All project aims were fulﬁlled, with many patients receiving the screening and early intervention offered within the scope of the study. This research identiﬁed that 43% of patients screened were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition is well known to have serious health outcomes, including increased risk of complications and infections, decreased response and/or tolerance to treat- ment, decreased quality of life and life expectancy, and increased use of medica- tions, length of stay, and readmission rate. The importance of nutrition screening has been well deﬁned by accreditation bodies in healthcare at national levels . With nutrition screening usually conducted by allied health assistants or nursing staff in isolation from communication, cognition, and swallowing, this transdiscipli- nary research has provided an opportunity to extend the scope of practice for staff members of both disciplines.
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statistic was calculated that captures the correct responses per minute of time available to respond. It represents a combination of speed and accuracy with a higher Tput statistic indicating a superior performance. Based on the manufacturer’s recommendation, subjects completed three practice tests prior to baseline data col- lection. This approach eliminates any learning effect during the study period and prevents learning effects from confounding actual study measurements [20-22]. Glucose and “hypoglycemic” nutrition-related symptoms Capillary blood glucose samples were collected from participants ’ fingertip and analyzed immediately using the Precision Xtra Blood Glucose Monitoring System (glucose measured in millimoles per liter). Participants were asked to report from a checklist of “hypoglycemic” nutrition-related symptoms, including those produced by falling glucose and counterregulatory hormones and by reduced brain glucose. The seventeen symptoms cov- ered manifestations of adrenergic responses (sweating, sensation of warmth, anxiety, tremor or tremulousness, palpitations and tachycardia), glucagon responses (hun- ger, nausea), and neuroglycopenic responses (fatigue, dizziness, headache, visual disturbance, drowsiness, diffi- culty speaking, inability to concentrate, abnormal beha- vior, loss of memory, and confusion) [23,24]. The checklist response data were collapsed to a binary yes/ no variable for the presence or absence of each symptom.
few important components of PA such as walking, garden- ing/yard work, and house chores. Interestingly, our observa- tion of no association in the 60–69 age group ε 4-carriers is also analogous to the overall conclusions of Verghese et al, except that such subgroup analyses were not considered by the authors. Such methodological differences in the assess- ments of cognition and PA may contribute to inconsistencies in the literature. In comparison with previous cross-sectional studies, this study has the advantage of adjustment for seri- ous chronic illnesses and mobility limitation, is age-specific, and involves APOE genotype-stratified analysis in addition to a representative sample. Though the mechanisms by which APOE comediates differential PA-induced changes in cognition may involve its role in lipid metabolism, further clarification of this process is needed.
It is well known that a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition are important components for physical wellbeing and a long healthy life. Good diet and nutrition has been found to affect the brain in a multitude of ways, for example, by regulating neurotransmitter pathways, and by modulating synaptic transmission, membrane fluidity, and signal transduction pathways. The importance of diet is especially emphasized for growing children who need good nutrition for brain development and functioning (Meeusen, 2014). Aside from this, research on nutrition and cognition has for some time been dominated by age-related health disorders and how to delay their onset (Meeusen, 2014). Research with phytochemicals has previously focused on their ability to reverse age-related cognitive deficits (Andres-Lacueva et al., 2005). The neuro- protective effects of flavonoids have been given importance due to the growing cost of age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, and Parkinson’s disease (Macready et al., 2009). This is most likely because anthocyanins are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which may explain why they are able to directly influence areas of the brain responsible for memory and cognition. In particular, phytochemicals have consistently been reported to have beneficial effects on neurocognitive functioning (Casini et al., 2006; File, Hartley, Elsabagh, Duffy, & Wiseman, 2005). Their neuroprotective actions include defending neurons against neurotoxins, supressing neuro-inflammation and promoting memory, learning, and overall good cognitive functioning (Meeusen, 2014).
