nut shell biochar structural changes following pyrolysis. Cell pore diameter was reduced, internal pores appeared and a subsequent increase in surface area occurred. Furthermore, it is possible that at lower pyrolysis tempera- tures tars block micropores; thus, yielding a lower surface area biochar compared to higher temperature biochars where these same tars are volatilized leading to an increase in surface area (Munoz et al, 2003; Kloss et al, 2012). Chen et al (2008) showed that increasing pyrolysis temperatures removed H and O containing functional groups, greatly increas- ing biochar surface areas. Chen et al (2012) explained that increasing pyrolysis tempera- ture decomposed cellulose and lignin, also leading to an increase in surface area. In addi- tion, steam, NaOH, or H 3 PO 4 activation of biochar has been shown to remove low-vola- tile tar constituents (in the case of steam acti- vation) or create holes in the skeletal C structure (in the case of NaOH or H 3 PO 4 acti- vation) with a concomitant increase in specifi c surface area (e.g., Borchard et al, 2012b). The aforementioned processes where pore size is reduced and surface area is increased may lead to an increase in nutrient retention.
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Apples are a highly nutritious food containing many beneficial bioactive compounds. Conventional thermal processing methods can destroy many of these compounds. Rapid heating technologies, such as microwaves, can adequately heat foods to prevent pathogen and spoilage microorganism growth, while maintaining nutrient content. This study investigated the effects of microwave and water bath heating systems, on apple nutrient retention and the effects of apples on complex food systems during processing and short-term storage. Apple purees were formulated with peach and pineapple purees and processed in a 2450 MHz household microwave oven (rapid heating) or in an agitating hot water bath (slow heating) at 100 °C. Microwave samples were held at 100 °C for 1, 2, and 3 minute hold times. Hot water bath samples were held for 4, 5, and 6 minutes. Samples were analyzed immediately after processing or refrigerated for 2 days to quantify the effects of a short storage on nutrient retention. After processing, purees were cooled in ice water and analyzed for total phenols by the Folin Ciocalteu assay (FC), total antioxidant capacity by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance assay (ORAC), and total ascorbic acid content using HPLC.
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Abstract: Highly weathered soils in the tropics are low in fertility, negatively affecting plant growth. The potential of biochar for improving soil nutrient retention is reportedly promising, triggering this study to assess the nutrient retention capacities of two biochars when applied at 2% in combination with two composts also applied at 2% to an Ultisol (Ustic Kanhaplohumult, Leilehua series) and an Oxisol (Rhodic haplustox, Wahiawa series) of Hawai’i. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai) was used as the test plant in two greenhouse plantings, which had a factorial completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. The results indicated that the combined additions of biochar and compost significantly increased the pH, EC, P and K of the soils; improved Ca, Mg and Fe uptake; and increased shoot and total cabbage fresh and dry matter. Exchangeable aluminum in the Ultisol was decreased from 2.5 cmol+/kg to virtually zero. Extractable Mn and Fe in the high Mn-Oxisol were decreased by 55 and 42%, respectively. Chinese cabbage growth in the Ultisol amended with the lac tree (Schleichera oleosa) wood biochar and vermicompost was almost twice over lime at 2 cmol+/kg. Essential nutrients in the plant tissues, with the exception of N and K, were sufficient for the cabbage growth, suggesting increases in nutrients and reduced soil acidity by the additions of biochar combined with compost were the probable cause.
