Each woman was asked about her dietary intake by recall method. The mother recalled what and how much food was consumed and when it was consumed. The mothers were asked to express the consumption of all food items in terms of exact katori/wati/glass size, chapati or bhakari size and number, and spoon size (large, medium, and small). This information was used to compute the daily intake of cooked foods by converting the household measures into grams or kilograms. The daily intake of calories (Kcal); proteins (g); calcium (mg); and iron (mg) was calculated using conversion table and compared with Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)  of the caloric requirement during pregnancy add “of each pregnant woman was found out on individualized recommendations as per the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) guidelines . The recommendations take into consideration are body weight, type of work, and sex. The table of values for every 5 kg weight from 40 kg to 70 kg for women . From this table, the individualized caloric requirements were found out. The individualized protein requirements were found out using the formula of 1.04 kg of weight [14,15] at the time of registration as a proxy for prepregnancy weight. Calcium and iron requirements were taken from the general recommendations [14,15] of the ICMR.
Attitude, confidence and intention of mother towards breastfeeding The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used as a “theoretical framework” in breastfeeding research. As told by Duckett et al, 1998 attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control closely predict intention, which determines behavior. The constructs of TPB are that intention is predicted by attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm. Subjective norm is a “person‟s perception about what people in general think, a person should do with respect to target behavior” mentioned by Duckett et al., page 326,1998. Attitude in turn is predicted by beliefs about outcomes of the behavior and subjective norm is predicted by normative beliefs. Duckett et al .,1998 have shown that intention is related to breastfeeding initiation or duration.
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Minimum dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using 24 h dietary recall method based on seven food groups in the local context. Then the reported food items were classified in to grains/roots/tubers; legumes and nuts; dairy products; flesh foods (meats/fish/ poultry); eggs; vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables; and other fruits and vegetables. Then those children who consumed four or more food groups out of the seven food groups were defined as having adequate dietary di- versity score . Early initiation of breastfeeding, exclu- sive breastfeeding, and ever breastfeeding status of the child was collected from the mother/caregivers and the detail procedure is found from EDHS 2016 report.
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Data were collected using questionnaire, physical examin- ation and laboratory investigations. Four trained personnel were involved in data collection. A structured pre- formulated questionnaire was used to collect information on age, place of residence, education, type of occupation, socio-economic status (assessed by total family monthly expenditure), family history of chronic diseases including T2DM, HTN, CAD, and stroke, history of participants’ past illness or any chronic disease, history of addiction, physical activity level, nutritional status, and pregnancy- related history from the mother at the baseline visit. Ma- ternal anthropometry including height, weight, waist, hip and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were mea- sured (using standardized measurement protocols) at the
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The likelihoods of being severely/moderately anemic as compared to being mildly/non-anemic and of being se- verely/moderately/mildly anemic as compared to being non-anemic were similar for a given variable keeping all others variables. The study revealed that nutritional sta- tus of the child (wasting status and stunting status), current employment status of mother, religion of the child, educational status of partner, age of child, number of children under-5 in the household, source of drinking water and mother ’ s anemia status were the most import- ant determinants of severity levels of child anemia in Ethiopia in 2011. Consequently, a number of interven- tions required to reduce high prevalence of anemia for children in Ethiopia were recommended. These include: First, Policies and plans have to be put in place to reduce the prevalence of mothers ’ anemia. Second, Efforts like health, nutritional and family planning education, and follow up of both long term and short term nutritional status should be made to young aged children. Third, Improve partners ’ access to education in all areas to en- hance the quality of care and attention they can provide to their children. Finally, Efforts should be made to im- prove access to safe drinking water and job opportun- ities to mothers.
Abstract: Background: The assessment of Nutritional status of infants, aged 0-6 Months (Exclusively breastfed and non- exclusively breastfed) was conducted at Mother of Christ Specialist Hospital, Ogui, Enugu State, Nigeria. The aim of the survey was to find out if mothers truly practice exclusive breastfeeding, the ratio of mothers who practice exclusive breastfeeding to those who do not, to compare the nutritional status of infants who were breastfed exclusively with those who were not and to find out factors that discouraged mothers from practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Methodology: Structured questionnaires were validated by Dietitians and administered. The questionnaires were administered to two hundred mothers who were randomly selected. Anthropometric measurements (weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference) of babies were taken and recorded. The data collected were analyzed using statistical methods, which included mean, chi square, t-test, z-score, correlations, frequencies and percentages. Result: The study, revealed that (194) mothers breastfed their babies generally while (6) did not. One hundred and Sixty four (82%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding and 15% (30) did not breastfeed their babies exclusively. There was significant relationship between the levels of mothers' education and nutritional status of the infants. The mean age of the males exclusively breastfed was (9.86) while that of the females was (9.74) and the mean length was (61.96) and (60.92) receptively. The result of the anthropometric measurements showed that most of the parameters were better in exclusively breastfeed than in non- exclusively breastfeed infants though in some of the parameters, they were similar or better. The result of Z- scores for weight of male infants exclusively breastfed and non-exclusively breastfed were the same, while the length of the exclusively breastfed and non-exclusively breastfed were 30% and 26% respectively. Wrong concept of exclusive breastfeeding and its wrong application were found to be the major factors affecting nutritional status of infants.
