Consumption of nutrient rich foods such as beans and peas is recommended because these foods provide key nutrients and relatively little energy. Many consumers are unfamiliar with dried beans or do not have the time to prepare them. The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient density and nutrient-to-cost among dried cooked, canned (liquid and solids), and canned/drained black, garbanzo, kidney, lima, pinto, white beans, and black-eyed peas. Prices were ob- tained from 60 grocery stores in January 2009. Nutrient content per 100 g was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22, and Nutrition Data System for Research (for canned/drained). Nutrient density scores were estimated using the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). Nutri- ent-to-cost ratio (NTCR) was computed as the NRF 9.3 score (per 100 kcal) divided by the cost per half-cup servings per package (12) or per can (3.5). Compared to canned beans, dried cooked beans were significantly more energy dense, contained more protein, fiber, iron, potassium and magnesium; and less sodium than canned beans (p < 0.05 for all). Canned/drained beans contained more sodium than cooked beans (p < 0.05). NRF9.3 scores were 7.3, 2.8, and 4.8 for cooked, canned, and canned/drained beans, respectively. NTCR for cooked, canned, and canned/drained beans was 63.4, 8.9, and 15.2, respectively. Results highlight the benefits of choosing dried beans and also illustrate that canned beans, when drained, provide a healthy alternative. Beans, regardless of type/form, are a nutrient rich food and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthy diet.
Diets low in animal protein and saturated fat and high in complex carbohydrates, fiber and micronutrients im- prove glucose tolerance, postprandial glucose and overall glycemic control, as well as decrease insulin resistance [3-7]. The high nutrient density (HND) diet emphasizes micronutrients (phytochemicals and antioxidants) from greens, fruits, nuts/seeds and beans/legumes, the latter containing high amounts of viscous fiber and resistant starches. The HND diet incorporates features of other dietary interventions, but is designed to create advan- tages from multiple mechanisms, including the effect that high micronutrient food has in reducing cravings and overeating, and on lowering oxidative stress  and deposition of advanced glycation end products [9,10].
We must acknowledge the limitations of this study, including the fact that this was a retrospective, non-con- trolled study. The instrument we used has not been vali- dated on large or diverse populations, although we did establish preliminary internal consistency and content validity. We recognize that participants were self- selected and may have been biased in their responses by exposure to the information on the website and resources to which they all subscribed. There are discus- sions of “ toxic hunger ” versus “ true hunger ” in the writ- ten and web-based materials that participants had access to. Participants were, however, assured of the anonymity of their responses in the introduction to the survey, and the survey responses were received from the Survey Monkey website without any identifying information, including no inclusion of email addresses of those who completed the surveys. It will be important to see if this dramatic shift in hunger perception would be found in populations not exposed to “leading” messages in future studies. We also did not assess the actual diet that each participant typically maintained prior to changing to the high nutrient density diet, nor did we validate the self reports of degree of compliance to the high nutrient density diet. Future studies should include food diaries and measures of biomarkers to quantify these variables more precisely.
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Breast milk is the optimal food for newborns. Preterm birth might result in problems with the initiation of lactation and limitation of suckling reflexes. Choices to feed preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units are mother’s milk, donor milk, or formula. Concerns regarding the selection of feed are catch-up growth and health effects. Even though formula acquires faster catch-up growth, it is not as tolerable as human milk and increases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Preterm infants have better tolerance for human milk, but the lower caloric density of term mothers’ milk or donor milk might not meet preterm infant growth needs. Preterm infants have higher protein and energy requirements with a limited stomach capacity. Therefore, the best practice is using breast milk but with a need for increased nutrient density. Aims of this study were to concentrate donor breast milk to have a higher caloric density and protein, but at the same time avoiding side effects of high lactose concentration by precipitating lactose at low temperature. Donor breast milk was obtained from WakeMed Mothers’ Milk Bank. Half of the samples were homogenized. Preliminary data found that low-temperature removal of lactose from unprocessed human milk was minimal. Therefore, condensation was applied before lactose removal. Volume reductions were 80%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30% and 0% respectively. Subsequently, samples were held at 0°C overnight, followed by refrigerated centrifugation for lactose removal at 0 o C.
