Attempts to revisit Milgram’s ‘Obedience to Authority’ (OtA) paradigm present serious ethical challenges. In recent years new paradigms have been developed to circumvent these challenges but none involve using Milgram’s own procedures and asking naı¨ve participants to deliver the maximum level of shock. This was achieved in the present research by using Immersive Digital Realism (IDR) to revisit the OtA paradigm. IDR is a dramatic method that involves a director collaborating with professional actors to develop characters, the strategic withholding of contextual information, and immersion in a real- world environment. 14 actors took part in an IDR study in which they were assigned to conditions that restaged Milgrams’s New Baseline (‘Coronary’) condition and four other variants. Post-experimental interviews also assessed participants’ identification with Experimenter and Learner. Participants’ behaviour closely resembled that observed in Milgram’s original research. In particular, this was evidenced by (a) all being willing to administer shocks greater than 150 volts, (b) near- universal refusal to continue after being told by the Experimenter that ‘‘you have no other choice, you must continue’’ (Milgram’s fourth prod and the one most resembling an order), and (c) a strong correlation between the maximum level of shock that participants administered and the mean maximum shock delivered in the corresponding variant in Milgram’s own research. Consistent with an engaged follower account, relative identification with the Experimenter (vs. the Learner) was also a good predictor of the maximum shock that participants administered.
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Milgram presented two questions to an audience he had familiarised with the study, but left in the dark about its results. 131 The first question was to inquire how these psychiatrists, college students, and middle class adults of differing occupations expected themselves to behave in the Behavioural Study of Obedience to Authority. Because of the potential bias 132 in answering a question about their own behaviour, Milgram also asked participants to predict how “other people would perform” in the role of the “teacher.” 133 Respondents to the first question believed they would refuse to obey the experimenter “at some point in the command series.” 134 Respondents to the second question (psychiatrists, graduate students and faculty in the behavioural sciences, college sophomores, and middle-class adults) were confident that “virtually all subjects will [disobey] the experimenter; only a pathological fringe, not exceeding one or two per cent, was expected to proceed to the end of the shockboard.” 135
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More generally, Kershaw  argues that the dynamism of the Nazi state resulted precisely from the fact that its agents were not following orders, but were “working towards the Führer” by acting creatively in ways they thought their leaders would want. Other analyses also suggest that perpetrators’ claims that “I was only following orders” do not withstand scrutiny of what they said and did at the time . In sum, then, the idea that unthinking ‘obedience to authority’ was a defining feature of either the Nazi state or its supporters seems highly problematic . Rather, it seems that perpetrators acted knowingly and even proudly on the basis that they were defending a noble—even virtuous—cause against insidious enemies [45,46]. More generally, it seems clear that toxic intergroup relations of this form are fuelled not by passive conformity but rather by active engagement [27,38].
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The idea of judicial review is that the derivative commitments (i.e. laws) that are created by the legislature – one aspect of political authority or “authorizing members” (List and Pettit 2011, p. 35) in the United States – can be reviewed by the judiciary to ensure that they do not violate the constitutive commitments of the United States (i.e. the US Constitution). One particularly appealing way to conceive of judicial review is as “a kind of rational and shared pre-commitment among free and equal sovereign citizens at the level of constitutional choice […] limit[ing] the range of legislative options open to themselves or their representative in the future” (Freeman 1990a, p. 353). What is important here is not the contractarian element but rather the view that judicial review can be seen as a 'shared pre-commitment' which functions to eliminate legislative options. There are many complications and debates about judicial review and its legitimacy for democracy. We can, for our purposes, leave these aside. What is important for us is to see that if we take seriously the constitutional commitments that are fundamental to a particular institution as a 'shared pre-commitment', we can see the limiting effect they have on future decisions. These shared pre-commitments rule out certain decisions that authorities can make for the group and remain valid.