The use of Dahlgren G and Whitehead M (1991) model in this literature review has identified important eco-social and behavioural determinants of diarrhoea in under-five children of Nepal. Factors related to the under-five chil- dren (Age, gender and nutritional status), factors related to mother (hand-washing behaviour and education of mothers) and eco-social factors (water and sanitation, healthcare services, cultural and societal values and in- come of the household) are the identified determinants for diarrhoea in under-five children of Nepal. Research to address these factors may be needed to design local inter- ventions to improve the morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea in under-five children of Nepal.
Methods/design: A multidisciplinary team of researchers was established from governmental and private academic and health sectors in Lebanon and Qatar to launch the Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment 3-year cohort study. Pregnant women ( n = 250 from Beirut, n = 250 from Doha) in their first trimester are recruited from healthcare centers in Beirut, Lebanon and Doha, Qatar. Participants are interviewed three times during pregnancy (once every trimester) and seven times at and after delivery (when the child is 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old). Delivery and birth data is obtained from hospital records. Data collection includes maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and household food security data. For biochemical assessment of various indicators of nutritional status, a blood sample is obtained from women during their first trimester. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, dietary intake, as well as anthropometric measurements of children are also examined. The Delphi technique will be used for the development of the nutrition and lifestyle guidelines.
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Background: Several physical, social, environmental and psychological factors of the mother can influence the nutritional, mental and social development of the child. The study was conducted to assess the quality of life of mothers of under five children and to assess the association between nutritional status of children and quality of life of the mothers. Methods: It was a cross sectional study done in a sub centre area under Sarjapur PHC. The sample size was estimated to be 190 and the mothers were selected using stratified random sampling from the villages. The Quality of life (QOL) of mothers was assessed by WHO-QOL-BREF scale. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by measuring height, weight, Body Mass Index and Mid-Arm Circumference.WHO growth charts were used to categorize the nutritional status. Results: A total of 190 mothers were interviewed with a mean age of 25.66(SD±3.85). Among the under five children, it was observed that 104 (54.7%) of children were stunted, 38(20%) were wasted, 49(25.8%) were underweight and 20(10.5%) had low BMI. The mean score in each domain of QOL were physical 81.79, Psychological 84.91, social relationship 93.67, environment 89.58 respectively. There was no significant
Currently, the case of malnutrition becomes a matter of concern in Indonesia. Malnutrition is a problem that needs attention, because it can cause the lost generation. The quality of the nation in the future will be greatly influenced the state or nutritional status at this time, especially toddlers. Due to malnutrition will affect the quality of one's life in the future. There are various ways to assess nutritional status. One is by measuring the human body known as anthropometry. Measurements of anthropometry that can be used include: weight, body length or height, upper arm circumference, head circumference, chest circumference. In addition to malnutrition, the problems that exist in Indonesia is about Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) is one indicator of the success of health services in a country. Maternal deaths can occur for several reasons, such as anemia. The results of Hanim analysis  show that the maternal mortality rate in Indonesia is 70% for mothers who are anemic and 19,7% for those who are non anemic. Maternal death 15-20% is directly or indirectly related to anemia. Anemia in pregnancy is also associated with increased maternal illness . Definition Anemia in pregnancy is a condition with hemoglobin levels below 11 gr% in the first and third trimesters or hemoglobin level <10.5gr% in trimester II . Anemia is a condition in which red blood cells decrease or decrease hemoglobin, so the capacity of the oxygen carrying capacity for the needs of vital organs in the mother and fetus is reduced. During pregnancy, anemia indication is if the concentration of hemoglobin is less than 10.50 to 11.00 g / dl . Hemoglobin (Hb) is a component of red blood cells that function to deliver oxygen throughout the body, if Hb is reduced, the body tissue lack of oxygen. Oxygen is required by the body to fuel metabolic processes.