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weight and sub- sequently to meat ready for cooking. Secondary processing (e.g. pork made into sausages) was not considered. Data from nutritional tables were used to develop UK-specific NDS based on scores produced by Saarinen et al. (2017) as well as a novel NDS which included zinc, selenium and vitamin B12. The authors reported that ruminant systems tended to have higher environmental impacts than their monogastric counterparts when compared on a mass basis. However, when the nutritional composition of meats was included in the carbon footprint analysis, emissions attrib- utable to beef production, particularly from concentrate- finished systems, were found to be comparable or lower than pig and chicken production depending on manage- ment practices. The authors concluded that nutrient density of products provides important information to improve en- vironmental performances of agri-food systems; equally, they observed that eating smaller portions of higher quality products may improve human nutrition whilst simulta- neously reducing the global carbon footprint through po- tentially decreased food production.
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higher intake of “green and yellow vegetables”, “soybeans and soybean foods” and “fruit”, and a lower intake of “rice” (even the traditional Japanese diet is commonly thought to be rice-centered). The previous study had suggested that a dietary pattern with similar weights contributed to higher overall nutrient adequacy and lower oxidative stress . Another study has also indi- cated that a Japanese food score that did not encourage rice intake was related to lower cardiovascular disease mortality . These findings suggest that, although rice is a staple food in Japan, a diet that includes excessive and single intake of rice may not be desirable. As a post hoc analysis, we checked food intake volumes among better cases (participants who were in both the top 25% for nutrient density score and top 25% for the wJDI 9
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of protected organic acid blends including medium chain fatty acids and different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. A total of 80 crossed [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] growing pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 22.61 ± 2.32 kg were used in a six-week trial. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of nutrient density (high and low) and protected organic acid (0% and 0.1%) according to their sex and BW (five replicates with two gilts and two barrows per pen). Pigs fed high nutrient density diets had increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG0 and gain: feed (G : F) than those fed low nutrient density diets. Likewise, pigs fed protected organic acid diets exhibited increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with pigs fed no additional protected organic acids. An interactive effect (P = 0.03) between organic acid and nutrient density was observed on feed conversion by pigs. Dry matter (DM) digest- ibility tended to improve (P = 0.08) in pigs fed high nutrient density diets compared with low nutrient density diets. However, nitrogen (N) and energy (E) digestibility was not influenced by the nutrient density. Likewise, protected organic acid supplementation did not influence (P > 0.05) DM, N or E digestibility. Organic acid supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) H 2 S content from faeces on Day 1, Day 3, Day 5 and Day 7 of incubation. Low nutrient density diets led to a reduction (P < 0.05) in H 2 S gas content on Day 1 of incubation. No interactive effect on faecal noxious gas content was observed between nutrient density and organic acid. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of protected organic acids with a high nutrient diet improved growth performance and reduced H 2 S acid emission.
NAS by the energy density of the food yielded a base for determination of nutrient density score (NDS): NDS = (NAS/energy density) × 100. Energy density was defined as the amount of available energy per unit weight of food (in kJ/100 g e.p.). Dividing NAS by the mean price per 100 g e.p. (in CZK) yielded a nutrient-to-price ratio (N-P ratio): N-P ratio = NAS/ price. In order to avoid overestimation caused by the fact that certain foods are excellent sources of a single nutrient, present in a large amount, but do not contain a wide range of key nutrients, the maximum percent DRV of the given nutrients was capped at 100%.
The effect of process parameters (pH, pulp density, inoculum volume of the nutrient medium, silver content) on the rate of copper solubilization was analyzed respectively through silver-catalyzed bioleaching experiments with microorganisms in shake flasks. These results show that the optimal process parameters are: pulp density, 2.5 wt%; silver content, 10mg/L; pH, 1.50-1.80; inoculum volume of the nutrient medium, 40vol%. Furthermore, the addition of the silver could catalyze the process of bioleaching, and high silver concentrations would be harmful to the bacterial activity and the copper extraction. pH and inoculum volume of the nutrient medium had a marked influence on the copper extraction and iron extraction. The bioleaching of the low-grade copper ore requires a minimum amount of the nutrient medium to obtain the maximal efficiency.
