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Functional performance of a vertical shaft centrifugal palm nut cracker

Functional performance of a vertical shaft centrifugal palm nut cracker

them susceptible to damage. At present, most of research work is tailored into modelling of the vari- ables which determine the functionality of process- ing machines. Most of these models are specific and related to a particular design of a machine, which implies that the specific functional parameters need to be established. Most of the data for kernel crack- ers are generalized. A search through the literature shows that literature on vertical-shaft centrifu- gal palm nut cracker is very scarce. Therefore the present study is undertaken to identify the major parameters that affect the efficiency of the palm nut cracker at different operating conditions and their inter-relationships, and will serve as a guideline for further research and designs.
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A mathematical model for predicting the cracking efficiency of vertical shaft centrifugal palm nut cracker

A mathematical model for predicting the cracking efficiency of vertical shaft centrifugal palm nut cracker

of a machine. Some researchers (Degrimencioglu, Srivastava 1996; Shefii et al. 1996; Mohammed 2002; Ndirika 2006) used the dimensional analysis based on the Buckingham’s π theorem as veritable instrument in establishing a prediction equation of various systems. Therefore the present study is under- taken to establish a mathematical model for predict- ing the cracking efficiency of vertical-shaft centrifugal palm nut cracker using the dimensional analysis.

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DEVELOPMENT OF A MODIFIED PALM-NUT CRACKER

DEVELOPMENT OF A MODIFIED PALM-NUT CRACKER

In the recent years, various researchers and engineers (Ilechie, 1985; Babatunde and Okoli, 1988; Manuwa, 1997; Obiakor and Babatunde, 1999; Olakanmi, 2004; Koya and Faborode, 2005; Koya, 2006; Olukunle et al., 2008; Jimoh and Olukunle, 2012) had developed different types of prototypes and concepts for mechanized palm nut cracking devices. So far, palm nut cracking operation had recorded certain level of feat, the process however has quite a number of deficiencies, notably, high operational speed of the existing cracking devices makes design modification a necessity in order to minimize mechanical damage and improve the recovery of the products. Other defects of the existing crackers include: kernels breakages, which may be due to insufficient nut dryness, uncracked nuts in the finished product, which may be caused by inappropriate spacing of blow bars as well as the high nut feeding rate into the cracking chamber. Fortunately, the knowledge of minimum impact force required for nut cracking relevant to the design improvement of the existing mechanical nutcrackers has been investigated (Ofei, 2007; Koya and Faborode, 2005). The focus of this study was therefore aimed at developing a modified palm-nut cracker that minimizes kernel breakage for enhanced subsequent product separation.
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PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED PALM-NUT CRACKER AND KERNEL-SHELL SEPARATOR

PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED PALM-NUT CRACKER AND KERNEL-SHELL SEPARATOR

Abstract: A mathematical model for predicting the performance efficiency of an integrated palm-nut cracker and kernel-shell separator was developed using dimensional analysis based on Buckingham’s π theorem. The developed performance model was iterated in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB), to predict the efficiencies, by varying the parameters of the materials in contact. The predicted performance efficiencies ranged between 88.26%-99.98%, while the evaluated performance efficiencies were in the range of 56.16%-96.57%. The correlation between the predicted and experimental numerical values using MINITAB17 suggested relationship and validity of the developed model (optimum r 2 = 99.6%).
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DEVELOPMENT OF A VARIABLE SIZE NUT CRACKER

DEVELOPMENT OF A VARIABLE SIZE NUT CRACKER

Adebayo, A. A. 2004. Development and performance evaluation of a motorized palm-nut cracking machine. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers, 26: 326-330. Abuja,Nigeria, October , 2004

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Design and Construction of a Palm Kernel Cracker and Separator

Design and Construction of a Palm Kernel Cracker and Separator

Abstract- The Palm kernel cracker is a machine used for cracking palm nuts by palm fruit farmers and palm fruit products related industries. The conventional palm kernel cracker which uses a long rotating hammer for cracking nuts was discovered to be less efficient since it misses any nut that is not in its line of action or axis of rotation. Also by virtue of its design, it is only capable of cracking the nuts and as such makes the palm nut farmer expand enormous extra energy in the course of to manually separate the cracked shells from the kernels. A modified palm kernel cracker with a cracking rectangular channel welded to a cracking flywheel with a centralized hole through which every nut must pass and as such capable of making contact with every nut and thus cracking nearly all the nuts was sequentially designed and fabricated in this project to overcome the earlier mentioned constraints. The improved palm nut cracker also incorporates two different set of filters (separators) for separating the kernels from the cracked shells.
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The eagle jugular syndrome

The eagle jugular syndrome

CDU investigation allowed us to assess the venous haemodynamics in terms of flow velocity and flow rate of the internal jugular vein, especially just below the nut- cracker, in the upper[r]