Shastri (1989) studied the educational level of mother/guardian has considerable influence on the malnutrition status of their children. The inverse relationship between prevalence of malnutrition and education of mother is manifested by the existence of lower proportion of malnourished children of mothers with some formal education. Goswamiet al., (2010) pointed that illiteracy and poverty are the main contributing factors for poor nutritional status. So, better educational attainment will lead to more scope for employment which in turn will fortify their nutritional status. The present study attempts to analyse the malnutrition status of the children and adults. It tries to find out the causes of malnutrition and its prevalence in the study area. Finally it furnishes comprehensive details of remedial measures to minimize the gap between the levels of nutrition in the study area. Malnutrition occurs when a person do not receive adequate nutrients from diet. This causes damage to the vital organs and functions in the human body. Lack of food is the most cause of malnutrition in the poorer and developing countries. However, in developed countries like UK and USA the cause may be more varied. Those with a high calorie diet deficient in vital vitamins and minerals are also considered malnourished. This includes the obese and the overweight, (Mandal, 2014).
Table 1 Among 302 adolescent girl’s maximum number of adolescent girls were in the group of 13 to 15 years (45.3%), followed by 16-19 years (37.1%) and 10- 12years (17.6%) respectively. Most of the adolescent girls very Hindu by religion (97.4%). Maximum number of adolescent girls belonged to nuclear family (58.9%). Socio economic status (SES) was assessed by modified B G Prasad’s classification. Three fourth of the adolescent girls belonged to SES class III and IV i.e. 126 (41.7%) and 101 (33.7%) respectively. Less than 10% belonged to SES class II (7.6%) and SES class I (0.3%). Half of the adolescent girls were in their high school 152 (50.3%). Out of 302 adolescent girls, all of them were either doing or had completed primary schooling, 4 (1.3%) of the adolescent girls had discontinued high school and had rejoined after a year or more. 7 (1.9%) who were in college had similarly discontinued their studies in between. 15 (5.1%) adolescent girls were presently not pursuing their studies. More than half of the adolescents girls belonged to nuclear family (58.9%), one fourth of them were from three generation and very few from joint family (12.6%). Around half of the adolescent girls were of birth order less than two (46.0%).
7. Kabir Z Nahar, Ferdous T, Cederholm T, Khanam M Akter, Streatfied K and Wahlin A Ke. Mini Nutritional Assessment of rural elderly people in Bangladesh: the impact of demographic, socio-economic and health factors. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 9(8): 968-974. 8. Samad A and Abedin S 1998. Implications of Asia’s
For each participant, using a structured questionnaire, we collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, medical and surgical past history, nutritional survey, weight change in the last 6 months and gastrointestinal symptoms lasting for at least 2 months. All the partici- pants underwent a complete physical examination. We measured weight in light clothes with a Seca Scale bal- ance to the nearest 0.1 kg, and height using a calibrated stadiometer. Weight was measured on the admission time and everyday of hospitalization until discharge. The weight used to appreciate postoperative nutritional status was that measured on the day of discharge.
This study investigated the effect of maternal panic disorder and child anxiety on mother-child interactions. Our results confirm that mothers with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were significantly more verbally controlling, less sensitive and more openly critical during the mother-child interaction than mothers without panic disorder. Furthermore, there were more conflicts during the interaction in the panic group than in the control group and the interaction outcome was more often controlled by mothers compared to the control group. These findings are consistent with the results of other top-down studies that found differences in parenting behaviors and expressed emotion between anxious and non-anxious parents (Hirshfeld et al. 1997; Lindhout et al. 2006; Whaley et al. 1999) and concordant with the results of a recent meta-analysis (McLeod et al. 2007) emphasizing the importance of parental control in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. No differences in interaction style were found whether a potentially threatening (hospital template) or non-threatening (house template) stimuli was used. This study adds that the interactions of mothers with panic disorder are more dysfunctional than those without panic disorder independent of whether confronted with a child with or without anxiety disorder. In addition, low perceived self-efficacy in adolescents was related to increased parental control and increased levels of anxiety in adolescents, confirming contemporary theories on the etiology of panic and anxiety disorders, positing that parents who exert more control have children with lower levels of perceived self-efficacy and in turn higher levels of anxiety (Bouton et al. 2001; Mineka and Zinbarg 2006; Barlow 2001). Further research is needed to understand the precise role of children’s perceived self-efficacy in the transmission of anxiety from parent to child, since this area of research is still in its infancy.
