Almond tree yield is a function of the number of flowers on a tree and the percentage of flowers that set fruit. Almonds are borne on spurs (short proleptic shoots that can have both leaves and flowers). Almond tree spur dynamics research has documented that previous year spur leaf area is a predictive parameter for year-to-year spur survival, spur flowering and to a lesser extent spur fruiting, while previous year fruit bearing has a negative impact on subsequent year flowering. However, a question remained about whether yields are more dependent on flower numbers or relative fruit set of the flowers that are present. The aim of the present work was to compare the importance of flower abundance with that of relative fruit set in determining the productivity of a population of tagged spurs in almond trees over a 6-year period. Overall tree yield among years was more sensitive to total number of flowers on a tree rather than relative fruit set. These results emphasize the importance of maintaining large populations of healthy flowering spurs for sustained high production in almond orchards.
In Japan, zucchini culture has yet to get under- way, and the current costs of zucchini can be attributed to damage from soil-borne disease and the unstable yields due to seasonal change of female flowers. Eradication of these problems will lead to stable supply and a consequent price reduction of zucchini fruits. We previously clari- fied the efficacy of potted culture as a new cul- ture method for zucchini, but potted culture can be burdensome as the weak water and nutrient retention capacity of the medium warrants its regular replacement. To solve this problem, in this study, we investigated the blend ratio for mixing rice husk charcoal with peat and the amount of fertilizer required for potted culture of zucchini. Results revealed no significant differ- ences in the length of the largest leaf, total number of flowers, number of female flowers, and the ratio of female flowers to total flowers with different blend ratios of rice husk charcoal to peat. However, the number of harvested fruits increased with higher ratios of rice husk char- coal to peat and was highest at 80:20. The length of the largest leaf increased with increased amounts of fertilizer, with the best response was at 200 g. No significant differences were noted between the ratio of female flowers to total flowers in any treatments. In addition, the num- ber of harvested fruits was highest with 160 g and 200 g of fertilizer. Taken together, the opti- mal blend ratio of rice husk charcoal to peat is 80:20, and the optimal amount of fertilizer with this ratio is 160 g.
Significant difference was observed between the different application levels of phosphorus fertilizer with regards to both days to 50% flowering and number of flowers. Application rate (60 kgha -1 ) attained 50% flowering earlier and recorded a higher number of flowers than the other treatments. This result is in agreement with Brady and Weil  and Rahman  who reported that increasing the application of phosphorus fertilizer at the early stages stimulates and promotes rapid cell division, shortens days to maturity and hastens maturity of groundnut.
Foliar treatment gives the better result than the seed treatment. It is due to the easy penetrance power of used three chemical mutagens in the form of solution. In case of foliar treatment, increase in Colchicine concentration gear up the number of flowers (especially at 0.4% Col.) and reducing the seed weight when compared with control plant. This effect of Colchicine is somewhat reversed in EMS treatment. For their similarity, the numbers of flower, length of petal and seed weight are to be considered. MH treatment is negatively affected for these traits. On the other hand, seed treatment only shows the action of EMS in different concentration and treatment duration. Better result is observed in ST 2
The correlation matrix showing the relationship between morphological traits is presented in Table 5. All the eight traits considered in this study had positive relationship with each other. There was significant and positive correlation between the number of seedling at emergence and the number of seedlings at establishment. The number of days to flowering had positive and significant association with grain yield and the number of flowers per plant had highly significant and positive relationship with the number of pods per plant. Early flowering and maturity are very important attributes in legumes and other short duration crops in the humid agro-ecology because the plant can utilise the diminutive dry season to complete its growth cycle. The number of pods per plant had highly significant correlation with the number of seeds per pod and with the grain yield; the number of pods per plant also had significant correlation with the pod length. The pod length had significant association with the grain yield. Study by  reported a positive and significant relationship between grain yield and some pods characteristics, yield and number of days to flowering in groundnut. Characters that have significant and positive correlation can be improved concurrently in a breeding programme ; therefore, from this study, grain yield,
Abstract— Chrysanthemum is one type of ornamental plants flowers are very popular and have a relatively high economic value in Indonesia and have good marketing prospects. Requests cut flowers, and potted chrysanthemum plants are increasing from year to year, in line with improving standards of living. This study aims to obtain best medium composition on the growth of two varieties of chrysanthemum. The research was conducted in greenhouses West Sumatera Institute Assessment and Agricultural Technology in Sukarami Solok, from August 2015 to January 2016. The study is based on completely randomized design factorial of two factors with three replications. The first factor is the chrysanthemum varieties consisting of two levels (Limeron and Merahayani) and the second factor is the composition of the media that consists of four levels (soil: sand: husk fuel: 1: 1: 1, soil: sand: chicken manure: 1: 1: 1, soil: sand: coconut fibers 1: 1: 1 and soil: sand: municipal waste compost: 1: 1: 1. The results showed that growth of Merahayani varieties are better than Limeron varieties. The composition of medium affects the growth of chrysanthemum ornamental plant. The media composition soil: sand: municipal waste compost: 1: 1: 1 the best for the growth in the number of leaves, number of flowers, fresh weight and dry weight of plants. The composition of the soil media: sand: husk fuel: 1: 1: 1 the best for the growth of flower diameter and length of the longest root.
