Woman is the central figure who provides the child care, hygiene, nutrition and even primary health care among families. The health and nutritional status of women are at large very critical and various . One of the best agency through which women’s status can be improved is Self Help Groups. Three hundred Self Help Group women aged between 40 years were selected randomly from Karamadai Block of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu and Experimental and Control group. Socio-economic status, dietary background and nutritional knowledge of all the women were assessed. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, BMI and Waist Hip Ratio were measured using standardized procedures. They were clinically examined for signs of various nutritional deficiencies. Haemoglobin levels were also estimated to identify the prevalence of anaemia. Based on the results and the reports from PHC amme was planned and imparted to the Experimental group for a period of three months through demonstrations, exhibitions, lectures and leaflets,. The evaluation of nutrition and health education was done through a structured questionnaire administered re and after nutrition education about their knowledge, attitude and practices. The data revealed that majority of the women belonged to lower socioeconomic status and their dietary practices were l deficiency were also prevalent. Mean haemoglobin levels were below normal (10g/dl) among many women indicating anaemic status. Nutrition education showed a positive effect in the experimental group. It is suggested that there is a
The functioning of Anganwadi center in the urban slums of Delhi was evaluated in order to asses the organization, available infrastructure and logistics at the center. 16 It was seen that 55% of Anganwadi centers were running in rented house and 40% in helper’s house, 85% of Anganwadi centers had pucca building and were electrified. 60% of Anganwadi center had availability of fan for the children. Safe drinking water and food storing space in proper conditions was available in 75% of Anganwadi center. All the Anganwadi center had regular supply of adequate ration for their registered beneficiaries, 90% had registers for record keeping, 80% had functioning scale, 7.5% had nutrition and health education material and growth cards, but none of them had received medicine kit and iron folic acid tablets since the last four years.
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work together across various disciplines to design appropri- ate research studies that influence policy-making at the local, national and global level [6,7]. Public health education covering the domains of biostatistics, epidemiology, nutri- tional epidemiology, research ethics and nutritional bio- chemistry is needed to develop professional competence in the field of nutrition research. Skilled professionals in the fields of epidemiology, biostatistics, social sciences and pub- lic health are needed in order to better document the in- creasing rate of chronic disease epidemics in India and to devise optimal methods for their prevention and treatment. There are about 355 recognized medical colleges in India  and 190 institutes that offer nutrition courses at various academic levels such as certificate course, Bachelors (BSc), Masters (MSc), post graduate diploma (PG) and Doctorate (PhD) . However, public health nutrition (PHN) is not available as an independent discipline in any college/univer- sity across India, with only 3 colleges offering Diploma pro- grams . PHN education and training programs could help in understanding and addressing the existing dual bur- den of diseases in India. Thus, there is an immediate need for quality training programs to train faculty to acquire the necessary skills and competencies to conduct high quality research.
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The two independent reviewers used a specially devel- oped data-charting form (Table 4) to extract data from each document on the title/topic, document type, cover- age of national priority areas, coverage of health system topics, year published and the source of the document. We developed a tailored index of health policy docu- ments based on the national priority issues, types of documents emerging from the search results and health system topics borrowed from the Health System Evidence [15, 24, 25]. We specifically categorised the documents as policies, strategies, plans, guidelines, rapid response summaries, and evidence briefs for policy, dialogue reports and other reports. We also coded the documents for national health priority areas as identified in the Second National Development Plan (NDPII 2015/ 16–2019/20)  and Second Health Policy (NHPII) . The NDPII stipulates the Country’s medium term strategic direction, priorities (including health priorities) and implementation strategies up to the year 2020. The national health priority areas are disease prevention, mitigation and control; health education, promotion, environmental health and nutrition; governance, coord- ination, monitoring and evaluation; maternal and child health; reproductive health; human resources for health; health financing; health infrastructure; early childhood development; essential medicines and sup- plies; palliative care services; rehabilitation services; and curative services [24, 25].
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relationship with another person. An important part of that self concept is the picture they have of themselves as learners” (Victorian Government initiative, 2010). The experiences drawn by the author( Mohnaty, P.) from the Child to Child—Project Motivation in Delhi(1994), Curriculum analysis of Nutrition Health Education and Environmental Sanitation component at Primary stage (1996), Balika Shiksha Shivir(1997) in Bikaner, Rural SC Primary School Girls in Rural Haryana(1999,2005), Adolescent Girls in Tigri Slum in Delhi(1995), Girl Children of Scavengers in Lucknow(2010), Scholarship and educational status of Children including girls in Ambedkar Villages(2012), display more of a deprivation among girls of under privileged communities. Girls are found to be in jeopardy— born as girl in rural context within the lap of class and caste based society
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The recall of nutrition education topics by these two groups of caregivers provided insight into how this 10-week program influenced caregiver internalization of key child feeding topics, and also highlighted areas where mothers who were not exposed to a supplemental feeding and nutri- tion education program were particularly uninformed. Topics such as hygiene, avoiding excessive dilution of children’s meals, feeding small quantities of food that children can finish, and being attentive to children during feeding were mentioned by few or no mothers in the CG. While our study did not assess in what these messages meant to caregivers, or how they were put into practice, it was noteworthy to observe that four of 10 main IYCF mes- sages were reported by a majority of caregivers. Based on discussion with program delivery staff, the messages that were most commonly reported by PP caregivers in this study were messages reinforced with visual imagery, such as food preparation or child care demonstrations that accompanied verbal instruction. Visual aids and demonstra- tions have been reported by health education workers as an effective method of conveying IYCF information .