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15 tell us about dynamic processes such as growth, (…) or intellectual development (…). Nor do these surveys allow linking early exposures to later health, developmental, or behavioral outcomes, an area of growing importance in life-course epidemiology (…) (Victora and Barros 2012, 3). As the authors continue to show there is little evidence available on the association between parental resources and child outcomes in developing countries. Most of what we know on the association is from high-income countries often from specifically designed birth cohort studies. So there is a need for developing country research to move “from still photographs to full-length movies” as evidence from high- income birth cohorts are often used to justify global health policies. That the context is very different is shown by the important example of over and undernutrition. While for high-income countries consequences of child obesity are very relevant this is only true to a limited extent for low and middle income countries where poor nutritional status and stunting are still highly prevalent (Victora and Barros 2012). That the topic of hunger and nutrition has not lost its urgency is shown by new and ongoing campaigns such as the Enough Food For Everyone IF campaign 2013 with its motto: “The world produces enough food for everyone, but not everyone has enough food” 8 or the Scaling-Up-
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We asked the physicians “Do you sometimes have diffi- culty eating and drinking during work hours? “ and all answered yes. We then asked “ Think back to a busy work day where you maybe did not have time to eat and drink properly. Do you think it had an impact on you? In what way? How did you feel physically, psychologically, cogni- tively? Do you think it had an impact on your work? In what way? Do you think it had an impact on how you treated your colleagues, other health care professionals? Did it impact your ability to complete your work?” All of the participants reported that they thought that inade- quate nutrition had some impact on them and almost all reported experiencing emotional symptoms including irritability, frustration, decreased patience and feeling emotionally drained. Most reported they have felt physi- cal symptoms such as fatigue, hypoglycemic symptoms (shaky, tremors, sweats, headache, lightheaded, hunger, nausea), and general malaise. Many also described a per- ceived impact on their cognition, citing symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, lack of focus, inability to think clearly, poor or slow decision making, and generalized inefficiency. Many study participants admitted that they felt the impact of inadequate nutrition at times led to an inability to complete their work, and they offered exam- ples such as decreased efficiency, lack of focus, less will- ingness to discuss patient care issues with colleagues and
The results in this paper should not be construed to mean that children in China’s poor areas are not vulnerable. Indeed, the absolute levels of health, nutrition, cognition, educational performance, and non-cognitive outcomes among both girls and boys are still low. In comparison with international standards, children in rural China—both boys and girls—are shorter and lighter. Over 40 % are infected with intestinal worms. Other work has documented the poor levels of educational performance among rural chil- dren relative to urban children . Perhaps a more accur- ate interpretation of the results of this paper is that all children in the rural areas of western China are vulnerable. They all require extra care, attention and resources.
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Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed) (100, 200 and 300mg/kg) was evaluated by Sreemantula et al., 24 in a rat model of scopolamine induced amnesia in conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. They correlated the anti-stress and antioxidant activities with the nootropic activity of the extract since the role of stress and free radicals have been implicated in the loss of memory, concentration and also in Alzheimer's disease 25, 26 . They attributed the nootropic activity to central cholinomimetic activity apart from its free radical scavenging mechanisms 24 .
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If there is one underlying motivation with respect to the present paper and its two forebears, therefore, it is perhaps that the 1866 moratorium was issued with good sense, and that certain linguistic work with a biolinguistic/evo- lutionary flavour ought to take the spirit of that moratorium very much to heart, explicitly recognising the highly speculative nature of the enterprise as it currently stands. Not that we wish to dismiss outright any such work or demand the literal issuing of any such moratorium. After all, the familiar history of early twentieth century research into language and cognition demonstrates the pitfalls that easily arise through such a priori diktats. Rather, we make the simple point, easily forgotten in all the speculative excitement, that if linguists are to genuinely establish and cash out an apt biological/evolutionary framework for under- standing human language, it will be important to proceed both thoughtfully and critically; not least because it is not especially clear what or where the relevant evidence base will turn out to be, or even what such a framework might itself actually mean given the highly interdisciplinary requirements of the task. As such, we take the three critiqued papers to represent a telling cautionary tale. For, if it is true, as has been remarked, that “[t]here is no end to plausible storytelling” (Lewontin 1998: 129), then surely it is even more true that we first have a plausible story to tell.
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It may be commented, however, that the reported activations seem to elucidate the organizational aspects of the process more than the aesthetic aspects – they shed little light on what factors are involved in making one image appear more beautiful than another. Correspondingly, they leave unresolved the issue of how beauty per se is encoded in the human brain, beyond the expression of the positive and negative affect evoked by these images. It may be that this is a function of the extensive activation of the putamen, which is typically associated with motor coordination in complex tasks. In the context of aesthetic judgments, aesthetics consists of factors such as the coordination of shapes and colors into an integrated composition, and appreciation of the tensions between different aspects of the depicted actions. These seem sufficiently similar to its classical roles to account for the unusually extensive activation throughout the putamen in this aesthetic task, which corresponds to the ancient Greek concept of ‘symmetria’ or goodness of form. This interpretation goes some way beyond the inferences drawn by previous authors, and is intended as a working hypothesis for the neural instantiation of the core processes of aesthetics (as opposed to those of complex judgment in general, which may not have been fully controlled by the simple judgment of brightness employed as a control by Ishizu & Zeki, 2013). This hypothesis, of the putamen as the specific locus for the registration of goodness of form, may be tested in future brain imaging studies by a comparison between aesthetically pleasing and unpleasing compositions that are similar in other respects. If the study is performed with compositions of live figures rather than geometric ones, it may be expected to involve a substantial embodied cognition component.