Among quantitative floral characters, significant variation was recorded in inflorescence length, number of flowers per inflorescence and flower width. Longest inflorescence was observed in V. Prao Sky Blue (53.50cm) followed by V.RBV 10 x V. Dr.Anek (45cm) and shortest in V. RBSD Blue (21cm). Highest number of flowers per inflorescence was noted in V. Motes Indigo Blue (8) followed by V. Odgen Phipps x V. coerulea (7.8) and lowest in V. RBSD Pink (2). V. RBSD Pink had maximum flower width (11.6cm), dorsal sepal size (6cm x 6cm), lateral sepal size (6.1cm x 7.2cm) although flower width more than 10cm was recorded in V. Pakchong Blue, V. Sansai Blue, V. Motes Indigo Blue, V. Pat Delight, V. RBS Red, V. Robert’s Delight Blue and V. Pures Wax. V. Motes Indigo Blue had maximum petal size (5.4 cm x 5.8 cm). Minor variation was recorded in lip length (1.9 to 2.2 cm), column length (0.6 to 0.8cm) and spur length (0.6 to 1.2cm) (Table 3).
yield is 10.6 t ha . Besides many other reasons for low yield, there is one problem of fewer pistillate flowers and high sex ratio. In cucurbitaceous plants, sex expression such as time of flowering, sex of flowers, number of flowers of different sexes, sex ratio, etc. are determined by gene as well as the environment. Huyskens et al. (1992) reported that significantly more female flowers were produced during spring-summer, under long days and high temperature, than in autumn- winter under short days and low
Field experiment was carried out in October 2011 on one year old plants at Unit Ladang, Universiti Teknologi MARA. The cuttings were collected from local village (Kg. Guar Nangka) in Perlis. Selected 25- 30 cm in length cuttings were sown in polythene bags filled with soil-compost-sand (3:2:1) mixture. The cuttings were grown in nursery and irrigated daily for two months before transplanted at experimental sites. Transplanting was made during onset of the rainy season. Each treatment consists of 18 plants considering a single plant as one replicates and arranged in complete randomized design (CRD). The distance between plants was 2.5 m. Fertilizers were given once for every harvesting period. Ethephon solution was diluted at different concentration (0, 100, 300 and 500 mg L -1 ) with distilled water. Plant was covered with perforated plastic bag to avoid ethephon from evaporates. 30 mL of ethephon was applied once on foliage via foliar sprays. Plastic bag was removed after an hour. Observations on leaves were made immediately after treatment. The number of flowers buds, length of flower stalk, number of female flower and number of fruits were recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the data was analyzed using SPSS software. Significance difference among treatments was compared according to Least Significant Different (LSD) at p < 0.05.