DIC in fluvial environments are complex and influenced by a combination of sources and natural processes, such as the types of rock and soil in the hydrographic basin, water-atmosphere interaction sand oxidation/reduction reactions of anthropogenic inputs . Based on the re- sults presented in the previous section, an analysis of the possible agents that influence the biogeochemistry and the carbon flux in the Capibaribe River, a typical tropical coastal system that is subjected to intense anthropogenic action in the northeast region of Brazil, will be presented next. The findings for the Capibaribe River reflect an important state of pollution in the drainage basin; this pollution is mainly due to the discharge of untreated do- mestic wastewater into the water. The estimated popula- tion density for 2010 in the city of Recife was 7000 in- habitants km −2 , and the mean density in the drainage ba-
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A field experiment was conducted at Horticulture Complex, JNKVV during 2012-13 and 2013-14. Six year old uniformed plant of cv. Amrapali spaced at 2.5 × 2.5 m and maintained under recommended practices except the treatments were taken for the study. The trial was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil of experimental site was clay in texture (58.4% clay, 21.5 silt and 20.1% sand) having pH 7.4, electric conductivity (0.25 dSm -1 ), bulk density (1.48 Mg m -3 )
seedling (40-d) result in taller plants in 2009 but the ef- fect was not significant in 2010. These results are sup- ported by Khatun et al. who observed taller plants after transplanting older seedlings (45 days as compared with 30 days old seedlings) in boro rice, and by Ashraf et al. who used 35 and 25 days old seedlings [19,30]. All three management factors had a significant interaction on plant height in 2009 but not in 2010. The positive effect of low seeding density and fertilizer top dressing is of course due to less competition and better plant nutrition, and older seedlings seemed to provide an additional advan- tage in the drier 2009 season. We did not see a strong effect of fertilizer management in contrast to Mishra and Salokhe, who observed that fertilizer application in the nursery was a crucial factor in increasing seedling vigor . Similarly Farooq et al. also found an increasing trend of plant height after transplanting improved nursery seedlings . The fact that the wet conditions in 2010 obviously caused maximal height in all treatments indi- cates that nursery treatment might be more important in stress conditions.
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higher residual nitrogen (239.9 kg/ha), phosphorus (72.9 kg/ ha) and potassium (461.4 kg/ha) status of soil. It could be due to lower biomass production per hectare of maize and lower amount of nutrient removal under lower plant population. Significant built up of residual soil nutrients when maize was cultivated at lower plant density was earlier reported by Mohan Kumar et al. . Successive increment in fertility levels increased the available nutrient status of the soil, application of N (300) P 2 O 5 (130) K 2 O
Neither zonal geranium nor petunia cuttings soluble sugar concentrations were affected by nutrient treatment. These results are contradictory to the 2009 study by Zerche and Druege reporting N supply (low, adequate, and high N rates based on biweekly soil sample analysis results) affected carbohydrate levels in poinsettia cuttings. The observation that soluble carbohydrate levels in the leaf lamina accumulated during rooting is likely related to depletion during shipping. Depletion is thought to up-regulate genes involved in photosynthesis, remobilization, and carbohydrate export (Koch, 1996). Our results in petunia, with the exception of sucrose, support research by Ahkami et al (2008). Glucose and fructose levels reached their highest before the emergence of roots. Petunia cutting sucrose levels in this study do not appear to have been depleted during shipping and did not have the same response as the other soluble carbohydrates.
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of the plant community. In regard to earthworms, Syers and Springett (1983) concluded that these plant-soil relationships concerning earthworms are interactive, cyclical and complex. Bardgett and Wardle (2003) elaborated the links between grazers, plants and soil for the decomposer organism. An illustrative example for these links is revealed by an experiment of Hamilton and Frank (2001) in which grazing of Poa pratenis promoted root exudation. This stimulated microbial biomass in the root zone which in turn increased soil N availability and plant N acquisition, which resulted in grass growth. Brussaard (1998) combined the soil-plant interactions from “decomposers” in a diagram with the interactions of “root-biota” including the root herbivores and “ecosystem engineers” including the earthworms. In this diagram Brussaard (1998) considered plant roots as ecosystem engineers since they create habitats for other organisms. A conceptual framework is proposed in which the diagram of Brussaard (1998) is worked out in a cyclical process according to Syers and Springett (1983) for a grassland sward (Figure 1). Through plants and roots, and interactions with soil biota, food and habitat for biota is delivered to the soil. Through the improvement of nutrient cycling, soil structure and water retention by soil biota, plant rooting is increased and the intake of nutrient and water through plants is increased. Finally this results in a greater plant yield which means again an increase in litter and root exudates in quantity and quality. The challenge for sustainable grassland management is to allow this cycle to function optimally with a minimum of external inputs. It can be compared to cranking up of an engine, once the flywheel is turning, the engine can continue at a low speed with minimal inputs and even sustain minor disturbances. For a grassland the grassroots are a major link between the aboveground and belowground system. When the roots fail to grow the cycle shuts down.