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The most important factor influencing nutrient leaching in the smallholder oil palm plantations was fertilizer applica- tion. This was evident by the higher solute concentrations of the fertilized area compared to the frond-stacked area and to the other land uses (Fig. 1; Table 3). In the fertilized area, the stronger correlations of dissolved cations with total S and Cl, rather than with DOC, were because S and Cl are compo- nents of the applied fertilizers (see Sect. 2.1). The larger in- creases in solute concentrations of the fertilized areas in the loam Acrisol than the clay Acrisol soils were attributed to the following: (1) higher fertilization rates of oil palm plan- tations in the loam Acrisol (see Sect. 2.1) and (2) its lower clay contents that contributed to its lower water-holding ca- pacity and nutrient retention (Tables 1 and 5). In fertilized areas of the loam Acrisol, the correlations among dissolved NO − 3 , total Al, and acidity were likely due to nitrification of added N fertilizer and the low acid-buffering capacity of this loam Acrisol soil (i.e., low base saturation; Appendix Ta- ble A1; Allen et al., 2016). Soil-extractable NO − 3 and NH + 4 in these smallholder plantations are elevated up to 6 weeks fol- lowing fertilization (Hassler et al., 2017), during which time NO − 3 is susceptible to leaching. Nitrification-induced acid- ity may have enhanced the Al acid-buffering reaction and led to the increases in dissolved Al and acidity of soil solution (Table 3). Other studies in Indonesia and Malaysia have also reported increases in soil acidity due to N fertilization in oil palm plantations (Anuar et al., 2008; Comte et al., 2013). Even though occasional liming is practiced by smallholders in these oil palm plantations, soil pH (Appendix Table A1) was still within the Al acid-buffering range (pH 3–5; Van Breemen et al., 1983). The acidic soil water and elevated dissolved Al concentration resulting from N fertilization in these oil palm plantations may have also triggered the de- crease in mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots and the in- crease in distorted root tips found at the same sites (Sahner et al., 2015).
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Abstract: The influence of different storage conditions (ambient temperature, refrigeration temperature, and hot air wooden cabinet storage) on nutrient retention capacity of onion bulbs was investigated. The fresh onions varieties (red and white) were obtained from a private farm (Modibbo Isah Farms, Bichi, Kano State, Nigeria). The experiment followed a completely randomized design in a factorial 3 × 2 × 8, with a total of 48 treatments, corresponding to three storage temperature conditions, two onion varieties and eight-week storage duration. The storage temperature conditions were ambient temperature (30±2°C), refrigeration storage (5-7°C) and hot air wooden cabinet storage (45-50°C) while the two onion varieties were white and red types. The prevailing relative humidity during the storage period ranged between 70 and 95%. The result showed that some constituents of the stored onions decreased with increase in the storage period and this particularly occurred in moisture content (86.89- 63.76%). Some parameters showed increased values with increase in the storage period and these include ash content (0.98- 1.60%), fat content (1.28-1.76%), protein content (1.45-4.75%), crude fibre content (0.96-1.74%), and carbohydrate content (9.05- 28.82%). The onion types essentially exhibited diverse responses to these different storage conditions which might be linked to botanical diversity. However, the red onions seem to show greater stability in terms of nutrient retention than the white type while ambient temperature storage conditions may be regarded as the best of the three storage conditions investigated.
Vegetated buffer zones (BZ) are found to be very effective in removing total phosphorus (TP) and sediment losses from agricultural runoff. The mean percentage TP retention ranged between 27 and 97% in BZs in Nordic countries. Whereas the retention of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) varied from 14% to negative which was probably caused by DRP leaching from the soil surface and plant material (Uusi- Kämppä et al. 2000). BZ length was found to have the most significant effect on P and sediment removal, while vegetation characteristics has only secondary influences (Abu-Zreig et al. 2003, Hook 2003). On the other hand, Uusi-Kämppä (2005) reported that natural vegetated and grass buffer strips reduced particulate P (PP) load by 55 and 47%, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate both the influence of vegetation on nutrient retention and nutrient removal efficiency in different vegetated and managed BZs.
The percentage increase in water retention as a result of the amendments ranges from 0.6% in the PS amended with 10%Pt, to 40.4% in the PS treatment 30%Pt + 5%B. For the Pt, the amount of water held increases with the percentage of the Pt. Water retention of Pt is largely associated with the dead-end pore spaces found in the cortical layer of plant stems and hyaline cells in the leaves (and stems) which have openings at one end for water storage (Rezanezhad, et al., 2016). A typical peat could hold water up to 18 times of its dry weight (Hobbs, 1986). The water holding capacity of the peat used is 5g/g dry weight, so, in principle the more the quantity of peat added, the more the water that could be retained. The result agrees with the findings of Wang et al. (2014) who reported that in a laboratory experiment in Florida, fermented bioethanol and paper mill wastes at 10% loading increased water retention of a sandy soil by 150 and 300% respectively, compared to the unamended control. Li et al. (2004) showed in a three-year field experiment in Quebec, that amending sandy soil with peat increased water retention and total porosity, especially when the application rate was 48 Mg ha - . The OM application rate in this experiment at 10, 20 and 30% soil volume were 87, 174 and 261 Mg ha -1 , respectively. The application rate used in this experiment were a bit higher, but the results did agree with their findings.