During the data collection, a drop of flowers was observed. This partly explains the low number of fruits per plant. An inflorescence was to produce more pods, but the results have shown the opposite inflorescences and some have not even been able to form capsules. Flower falls were also mentioned on P. biglobosa (Hopkins, 1983; Sina, 2006). This fall flowers are accentuated in the Sudano-Sahelian zone and one of the causes of the loss of flowers is the harmattan. This behavior could obey a need for natural regulation of flowering and fruiting (Sina, 2006). Trees would adjust the number of flowers and fruits depending on the availability of their food reserves. Moreover, the burden would be quite unbearable for the tree if all fertile flowers evolved fruit. This natural regulation process would also be identical in M oleifera and confirms once again
For plant height, saline irrigation water function as a natural alternate to growth retardants (used by many grower to reduce plant height) and high concentration of salinity badly affects plant height. Similar findings were also reported by Patil and Wahmare  for the plant height in which they observed that plant growth at four salinity levels and all indices significantly declined with rising salinity levels. The occurrence of high concentrations of chlorine in the leaves eventually leads to leaf injury. Reduction in growth of plants under salt stress can be attributed to necrosis of the leaves which reduces the photo synthetically active area. These results are in accordance with findings of Cornish et al  who argued that by increasing NaCI irrigated water in chrysanthemum, numbers of leaves are reduced. It has been suggested that a restriction of Na transport from roots to shoots takes place, to shoots takes place, minimizing Na accumulation in leaves. Plants might protect themselves from sodium toxicity by minimizing the transport to the shoots. These observations were compared with Nolan et al.  and Mostafa et at.  who argued that salinity application decreased number of branches in Datura innoxia. Salinity causes loss of cell turgor and reduces leaf expansion rates. This, in turn, leads to reduction in the leaf area available for photosynthesis and a loss of productivity. Similar results were obtained by Ergazieva and Rakhimbaev  and Jesche and Stelter  who observed significant decrease in leaf area with increase in salinity level in irrigation water for lilac. Results for number of flowers were in accordance with Hughes and Hanan , Ishida et at.  and Speck and Sconncveld . Similar reports have been described by Sonneveld arid Voogt  who attributed that gerberas, anthurium and chrysanthemum flower production decreased with increasing salinity levels. Any factor that interferes
The Hausa potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir) J. K. Morton) is a tropical, multipurpose crop with different uses. Its productivity is, however, limited by a lack of balance between source potential and sink capacity. This results in generally low yields in all the cultivated varieties. Consequently, many farmers have abandoned its cultivation, thereby endangering the perpetuity of the crop. This study was, therefore, designed to screen different accessions of the Hausa potato for productivity in the Jos-Plateau environment, Nigeria. The nine accessions (Manchok 1, Manchok 2, Bokkos 1, Bokkos 2, Bikka-Baban, Mujir, NRCRI, (White), Tukwak and Langtang) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with five (5) replications. Results show that percentage emergence, number of branches per plant, leaf area index, days to flowering, number of flowers per plant, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and stand count varied with accession. Tuber length, tuber girth, root-top ratio, mean tuber weight, dry matter content and total tuber yield also
Four crosses viz., Hera x Bhagyamathi, Heera x Gulabi, Heera x Shyamala and Pusa Shyamala x Gulabi recorded significantly higher yield per plant than the commercial check. The cross Hera x Bhagyamathi had relatively more number of primary branches, medium plant height, fruit length, fruit girth and fruit weight. The cross Heera x Shyamala recorded medium plant height, highest number of primary branches, relatively early flowering, fruit length and highest fruit weight. The cross Heera x Gulabi recoded relatively medium plant height, highest number of primary branches, number of flowers per cluster, fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per cluster, while the other cross Pusa Shyamala x Gulabi recoded relatively medium plant height, number of flowers per cluster, fruit length and number of fruits per cluster. The above results are in agreement with the findings of Shafeeq et al. (2007), Murthy et al. (2011), Rameshkumar et al. (2012) and Rajasekhar (2014).
number of flowers showed least correlation with other traits (Table 2). The results showed that number of pods were crucial to determine final yield while number of flowers have no effect in this study. It is concluded that the time to first flower and first pod were significantly shortened under MTS in both the chickpea genotypes, while pod set and pod growth rate decreased and flower abortion increased. Moreover, the high flower abortion percentage and slow pod growth rate in the MTS treatment decreased seed number, seed size (in Pusa 1105) and seed weight/plant. Overall, desi type had a smaller yield loss under MTS compared to kabuli type, similar to the smaller effect of drought stress in desi compared to kabuli chickpea (Leport et al. 2006). Compared with previous studies on the adverse effect of high temperature on overall growth, development of reproductive organs and yield, this study showed that a
To study the vitality structure of the coenopopulation in the first stage, the morphometric parameters of 30 middle aged individuals were evaluated in each coenopopulation. The parameters to determine the complex of symptoms characterizing vitality were used in the correlation and factor analysis, which indicates the key parameters of the generative and vegetative spheres. In the second stage, the evaluation of the vitality status of O. caucasica individuals was performed on 3 parametres: In CP1 number of flowers, length and width of bud; in CP 2 length of flower shoot and number of flowers; in ES number of leaves, length of plant, length of flower shoot. Selected individuals were classified into 3 vitality classes:
were established in pots and standard crop management practices were done throughout the study. Beer (Lion – Strong) was sprayed to the seedlings 15 days after sowing. Measurements were taken on growing, flowering and Fruit setting stages. The highest values of plant growth parameters and reproductive parameters were observed in T1, i.e. beer (ethanol 8.8%) applied treatments. On the other hand the lowest values were recorded from T2 (control of the experiment). Specially, advanced flowering and fruit setting, number of flowers per plant, number of female flowers per plant and number of fruits per plant were recorded from T1, i.e. beer (ethanol 8.8%) applied treatments. So, beer applied plants showed superior results in contrast to control with enhancing flowering as well as fruit setting performances.