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Based on the above understanding, discipline can be seen from the adherence (compliance) of the students against the rules (code of conduct) related to the hours of study at the school, which includes hours admission school and out of school, student compliance in dress, Student compliance in following school activities, and so on. All activities of students views of allegiance is with regards to educational activities in schools. The discipline of learning based on the opinions of experts can be said to be a condition that created and formed through the process of work done to a person to obtain a new behaviour change as a whole, as a result of his experience own in interaction with its environment that shows the values of obedience, obedience, loyalty, order and order.
cated in a previous conceptual framework: sociodemographic characteristics, health motivation (five items), perception obedience (three items), perception of initiation (four items), perception of susceptibility to HIV (seven items), perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (seven items), perceived benefits of testing (16 items), perceived barrier of testing (17 items), self efficacy to live with HIV test results (six items), cues to HIV testing (five items), past sexual behavior (eight items), and testing experience (eight items). Each dimension of HBM, except cues to testing and other perception items, elicited responses on a five-point Likert scale: “strongly disagree (1),” “somewhat disagree (2),” “neither agree nor disagree (3),” “somewhat agree (4),” “strongly agree (5).” Negatively worded items were reversed during analysis.
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In line with Kasemann's thought, Victor Paul Furnish writes, "The Pauline imperative is not just the result of the indicative but fully integral to it" (Theology and Ethics, p. 225 )• Furnish explains that the reason this is so is that in Paul's thought, justification has to do not only with forensic pardon but also with entering the new age and living under a new Lord (I Thess. 5’4ff«; Hom. 13«llff.? Phil. 3J2O) (Theology and Ethics, pp. 151-152, 225-226). Fumish's comments on Rom. 6:l2ff. are reminiscent of Barth's defence of the reverse.1 of the traditional Law-Gospel schema: "The Christian's obedience is inseparable from the event of God's grace which makes it possible. God's grace constitutes not just the summons to obedience but the possibility of obedience. Vs. 14 makes this clear when it speaks of sin's power being displaced by the power of grace ... The Christian already has a new life because he already has a new Lord ... The new Lord not only asks all, but gives all" (ibid., p. 195)* "As always in Paul's thought, what God gives is inseparably tied to what he asks; where the command is heard, the power to obey is also received. This is most profoundly expressed in the famous appeal of Phil. 2:12-13 to ’work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for God is at work in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure' (RSY). This is what is meant by being 'led1 by the Spirit (Rom. 8:14; Gal. 5:18) and by 'living' and 'walking’ by the Spirit (Rom. 8:4-5,* Gal. 5:16,25; cf. II Cor. 3:6).- Belonging to Christ means being subject to his power in the double sense of one who is both dependent upon and responsible to a sovereign Lord" (Theology and Ethics, pp. 238-9).
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These data suggest that some individuals might adhere to medical prescriptions not because they are motivated to do so but simply because, in general, they agree to conform to rules such as fastening their seatbelt when seated in the rear of a car. Others may have both reasons for being adherent. We therefore propose a typological model of adherence to medication (and possibly of adherence in general) with two components: active (motivation) and passive (obedience).
These considerations lead me to the conclusion that those who ad- vocate OD should follow the authority dimension. Their claim should be that consequentialism is overdemanding because, while being stringent and pervasive, our reasons to meet its requirements override other competing reasons, resulting in situations when it demands us, with alleged decisive force, to do things that we do not have decisive reason to do. This reading is not subject to any of the points made against the other two interpretations of OD. There is thus a case for authority, but how strong is it? Rather weak, I think. To begin with, as noted earlier, consequentualism, unlike Kantian or Hobbesian moral theories, is a theory of moral standards that has nothing to say about moral reasons: it must be augmented by a sep- arate theory of reasons. Hence, we cannot simply refer to the theo- retical construct called “consequentialism” to see if advocates of OD are right when they make or, rather, when we imagine them to make claims about OT, thus about the inescapability of consequen- tialist directives. There is no evidence that consequentualists typical- ly endorse such a claim, much less that they need to do so. 52