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In another study, Kaplan et al. (2003), used 23 years of data on 15 pharmaceutical companies in the US and UK in an attempt to link managers’ mental models to strategic choice in the face of dynamic and discontinuous events. Using a measure of managerial recognition extracted from documents, the authors show that management’s recognition of biotechnology advances are related to strategic actions when controlling for other factors. What is different in this particular study is that they have a relatively larger sample size which made it difficult to develop causal maps. The process for capturing a manager’s cognitive causal maps involves time and labor intensive steps. Instead the authors used a normalized word count to devise a measure of recognition. Short and Palmer (2003) used letters to shareholders to collect and develop data on a CEO’s reference points in decision-making. Their study linked organizational size to CEOs’ internal or external referents and their sensemaking of organizational performance. No one can doubt the prevalence of text analysis in the cognition literature but one criticism towards the analysis of these texts has been that these documents are mostly written with a tone that pleases stakeholders and may suffer from impression
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From the viewpoint of our analysis, what Sampson invokes is a limited version of community cognition, the ability of a neighborhood to perceive patterns of threat or opportunity, to compare those perceived patterns with an internal, shared, picture of the world, and to choose one or a few collective actions from a much larger repertory of those possible, and to carry them out. Disjunctive or ‘strong’ social ties define some of the underlying cognitive modules – collective and individual – within the neighborhood. Weak ties, from our perspective, are those which link such modules – individual or collective – across the community. Individuals, defined subgroups, or formal organizations, may have multiple roles within that community, permitting the formation of multiple global workspaces, if the strength of the various weak ties linking them is sufficient. Institutional cognition, in the sense of this work, emerges as a dynamic, collective phenomenon. Cultural constraints and developmental trajectory serve as ‘contexts’ to both stabilize and direct the resulting cognitive processes, which may still fail through inattentional blindness, resource limitation, or other pathologies.
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Malnutrition is a significant problem in SSA. Prevalence of over-nutrition is increasing in most SSA countries (Mendez et al., 2005; Jaacks et al., 2014; NCD-RisC, 2016). Over- nutrition in SSA is likely linked to increasing globalization, urbanization and economic development. These correlates are thought to have an impact on food systems by changing the culture of food production from subsistence to commercial agriculture, enhancing the accessibility of inexpensive energy-dense foods due to economic liberalization and aggressive marketing of processed food products that leads to the adoption of ‘Western’ dietary patterns (Kennedy et al., 2004; Hawkes, 2006; Popkin, 2014; Madise & Latemo, 2017). Over-nutrition may also be associated with the ongoing progress of women empowerment in the region. Increased engagement of women into white-collar labour markets has promoted overconsumption of fast foods due to increased levels of income and decision-making power within households (Kennedy et al., 2004; Steyn & Mchiza, 2014; Neupane et al., 2015).
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Whereas sleep quantity is concerned with the amount of time we spend asleep, sleep quality is measured by how well we actually sleep during the night. This is usually assessed via self- reported frequency of nocturnal awakenings; difficulty initiating sleep; waking up early; or waking up feeling tired, using validated tools such as the PSQI . Research has suggested that as well as sleep quantity, sleep quality may also play an important role in cognition. One such study in elderly women has found that disturbed sleep is associated with an increased risk of developing a cognitive impairment, but not with accelerated cognitive decline . However, self-reported poor sleep is not independently related to cognitive function in community-dwelling older men, suggesting that there may be an interplay between sleep quantity and quality which accounts for the detrimental effects on cognitive function . The Maastricht Ageing Study (MAAS) aimed to determine whether subjective sleep complaints (i.e. difficulty falling asleep, waking up too early, and restless or disturbed sleep) in middle aged and older adults predict global cognitive decline over a period of 3 years. The study found that subjective sleep complaints are negatively associated with cognitive performance at follow-up, where waking up too early has the strongest association with cognitive decline of the three sleep quality assessment questions . However, the association between sleep complaints and cognitive decline disappears once depression is controlled for, raising the question of whether poor quality of sleep leads directly to poor cognitive function, or whether poor sleep causes an increase in depressive symptoms which then results in cognitive decline . This finding highlights the importance of accounting for the effects of other variables, such as depression, on sleep and cognitive function when interpreting various study results and potentially contradictory conclusions.