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research program of the Clinical Pharmacology Unit at the Sydney Cancer Centre in the last 10 years has focused on the impact of tumour derived inflammation on hepatic drug clearance. This has included clinical studies and the characterisation of animal models. In addition, we have attempted to correlate cancer-induced inflammation with nutritional status in the quest to identify factors that could be favourably influenced to improve drug metabolism.
Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is a widespread problem in developing countries. Information on nutritional status of primary school children are not enough in Iran and India. The present study, made to assess prevalence of undernutrtion, stunting and wasting among urban school children in Mumbai in India and Ahwaz in Iran. Methods: Height and weight of 4570 including 2234 Iranian (1016 boys, 1218girls) and 2336 Indian (1240 boys, 1096 girls), aged 6-9 years, attending primary schools residing in Mumbai, India and Ahwaz, Iran were measured and the body mass index (BMI) calculated. The World Health Organization‘s (WHO) anthropometric indices of weight-for-age (WA) and height-for-age (HA) and weight- for-height were used to assess the children's nutritional status. Results: Underweight, stunting and wasting occurred in 3.2%, 1.5% and 4.1%% of Indian and 0.2%, 5.4% and 1.7% of Iranian children. WAZ mean scores of children were -0.071±1.195 for boys and -0.287±3.241 for girls in Iran and -0.238±0.823 for boys and 0.108±1.080 for girls in India. HAZ mean scores were -0.163±1.219 for boys and -0.515±3.141 for girls in Iran and -0.028±0.770 and -0.017±0.993 for girls in India. BMI mean scores were 0.044±1.081 for boys and 0.304±0.957 for girls in Iran and -0.345±0.796 for boys and -0.181±1.281 for girls in India. Among Iranian children0.2% (χ 2 =30.428, p=0.000) and 3.2% Indian children had weight for age z-scores below - 2 SD (χ 2 =55.361, p=0.000). Only 1.5% Indian children and 5.4% Iranian children had height for age z-scores below -2SD (χ 2 =11.553, p=0.000 and χ 2 =24.034, p=0.000). In Iran 1.7% and 4.1% of Indian children were wasted (χ 2 =11.176, p=0.004 and χ 2 =40.088, p=0.000).Among Indian children, 1.3% had weight for height z –scores > +2SD compared to 3.6% Iranian children.
Anthropometric indicators are useful both at an individual and population level. At an individual level, anthropometric indicators can be used to assess compromised health or nutrition well being. This information can be valuable for screening children for interventions and for assessing the response to interventions. At the population level, anthropometry can be used to assess the nutrition status within a country, region, community, or socioeconomic group, and to study both the determinants and consequences of malnutrition. These measures have limited value as indicators of malnutrition in their own right. In part, this is because weight and height depend on both age and gender. Moreover, physical characteristics are affected by many intervening factors other than nutrient intake, in particular genetic variation. However, even in the presence of such natural variation, it is possible to use physical measurements to assess the adequacy of diet and growth, in particular in infants and children. This is done by comparing indicators with the distribution of the same indicator for a “healthy” reference group, and identifying “extreme” or “abnormal” departures from this distribution. The three of the most c ommonly used anthropometric indicators for infants and children weight-for-height, height-for-age, and weight- for-age can be constructed by comparing indicators based on weight, height, age, and gender with reference data for “healthy” children.
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Of the total recruited children (including cases and control) sixty eight children are in normal nutritional status and thirty two children have moderate acute malnutrition. Analysis with in pneumonia group also shows that the mean serum zinc level in children with moderate acute malnutrition is significantly low than children with normal nutrition(p=0.02). Low mean serum zinc level in children in moderate acute malnutrition may be due to poor intake leading to zinc deficiency associated with other micronutrient deficiency. Similar finding found in study done by Kumar and associates (15). Further studies needed for recommending zinc supplementation in children with moderate acute malnutrition.
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Currently, there is little available data on the iodine nutritional status in pregnant woman in Catalonia (an autonomous region in northeast Spain) or the dietary habits that may be determinant in this regard. The avail- able information comes from studies conducted in limited areas of our region or in women in the third term of pregnancy [23, 24]. To fill this gap, the aim of this study was to determine the iodine status of a popu- lation of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy — the time when thyroid deficiency can have the greatest impact on embryonic development — and to investigate the habits affecting the iodine status in this population in a large geographical area of Catalonia. The ultimate aim was to gain information that will be useful to assess the need for interventions in this population by a public health program.