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child. [3,4] Child’s health reflects the future of the country. Still, preference for son is often manifested as discrimination against the daughters.  It can lead to many discriminatory practices against the girl child, like in relation to feeding, health care, education, distribution of intra family food  and ultimately may lead to higher female child mortality rates. Boys are viewed as future breadwinners since they remain with their parents even after marriage. Girls, on the contrary, are mainly viewed as “guests” in the household, since they depart parents’ homes when they marry. Son preference also leads to sex selective abortion, thereby disturbing the natural law of reproduction and gender balancing and can also be considered as one of the reasons for the declining sex ratio.
must be raised. In fact, health development has been viewed by policy planners as an integral part of the overall development of human resource (Saxena, Srivastava, Idris, Mohan, & Bhushan, 2000). Government of India has taken several measures to improve the health status of women in the country and Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) is one of the flagship programmes working in that direction. ICDS is the largest welfare scheme in the development of maternal and child health in the world. Launched on October, 1975 by the Ministry of Child and Development in just 33 projects with 4891 Anganwadi Centres (AWC) today it has expanded to 7076 projects and 14 Lakh AWCs across the country. ICDS through its package of services caters to the supplementary nutrition, pre-school non-formal education, nutrition and health education, immunization, health check-ups and referral services of the children under the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers. i The successful implementation of ICDS has significantly improved the nutritional and educational status of women and children in the country (Singh & Gupta, 2016) . ICDS since its inception in 1975 has made significant development but it is also not free from certain challenges like infrastructural constraints and irregular funds from both state and central government (Kumar & Banerjee).
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Given that multidisciplinary teaching is a key focus of education guidelines for future health professionals  it is consistent that students’ recognized poor collaboration with nutrition and other health professionals in their nu- trition education as an important barrier. The apparent poor collaboration may not give students the opportunity to realise the multidisciplinary nature of nutrition care  and will hinder inter-professional development and collaboration required for clinical care . The identifi- cation and integration of nutrition content into the curriculum may also be hampered if nutrition profes- sionals are not involved in the planning and development of the medical curricula. Collaborating with nutrition and other relevant health professionals has been found to be effective in improving the status of nutrition education in the medical curriculum . Reflecting on the success of a nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, Ball et al.  asserts that the multidisciplin- ary nature of the programme contributed to its success. The multidisciplinary team included medical practitioners, dieticians, nutritionists, and nurses in the delivery and evaluation of nutrition education sessions. This multidisciplinary nature was recognized at two levels: during the development of the intervention and imple- mentation of the teaching and learning strategies of the intervention. This approach has also been widely encour- aged by other institutions to model the contribution of health professionals in addressing nutrition in patient practice [58, 59].
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with obesity is included in various national health policy publications. In terms of protective health and family health services, these programmes mainly aim at popularising activities to prevent obesity, primarily among high-risk groups like infants, children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, elderly people, disabled people, and those who give up smoking. Education is an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but there are gaps in practice, as indicated by the study findings. In this context, it is important that health professionals provide education on physical exercise and balanced nutrition to minimise the risk for obesity, as well as the long-term adverse health outcomes associated with obesity. 14
Despite the different efforts to improve nutrition in Ethiopia , the prevalence of underweight is still high, with most regions having a higher prevalence than the documented 5-20% of African women . From the reviewed studies, the prevalence of underweight among lactating women was highest in rural Tigray located in Northern Ethiopia at 50.6%  and lowest in Arba Minch Zuriya district in Southern Ethiopia at 17.4% . Most of the studies showed the prevalence to range from 20% to 25% [3,4,10,18], with the exception of Alemayehu et al. in Dedo and Seka-chorkosa districts Southwestern Ethiopia at 40.6% . Desalegn et al.’s study that showed the highest prevalence included two groups, women who were fasting and those that were not fasting in a study area that is known to have food insecurity and environmental disasters. This region was seriously affected by the 2015-2016 El-Nino rains that occurred in Ethiopia, and the study was conducted shortly after . Fasting mothers reported the highest prevalence of 50.6% while non-fasting mothers reported an average of 25% prevalence which is similar to the prevalence reported by Haileslassie et al., Gebre et al. and Berihun et al.
pressure. Some of these companies are Bank of America, Ernst & Young, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and others. In a paper on “Women’s Work and Family Strategies” by Centre for Women Development Studies, New Delhi (1984), several socio- cultural factors determining unequal distribution of resources in the household have been discussed based on the women’s occupation. Oakley had said that women taking up jobs outside the homes were forced to play dual roles affecting the nutrition and health of the children.