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARECANUT ( ARECA CATECHU L)  CRACKER

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARECANUT ( ARECA CATECHU L) CRACKER

Arecanuts have inferior storage quality and its casings are tough to split without an appropriate machinery. Breaking the casing surrounding the kernel is the main cost intensive task in the processing of arecanuts, mainly due to unsatisfactory retrieval of kernels as a result of uncracked, or incompletely cracked nuts. The present method of cracking the nut includes physical breaking with hammer, knife cutter and stones. This process is strenuous, inefficient and injury prone. As a result, the splitting process has bestowed an impediment to arecanuts handling. Many machines have been developed for cracking similar materials such as conophor nuts, melon seeds, walnuts, macadamia and shea nuts [11,12,13,14,15,16,17].In spite of this development the majority suffer from poor recovery of kernels leading to significant losses.Thus there is a need to develop a nut cracker to overcome the tediousness of the operation, reduce losses, improve kernel recovery as well as for its obvious commercial importance.
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A CRITICAL REVIEW ON BHALLATAKA (SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM LINN) .......

A CRITICAL REVIEW ON BHALLATAKA (SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM LINN) .......

Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract was found to be effective against adjuvant- induced arthritis in albino Wistar rat at the dose level of 150mg/kg body weight on the basis of dose dependent study. [29] Nut milk extract mod- ulates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species levels and antioxidative system in adjuvant arthritic rats. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxides (LPOs), ROS (superoxide radical, hy- droxyl radical, H2O2 and myeloperoxidase) and RNS (nitrate + nitrite) observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were found to be significantly decreased on administration of the drug at 150 mg/kg body weight/day. Treatment with SA re- couped the altered antioxidant defense compo- nents to near normal levels.These evidences suggest that the SA preparations are mainly used for irregularities caused during arthritis and to cure arthritis [30] . All these observations indi- cated that S.anacardium nut milk extract is a good therapeutic agent for the arthritis.
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Study and Analysis of Areca-Nut Peeling Process Using Design of Experiment

Study and Analysis of Areca-Nut Peeling Process Using Design of Experiment

Areca Nut is one of most important commercial crop also known as betel nut and it is the seed of the areca nut palm. While it is being freshly plucked, the husk is green and the nut inside is so soft that it can easily be cut with an average knife. In the ripe fruit the husk becomes yellow or orange and, as it dries, the fruit inside hardens to a wood- like consistency. The study is towards peeling process of areca nut which are classifieds, as manual and automatic. Peeling by manual method proved to be labour intensive, consumes more time and dangerous to the labour. The various studies towards automatic peeling process is not up to the satisfactory level and are still in the improvisation stage.
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Nut consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in the Physicians' Health Study

Nut consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in the Physicians' Health Study

a single assessment of nut consumption during the study period. The results indicate that although the power was limited at the levels of nut consumption that would be most likely to influence AF risk, there was a non-statisti- cally significant increase in AF risk among all consumers of nuts weekly or more. As a post hoc analysis, this would therefore be an interesting analysis for other data sets. We did not have information on family history of hyperten- sion, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes and therefore were Table 1 Baseline characteristic of 21,054 US male physicians according to nut consumption
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Ergonomic evaluation of cashew nut shelling machine

Ergonomic evaluation of cashew nut shelling machine

Abstract: This paper presents the ergonomic evaluation of a manually operated village-level cashew nut shelling machine. A manually operated cashew nut cracking machine was evaluated. Fifty subjects took part in the study, with physiological, postural, and subjective measurements being taken. Comfort Questionnaire for cashew nut cracking machine (CQC) was also evaluated. Using the machine resulted in postural discomfort. The perception of the subjects as per the efficiency of the machine was neutral; 50% accepted that the machine is efficient, while the other 50% were unsatisfied. Following a participatory ergonomic process and using appropriate anthropometric measurements, an improved, adjustable prototype was developed. The lever arm was designed based on 5 th percentile of the subjects; blades were welded into the cracking lid to reduce the amount of impact force used for cracking, so as to reduce crushing of the nuts. Also the ergonomic seat and worktable allow posture change from sitting to standing. Other features include; feeding tray, foot rest. The work surface height is made to be 100 mm below the elbow height. i.e. 1200 mm. The length of the work table (work space) was designed to accommodate 95th percentile of the Bicromial breadth of the subjects. The foot and the knee room was 150 mm. The cracking machine is bolted to the worktable, so that it can be easily disassembled. The study demonstrated how ergonomics can play an important role in reducing drudgery and improving user satisfaction and acceptability in technology development and transfer in developing country.
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Performance Monitor Improves Performance of FCC At a Refiner in Anacortes, WA

Performance Monitor Improves Performance of FCC At a Refiner in Anacortes, WA

The performance monitor continually monitors the performance of all the loops in the catalytic cracker and supporting unit operations.. WORK PROCESS - SETUP OF LOOP HEALTH IN THE PERFOR[r]