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We were able to show that the nutrient concentrations in the studied river-lake system are significantly influenced by the retention of nitrogen as well as phosphorus release from sed- iments. In the evaluation of management options aimed at improving the trophic and ecological state of lowland rivers, such as the Havel River, these internal processes must be taken into account. From the analysis of monitoring data and subsequent model simulations we conclude that attempts to lower the availability of phosphorus will be counteracted by internal P loading in the time frame available for imple- menting measures according to the EU-WFD (until 2015). Nevertheless, it seems likely that the impact of P release will noticeably ease off within the next two decades. Even then, drastic measures of emission control will be required if nu- trient limitation of primary production is to be reestablished. For the time being we suspect that efforts to further reduce nitrogen loads could be more effective than a moderately de- creased P input. However, we are convinced that the emis- sions of both nutrients, N and P, should better be reduced in parallel.
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not initially recovered, even though they may resuscitate and subsequently grow during the storage of pressure processed foods. This problem may be handled adequately by using two different media types; one which would promote the growth of only healthy microorganisms, and another which would also promote the growth of the stressed cells (Kalchayanand et al., 1994; Berlin et al., 1999). Nutrient-rich environments are normally required for cellular repair, while a selective environment inhibits such repair. Such an approach would play an important role in instances where HPP is used as a pasteurization treatment to reduce the number of organisms of concern in a food to a level of acceptable risk (U.S. FDA, 2000). However, Berlin et al. (1999) showed that cultures of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus that entered the dormant state of viable but non- culturable were just slightly more pressure-resistant than were control cultures. In this case, the enhanced resistance was so small that it was not deemed to be a factor
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submerged. Prior to sampling, the depth to water was measured in each piezometer using the electric water-level meter. Drawdown and field water-quality parameters (pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) were monitored and documented during piezometer purging. Water-quality properties were measured continuously while purging using a multi-parameter water-quality sonde (Hydrolab MS4a) equipped with a flow-through chamber connected to the pump discharge line. The multi-parameter sonde was calibrated each morning before sampling. Prior to sample collection, at least three piezometer volumes of groundwater were removed, or the piezometers were pumped until dry and allowed to recover. Adjacent surface water samples grabbed from the top 30 cm of the surface water column were collected coincidental with groundwater sampling at both transects. All water- quality samples were collected in 250 ml acid washed polypropylene bottles, kept on ice in the field and processed upon return to the laboratory. Once in the laboratory, surface water and groundwater samples for nutrient analysis were filtered into clean, dry, acid-washed 40- ml glass vials using 0.45 micron syringe filters, acidified to a pH < 2 using a 5% solution of H 2 SO 4 , and stored at < 4 ° C until analyzed.
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considerably reduced because of low water residence times and limited contact with biologically active sediments. Therefore, floodplain restoration that aims to increase connectivity (both in frequency and duration) has the potential to target high flow periods with disproportionately high mass export of nutrients. Indeed, channel geomorphology, particularly the height and width of floodplain benches is an important component of stream restoration design. To enhance nutrient retention and removal, not only do specific environmental conditions need to be met, but also ample time must be provided for biological, chemical and physical processes to occur.