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Pakistan is one of the most populous countries in the world. It has a population of approximately 200 million and its labor force comprises of 57.2 million people out of which 28 percent are women. Though the constitution strictly prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, caste or origin yet it is openly practiced phenomenon particularly against women. Article 26 of 1973 constitution says no person otherwise qualified can be discriminated against in the matter of employment on the basis of race, religion, caste, gender, residence or place of birth (Exceptions: specific services can be reserved for members of either sex if such posts/services require duties which cannot be adequately performed by the members of other sex, e.g. Lady Health Visitor). The constitution specifically provides women equal opportunity to participate in local government, article 32 says special representation shall be given to women in local government institutions (i.e., local bodies). Unfortunately, most women in Pakistan are unaware of their rights regarding employment and are frequently discriminated at work place. The regulatory laws attempt to prevent gender discrimination even then employers are reluctant to hire women due to their divided attention between work and home related responsibilities and long maternity leave. Because of these reasons, World Bank ranks status of Pakistani women among the lowest in the world.
gender, socio-economic status, education level (1 = com- pleted primary school; 8 = postgraduate degree), house- hold income, sedentary time and physical activity (each calculated as total minutes per week), sleeping difficul- ties (how many hours sleep on average on weeknights and weekends; and whether or not they consider sleep to be a problem – yes/no/don’t know), smoking status (1 = never smoked; 5 = smoke daily), and frequency of consuming >2 alcoholic drinks per day (1 = never/rarely; 5 = daily). Socioeconomic status was determined from participant postcodes using deciles of the Socio- Economic Indexes For Areas, a ranking of Australian neighbourhood disadvantaged and advantage, based on census data for variables such as education, income and occupation status . Physical activity and sitting time were measured using two questions adapted from the short form of the validated International Physical Activ- ity Questionnaire (IPAQ) .
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Methods: A serial pre-post intervention experimental study was conducted from January to July 2016 to evaluate the knowledge before (pre-test), immediate after (post-test), and three months after the provision of three sessions of digestion health, nutrition, and parenting (character building) topics by the experts which covered from several areas in Indonesia. The improvement of the sufficient knowledge proportion time by time was analyzed by using McNemar test.
Men and women appear to use a different rationale for the need to begin a weight loss regimen, according to John Phillip, a Diet, Health, and Nutrition Researcher/Writer (2011). In a study of 1,000 adults, Phillip (2011) found men and women have very different reasons to consider a weight loss program. Forty percent of women indicated their physical appearance was the most important determinant to lose weight, while 27% of men cited “not feeling healthy” as the primary motivation for weight loss.
Background: Educational interventions designed to promote healthy eating are essential in primary health care. Nevertheless, given the nutrition controversies about what is healthy, the contradictions created by the media, and the situation of users with complex needs, the prioritization of the themes to be addressed in the services has scarcely been described in the planning process. This study aimed to identify the process of implementing the themes discussed by health professionals in nutrition education groups in two primary health care models. Methods: Our study followed a qualitative comparative approach. It included the systematic observation of nutrition education group meetings to identify the key messages addressed and semi-structured interviews with health professionals in São Paulo, Brazil, and in Bogotá, Colombia. We used thematic networks to classify the messages and the collective subject discourse technique to organize the information obtained from interviews. We observed 28 nutrition education groups in São Paulo, and 13 in Bogotá, and conducted 27 interviews with
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During initial development of the district=s wellness-related policies and procedures, each school in the district will conduct a baseline assessment of the school's existing nutrition and physical activity programs and practices. The wellness committee will compile these results. In addition to the baseline information provided from each school, the committee will use no fewer than four of the following indicators to measure the impact of the district wellness program:
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Good nutrition before and during pregnancy builds a healthy fetus and a healthy mother. In early weeks of pregnancy significant developmental changes occur that depend on a woman’s nutrient intake and storage. The food a pregnant mother eats on a daily basis has much to do with how healthy she is. It also determines the state of health of the baby at birth. In other words incorporating nutritious food into the eating plan during pregnancy gives the woman a chance to give birth to healthy baby. (Dickason, Silverman & Schultz, 2010, Handisco, 2014 and Demissie, Muroki, Wambui & Makau, 2012).
Given this rapidly changing and in- novative landscape, it is imperative to continue education on care coordi- nation, the PFCMH, accountable care organizations (ACOs), and family- centered and -driven health care for practicing physicians, medical stu- dents, resident trainees, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, mental/behavioral health practitioners, and social workers. This workforce training goal can be accomplished through maintenance of certi ﬁ cation, continuing medical education, con- tinuing education units, and curricula/ competency changes in training. Edu- cation of the workforce is critically important, because care coordination functions and family-centered princi- ples must be learned and cultivated. The training of current and future physicians on the value and pragmatic adoption and implementation of care coordination is paramount in ensuring its success in practice. The Accreditation
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