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Development of Non Dairy Milk Alternative Using Soymilk and Almond Milk

Development of Non Dairy Milk Alternative Using Soymilk and Almond Milk

The optimization of almond milk was done by varying the ratio of nut: water (1:1, 1:2 & 1:3) leading to different combination for preliminary trials. The evaluation of adequacy of different formulations of almond milk was carried out on the basis of both nutritional attributes as well as sensory profile. Ash, fat and protein content in almond milk (1:1) were 3.02%, 8.25%, 1.38% respectively and showed significantly higher values (p<0.05) than almond milk in ratios (1:2) and (1:3). The values for almond milk (1:2) & (1:3) were 2.40%, 6.12%, 0.97% and 1.63%, 3.83%, 0.76% respectively (Table 2). Yetunde
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Usefulness of open mixed nut challenges to exclude tree nut allergy in children

Usefulness of open mixed nut challenges to exclude tree nut allergy in children

In 13 children (68 %) the mixed nut challenge was considered negative. Allergic symptoms were observed in 4 (21 %) children, all with Sampson grade 3 reactions [6]. No correlation between levels of sIgE and outcome of the mixed nut challenge could be found. In one posi- tive tested child (case 3), IgE negative nuts were intro- duced successfully. In one other child (case 4) parents successfully introduced almond and walnut based on their own decision. In 2 (11 %) young children the test was inconclusive due to aversion. In one of those chil- dren (case 2) tree nuts with negative sIgE results were successfully introduced at home without additional chal- lenges. Overall we were able to avoid multiple challenges in 15 (79 %) children and successfully could expand the diet in 14 (74 %) children (Table 2). All parents were sat- isfied about the challenge material, challenge protocol and outcome of the challenge.
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AutoSplitter Nut Splitter

AutoSplitter Nut Splitter

one autospLitter does the work of several competitive models because each housing can be used with a wide range of nut sizes. With most other nut-splitters, one housing will only fit two nut sizes, forcing you to buy a larger number of housings. but each autospLitter housing fits 6-8 different sizes. With autospLitter, you can also use the hydraulic cylinders with more than one housing.

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NUT - User Manual.pdf

NUT - User Manual.pdf

This information is cached by the network server upsd, which then answers queries from the clients. upsd contains a number of access control features to limit the abilities of the clients. Only authorized hosts may monitor or control your hardware if you wish. Since the notion of monitoring over the network is built into the software, you can hang many systems off one large UPS, and they will all shut down together. You can also use NUT to power on, off or cycle your data center nodes, individually or globally through PDU outlets.

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Polly Want a Cracker: Analyzing Performance of Parroting on Paraphrase Generation Datasets

Polly Want a Cracker: Analyzing Performance of Parroting on Paraphrase Generation Datasets

Earlier work using QUORA and TWITTER Gupta et al., 2018; Li et al., 2018 only provided a few examples of output paraphrases, and did not study in detail the paraphrasing behavior of thei[r]

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Effect of moisture content on crackability of bambara groundnut
using a centrifugal cracker

Effect of moisture content on crackability of bambara groundnut using a centrifugal cracker

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L. verdc) is an indigenous African crop grown across the continent from Senegal to Kenya and from the Sahara to South Africa (Atiku et al., 2004). Bambara groundnut is the third most important grain after groundnut and cowpea (Ezeaku, 1994). In separate reports by Ezue (1977) and Atiku (2000) it was noted that in Nigeria bambara groundnuts are widely produced in Borno, Anambara, Plateau, Taraba, Sokoto, Bauchi, Benue, Kano, Yobe, Adamawa and Gombe states. Goli (1997) reported that bambara groundnut contains about 63% carbohydrates, 19% protein, and 6.5% oil and is consumed in different forms. In other reports by Akani et al (2000), Atiku (2004) and Linnemann (1988) the seed of bambara groundnut can be used for baby food, human con- sumption, industrial products and for animal feed. Linne- mann (1990) reported that bambara groundnut flour has been used in making bread in Zambia, and Brough et al. (1993) noted that the milk prepared from bambara ground- nut gave a preferred flavour to that of milks from cowpea, pigeon pea and soybean. According to Atiku (2000) the fresh bambara groundnut seed is cooked before eating. It is used as main food, snacks, relish and medicine and has high ceremonial value.
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ijesmjournal

ijesmjournal

In 2000 Lamming Johnsen Zheng, & Harland suggested that difference in supply network can be trace down to difference in products degree of innovation, uniqueness & complexity. In 2000 Childerhouse apply the product classification system with five parameter they are duration of life cycle, time window for delivery, volume, variety & variability to the demand chain management approach of their case company in Cracker Company. Interestingly, the product life cycle appears to be best suited to explain the five different strategies identified.
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