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Previous research has identified a negative relationship between retirement duration and cognition. It appears that on average people who have been retired longer have lower (fluid) cognition even after other factors known to impact on both, such as education and age, are held constant. However, there is less agreement, and even less good empirical evidence, about whether this observed statistical relationship is a causal relationship. Both directions of causation are feasible. The so-called “use it or lose it” hypothesis emphasises the causal impact of retirement on cognition, with the state of retirement itself being one of the factors responsible for cognitive decline in old age. However, an alternative view is that cognitive decline results in older people being less capable of carrying out the tasks and responsibilities of their job. In economic terms, cognitive decline causes “productivity decline”, which is in itself one of the factors contributing to the retirement decision.
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Among the different cognitive tests administered in the HA, the “Color Trail Task 1” (CTT1) and the “Color Trail Task 2” (CTT2) are best suited to address our research question. These two tests measure key aspects of fluid cognition. More specifically, CTT1 captures visual scanning and processing speed while CTT2 captures visual scanning, attention, and mental flexibility, thereby making it an executive function task (D’Elia et al, 1996). Executive function includes “a set of cognitive skills that are responsible for the planning, initiation, sequencing, and monitoring of complex goal-directed behaviour” (Royall et al., 2002). In our view, all these components have a clear and intuitive link with tasks that form most types of work. In fact, one would expect mental flexibility, processing speed, initiation and sequencing to be central to effectively carrying out employment-based tasks.
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A fundamental aspect of human cognition is that we conceptualize the reality as including unique entities - such as specific places, persons, objects - that belong to various categories. An individual dog, for example, could simultaneously be a living being, a mammal or a poodle, but when we identify a specific dog as our dog “Fido” we access the mental representation of the individual itself not just the categories it belongs to. The processes involved in identifying an object at these two levels of abstraction (as a member of a general category or as a unique individual) are indeed quite different, as they are, we assume, their underlying memory representations. When classifying an object as a member of a category, we need to ignore the very information that is required to distinguish individual exemplars of the category and we need to connect the object with a general conceptual representation which cluster features largely shared by the members of the category. On the contrary, when we identify an object as a unique individual we activate unique semantic associations that are distinctive of that particular object compared to the other category members. We refer to the cluster of unique semantic associations linked to an entity as a singular concept, while we name singular cognition the complex of cognitive processes that allow a cognitive agent to identify a known entity, through perceptual or epistemic access to its memorial representation, and trace it as the same unique entity perceived or known at successive moments in time. To perform such a process the cognitive system is confronted with a uniqueness problem. It needs to pick an individual entity out, secure a unique mental referential link with the entity and maintain that link over time and change. We argue that singular concepts are the cognitive devices that are specialized for this function, providing a unique referential link between the entity and its memorial representation.
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Previous research showed an association between cognitive function and different measures of physical performance in an elderly population: aerobic fitness (Baldasseroni et al., 2009; Netz, Dwolatzky, Zinker, Argov, & Agmon, 2011), balance (Rolland et al., 2009; Voos, Custódio, & Malaguias, 2011), and gait speed (Atkinson et al., 2010; Atkinson et al., 2007; Nieto, Albert, Morrow, & Saxton, 2008). A meta-analysis of Smith et al. (2010) further confirmed the relation- ship between aerobic exercise training and cognition. Twenty two randomized control trials were included in this study. They all observed the effects on cogni- tion after an exercise program that included aerobic exercises. While the association between cognitive function and aerobic performance has been well stud- ied, the association with balance is investigated less. The results of the study by Brown, Lui-Ambrose, Tate,
Moreover, behaviourism is best seen, not as a single unified ‘movement’, but as a number of competing methodologies used by a large number of psychologists in a variety of different contexts (therefore, there was no behaviourism: there were behaviourisms). Not all behaviourists denied ‘inner states’, and many, far from being 19th century ‘mechanists’, now seem to have been ahead of their time. It was Hebb (1949), for example, who was one of the first proponents of what we would now call ‘neural nets’ or ‘connectionism’. Woodworth (1958) argued in favour of a theory very close to what we would now call ‘situated cognition’. And so on.
Students still have the perception that the task of monitoring progress is a sole responsibility of the teacher. This finding contradicted the result of a study stating that self-regulated learners take on the responsibility of monitoring their progress towards learning goals (Zumbrunn, et al., 2011). Although students claimed that they have high ability to regulate cognition as seen in the result of the metacognitive awareness inventory assessment, still students verbalized that they were not very keen on monitoring. Students were not able to develop this skill because they were not taught also how to do this. Teachers might have focused much on teaching the concept without giving the students an opportunity to practice their monitoring skills. As said by Louca (2003), to increase the consciousness of the students on the way they think, they should be made aware on the criteria for assessment. Allowing students to do the said task instead of doing it for them would increase their skills in reflecting and directing their own cognitive undertakings (Lucas & Corpuz, 2007; Aquino, 2009; Corpuz et al., 2010).
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