohorts prefer a smaller size of family* and tend to use contraception much earlier during the childbearing period, to space as well as to limit the coming of additional births. Older cohorts use contraception more for the motive of limiting subsequent births after the preferred number of children is reached.
Background: The single most important problem that India is facing now is the uncontrolled growth of population. In today’s scenario, fertility control is the most important way to check high population growth. In spite of availability of a wide range of contraceptives and mass media campaigns and IEC programs, the population control remains a distant dream to achieve. Objectives: 1) To determine prevalence of contraceptive acceptance and the type of contraceptive used. 2) To identify factors influencing the contraceptive acceptance pattern in the study area. 3) To assess the reasons for not accepting contraceptive methods by evermarriedwomen.
Strength and weakness
The strengths of this study were using the recent and large nationally representative database, with a high re- sponse rate (98%). Secondly, the present study used multi- level modelling for adjusting cluster variations. The study acknowledges some potential limitations as well. For example, we cannot infer a causal relationship between determinants and MR due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Moreover, the inclusion of all potential explana- tory variables might introduce table two fallacy. Although unintended pregnancy is the root cause of MR, we were unable to use this variable in our model due to the lack of precise data. Since the BDHS collected relevant data from ever-marriedwomen only, this is a limitation for not capturing information of MR that might happen to any unmarried women or pregnancy outside of marriage that might underestimate the true prevalence of MR.
MARRIED WOMEN’S PROPERTY [CH.129 – 7
[Original Service 2001] STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS
marriage as aforesaid, if the plaintiff in the action shall seek to establish his claim, either wholly or in part, against both of them; and if in any such action, or in any action brought in respect of any such debt or liability against the husband alone, it is not found that the husband is liable in respect of any property of the wife so acquired by him or to which he shall have become so entitled as aforesaid, he shall have judgment for his costs of defence, whatever may be the result of the action against the wife if jointly sued with him; and in any such action against husband and wife jointly, if it appears that the husband is liable for the debt or damages recovered, or any part thereof, the judgment to the extent of the amount for which the husband is liable shall be a joint judgment against the husband personally and against the wife as to her separate property; and as to the residue, if any, of such debt and damages, the judgment shall be a separate judgment against the wife as to her separate property only.