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The effects of 10-meter wide grass buffer strips (GBS) and vegetated buffer strips under natural vegetation (VBS) on losses of sediment, phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from cropped soil plots has been studied for 15 years on Lintupaju field at Jokioinen. The results have been compared with those from 70-m-long and 18-m-wide plots without buffers (NBS). Surface and subsurface water to a depth of 30 cm were sampled, soil and plant samples taken from the buffers for nutrient analyses. Spring barley or oats were grown on the field in 1991–2002 and dairy cows grazed on the grassed field and grazed grass buffer strips (gGBS) in 2003–2005. Buffer strips decreased losses of sediment, total P and total N by 60, 40 and 40–60% in surface run-off from a cropped field. However, the loss of PO 4 -P was 70% higher from the field with the non-harvested VBS
Based on improved performance of broiler chickens fed 7.5% toasted D. oliveri seed meals as replacement for ground cake meal reported by . Hence, this study was therefore designed to investigate higher graded inclusion levels of toasted D. oliveri seed meal on growth response, nutrient retention and economics of production.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of myo-inositol (INS) in diets containing two levels of available P, on growth performance, nutrient retention, liver N, fat and vitamin E contents, inositol and ALP concentrations in blood plasma. 120 male Ross 308 broilers were allocated to 60 small floor pens each holding 2 birds. Two basal diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate for chicks at that age, as one of them was designed to have the recommended available P content (RP) (4.8 g/kg non-phytate P), and the other diet was relatively low available P content (LP) (2.5 g/kg non-phytate P). The two basal diets were then split in three batches, and each batch was supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.0, 3.0 and 30 g/kg diet, respectively to give six experimental diets. Each diet was offered, in mash form, ad libitum to birds in 10 pens in a randomized block design. The experiment lasted for 14 days from 7 to 21d age. Feeding RP diets improved (P<0.001) the birds’ growth performance variables, mineral availability, and blood plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP). However, feeding RP diets reduced (P<0.001) apparent metabolisable energy (AME), total tract dry matter and fat retention coefficients, blood plasma INS and hepatic vitamin E. Dietary INS did not (P>0.05) influence birds growth, dietary AME or nutrient retention coefficients. Feeding INS linearly increased (P<0.05) liver weight and hepatic N content, but linearly reduced (P<0.05) hepatic fat concentration. It also linearly increased (P<0.001) the inositol concentration in blood plasma, but did not influence (P>0.05) the SA concentration in excreta. Dietary inositol did not influence (P>0.05) the hepatic vitamin E concentration but increased (P<0.001) the ALP in the blood of birds fed 30 g/kg inositol. This experiment has confirmed expected biological effects of diets that differ in available P and INS contents. No available P x inositol interactions were observed in any of the variables studied.
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All three main effects on phytate phosphorus retention were observed in the 2nd week and only dietary Ca level in the 3rd. Increasing supplemen- tal phytase increased phytate phosphorus reten- tion (P < 0.0442). The effect of 500 PU/kg was not significantly different from the effects of 0 and 1 000 PU/kg, which were significantly different from each other. The highest phytate phosphorus retention was observed in broilers fed barley based diets and the lowest in those fed maize based diets. Phytate phosphorus retentions of broilers fed wheat and triticale based diets were not significantly dif- ferent from each other and from those of broilers fed barley and maize. In both weeks higher phytate phosphorus retention was observed in broilers fed diets containing 0.6% Ca. No significant interac- tions were observed indicating that the main effects were independent.
Eighteen Kiko-cross meat goats ( Capra hircus ; body weight (BW) = 31.0 ± 1.49 kg) were fed three different levels of CT-containing ground PB ( Pinus taeda L.) to study the effects of CT in ground PB upon nutrient di- gestion and metabolism and upon animal performance. The study was conducted at the Caprine Research and Education Center, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL. Goat kids, approximately 5 month of age, were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to the experimental treat- ments in a completely randomized design with two dif- ferent periods. In the 2nd period, new animals were randomly allocated to the experimental treatment with the same dietary treatments. A preliminary period of at least 30 days was allowed for the animals to adjust to each ration before 7 days of fecal collection periods.
immobilization (Piatek and Allen 2001; Vitousek and Matson 1985), making the forest floor both a sink and a source of nutrients depending on the nutrient, tissue type (e.g. branches, foliage), and time since deposition. At a large scale, climatic factors such as temperature and moisture have explained most of the differences in decomposition (Carey et al. 1982; Cortina and Vallejo 1994) especially in recently deposited material (McHale et al. 1998; Rustad and Fernandez 1998). On the other hand, litter quality (Berg et al. 1993; De Santo et al. 1993; Piatek and Allen 2001), lignin content (Berg 1986; Sariyildiz and Anderson 2003; Scott and Binkley 1997), and the type of colonizing fungal species during microbial succession (Cox et al. 2001) have been associated with differences in decomposition at smaller scales. Based on these factors, the amount and quality of forest floor in a stand are expected to influence its decomposition and nutrient dynamics, thus the nutritional status of the stand as a whole.