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Accompanying these effects on plant size and competitive ability were major changes in the allocation of resources within infected plants such that the proportion of resources allocated to roots was very substantially less in infected individuals than in healthy ones (Fig. 5 and 9). Reduction in growth and root to shoot ratios are not uncommon for many obligate foliar diseases, for example Puccinia lagenophorae infecting Senecio vulgaris (Paul et al. 1990) and Puccinia chondrillina infecting Chondrilla juncea (Burdon et al. 1981). Such effects could have significant consequences for the survival of infected individuals in drought conditions (fewer roots in infected individuals) or other harsh abiotic conditions, or may, as it was detected in experiment I, affect their competitive ability under low nutrient conditions. The cause of the shifts in root/shoot ratio are unclear, though if the fungi are principally active in shoot tissues they may alter the source-sink- metabolite relationship of the plant, and if they are active in apical meristems they may disrupt the normal control of development. Root/shoot ratios generally decline as plants increase in size, so a reduction in growth rate could keep plants in a more "juvenile" condition.
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Outdoor rearing of pigs is perceived by many consumers as being more natural and animal-friendly than conventional production systems. Thus, an increasing number of sows are being kept outdoors in Europe in large-scale, intensive out- door systems (Watson et al., 2003). In Danish organic pig production, sows are typically kept outdoors all year round and young pigs are moved to an indoor pig unit with access to an outdoor run with a concrete ﬂoor when they are weaned at 7 weeks (Hermansen et al., 2004). It seems para- doxical that despite the fact that much meat derives from sup- posedly natural outdoor systems, the pigs spend the majority of their life in indoor systems prevented from carrying out natural behaviour such as rooting, digging and grazing. A possible explanation is the expected drawbacks of rearing fat- tening pigs outdoors including the huge space demand and high labour input, greater food consumption and environ- mental costs because of nutrient losses to water bodies and to
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We examined the effect of fine-scale fluid turbulence on phytoplankton community structure in an idealized, size-structured community model. It has been shown that turbulence can enhance nutrient transport toward a cell, particularly for larger cells in highly turbulent conditions. Our model suggests that under weak grazing pressure the effect of this mechanism on relative phytoplankton fitness and community structure is negligible. Under these conditions, the high nutrient affinity of small cells dominates relative fitness and allows them to outcompete larger cells. In contrast, when grazing pres- sure is strong, the turbulent enhancement of nutrient uptake and fitness for larger cells can become ecologically significant. Here, increasing turbulence broadens the size range of coexisting phytoplankton and increases the size of the dominant cell type at equilibrium. We also estimate and map open ocean turbulent dissipation rates as a function of climatological surface wind stresses. The turbulent enhance- ment of nutrient uptake is most likely to be ecologically significant in regions with low nutrient levels, strong grazing pressure, and relatively high turbulence, such as in windier portions of the subtropical gyre or post-bloom conditions at higher latitudes. In these regions, turbulence may help sustain larger cell populations through otherwise unfavorable environmental conditions.
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Diet and hence nutrition are shown to be useful and modifiable tools for the management and possibly the prevention of metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis. This is especially true if good nutrition and a healthy balanced diet is introduced early in life, and followed through to adulthood [1,2]. In the past two decades, a growing body of literature has recognized the importance of nutrients in bone health [3,4] and dietary patterns . However, few studies have investigated the impact of nutrient patterns on bone density [1,2]. Although investigating a single nutrient can be beneficial, research into a combination of nutrients in foods may help individuals with differing environment, culture, food habits and preferences putting into consideration the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of these nutrients when consumed together.
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Data from the three Swift Current hillslopes are avail- able at https://doi.org/10.23684/hhn5-rz52 (McConkey and Thiagarajan, 2018). This depository includes the runoff, runoff nutrient concentrations, snowpack, soil moisture, soil nutrient concentrations, and crop and tillage data. Her- bicide and sediment concentration data are not included in this dataset. We have also made available the digi- tal elevation data for the site, which can be accessed at https://doi.org/10.20383/101.0117 (Coles et al., 2018). The Environment and Climate Change Canada meteorological data are available at http://climate.weather.gc.ca/ (last access: 30 August 2019).