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Despite increases with maturity, fat and energy absorption were significantly less in the FHM than the PF group at both times of measurement (Fig 3). The percent fat absorption correlated positively with the rate of weight gain, r 5 0.595, P , .001. The percent absorption of P, Zn, and Cu differed between groups; Ca and Mg absorption increased over time (Fig 4). There was significantly greater net retention (balance) of nitrogen, P, and Cu in the FHM than the PF group at both 6 and 9 weeks, P , 0.01. Nitrogen balance declined similarly from 6 to 9 weeks, in both the FHM and the PF group, P , .001. To compare postnatal retention (balance) with intrauterine accre- tion for each nutrient, we used the percent attain- ment of intrauterine accretion (Fig 5). The retention of most nutrients surpassed the intrauterine accre- tion rate; only Ca retention in infants fed PF was below the intrauterine estimates. The carmine red intestinal transit time, averaged for both 6- and 9-week studies, differed between the FHM and the
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Microwave technology has been a commonly used heating method in consumer homes since about the 1980’s, when household microwaves became smaller and more affordable. It wasn’t until more recently that microwave technology became more widely used in the food or pharmaceutical industry. Microwave heating is capable of heating products more quickly than conventional heating methods and therefore has a greater nutrient retention. A continuous flow microwave system operated at 915 MHz has been developed and successfully implemented in the production of fruit and vegetable purees, broths, and juices. (Steed, et al., 2008). This large system, with an operating flow rate of 5.7 L/min, requires a sizable capital investment which is a constraint for small companies interested in exploring microwave technology to experiment with potential products. Therefore, there is a need for a smaller, more cost effective system that can function in a pilot plant setting which is suitable for the purpose of R&D or small scale processing. In order to meet this need, a modular system was built utilizing household microwaves which traditionally operate at 2450 MHz (Truong, 2014). The difference in frequency, 915 MHz verses 2450 MHz, only has a slight effect on the heating of a product (Tong, Lentz, & Rossen, 1994). This modular system has a smaller production area foot print and is capable of processing products at low flow rates. The development of this type of system would allow companies to test new products while wasting less material, energy, and time.
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The current food situation in Kenya is alarming so that food is extremely expensive for the larger Kenyan population. This is largely due to the frequent droughts in the country and especially because more than 80% of the land is arid to semi-arid. There is therefore urgent need to put into practice existing technologies to spur food production in the semi-arid fragile ecosystems. This study is investigating the effect of trapezoidal bund technology and use of manure on soil moisture storage and retention, impact of soil moisture on nutrient availability and nutrient use efficiency by crops, nutrient dynamic changes in soil and effect on crop yields and long-term soil fertility maintenance. The study also aims to quantify microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralisation potentials in soils. The project is in progress at Katumani, Dryland Research Station in Machakos. Trapezoidal bunds for run-off water collection and storage have been constructed according to the recommended pattern. Plots measuring 4.5 m× 4.5 m will be used for the treatments where maize (var.SC Duma 43) and common beans are the test crops, and manure and NP fertilisers as source of plant nutrients. Three levels of both manure and NP fertilisers 0, 5 and10 tons/ha manure and 0,50 and 75 kg/ha of each N ad P fertilisers) will be used. Treatments will be factorial and randomised in a complete block. Soil moisture content will be measured by a gravimetric method. Simulation models for nutrient dynamics and crop performance will be done using CMKEN and NCSOIL models. Data will be subjected to analysis of variance and regression. Nutrient use efficiency and gross returns will be calculated.