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There is always anticipation in every couple entering marriage that they are going to be blessed children. Iruoma (2010, 97) supports this view by saying that “one of the reasons and blessings of marriage is child bearing or procreation.” However, parenting has proved over the years that it requires commitment and hard work. The Bible exhorts parents to nurture their children in the way of the Lord. One such verse is Proverbs 22:6, “Train a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.” In training a child, which is part of parenting Annie (n.d, 25) recommends that a child has to be taught in four areas: Teaching the word of God, teaching to obey, teaching them to work and teaching discipline. These are key areas in which the Bible teaches as part of biblical guidance. In Deuteronomy 6:7, God through Moses instructs parents to teach the word of to their children in whatever available opportunity. Not just when the time is convenient but every time. Simmons(2008, 22) in commending verses seven of Deuteronomy six says that “Notice we are to teach God‟s word to our children throughout the day and wherever we go! In order to accomplish this effectively you need to be with your child as much as possible. It‟s not just quality time together; it is quantity if you are going to be intentional in training your child.” However, in this first paced society, parents really ought to be intentional for this training in God‟s word can easily slip out of hands. Few parents take time in the evening to study God‟s word with their children. But the truth is that if our children are to receive training that will stand the test of time; it has to be in God‟s word. The other aspect of training is to be obedient. Obedience as attested by Apostle
NOV-DEC 2016, VOL-4/27 www.srjis.com Page 3086 good. A Comparative Study on Obedient/Disobedient Behaviour by Sharma shows that males are disobedient in their behaviour due to peer pressure whereas, females show the mixed behaviour, i.e., both obedience and disobedience.of bad peer group shows more disobedient behaviour
One theme crossing each of these accounts is an interest in the aesthetics of authority – the ways in which authority makes itself seen and felt. Julian Brig- stocke, through an archival study of experimental arts practices in late nineteenth century Montmartre, offers an initial framework for analysing the aesthetic struc- tures of authority. Authority, he suggests, can usefully be analysed across three overlapping axes of experience: amplitude, gravity and distance. First, authority ampli ﬁ es experience; but this ampli ﬁ cation can take a number of forms: for exam- ple, making experience more extensive (by stretching further into the past, through tradition, or the future, through experimentation); or else by making it more inten- sive (felt with increased intensity in the present moment). Second, authority is a way of anchoring the world. Traditional authority ﬁ gures are endowed with ‘ gravi- tas ’ – an ability to bear the weight of the world upon their shoulders. In modernity, however, the experience of authority is the experience of an anchoring in process, as participation. This explains the increased authority of the arts since the late eigh- teenth century: art has the capacity to arrest the world and to lend the most ephem- eral and inconsequential moments the gravity of eternity. It also further explains the increased authority of experiencing life, as discussed by Blencowe, Dawney and Noorani. Finally, authority is asserted through the production of distance, as Kir- wan ’ s paper emphasizes. Authority ﬁ gures always retain a mystery, a sense that they hold back a source of hidden power. Freud ’ s extraordinary characterization of the authority of the psychoanalyst is exemplary in this respect: ‘ The doctor ’ , he writes, ‘ should be opaque to his patients and, like a mirror, should show them noth- ing but what is shown to him ’ .
Obedient behaviour, as Milgram stated, “… is initiated in the context of a hierarchical social structure and has as its outcome the differentiation of behaviour between superior and subordinate” . Considering the evolutionary aspect of this behaviour, it had been necessitated when man constructed its primitive society based on division of labours. They developed a society in the form of an organization where different elements of the organization vowed to live by working on through the principles of symbiosis that carried ultimately the greatest benefit to that organization . In this respect, I would prefer to say 'different elements' rather than 'superior and inferior elements', as it could be bidirectional – like the mob fears police, but also in situations the police can fear mob; the subjects fear the ruler, but also in situations the ruler can fear his subjects. The society becomes stable, when its most elements harmonically accept the force of obedience on its principles and boundaries.
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Using Gustaf Wingren’s critique of Barth’s doctrine of the humanity of Christ in which Wingren sees Barth’s theology of reconciliation in volume four as a late, and unsuccessful, attempt to give more weight to the concept of God liberating mankind from sin rather than merely freeing him epistemologically, Williams comes up against Barth’s construct of the correspondence between the obedience of Christ and the obedience of the Son and concludes that Barth sees the obedience of Christ as ‘the way in which the love of God is made known: ‘space’ is made for God’s communication in the world by the self-abnegation of Christ’ such that the obedience of Christ in some sense reveals the obedience of the Son to the commanding Father (173-75, emphasis in text). 11 Reiterating a point made above, Williams sees Barth’s IV/1 Trinity as ‘pluralist’ in which ‘God must confront God across the gulf of fallenness, from the place of Godless man’ risking his very identity and if this is the case, there is a discontinuity with Barth’s I/1 assertions of the ‘freedom and lordship of God’ because God is not simply interpreting himself ad extra but is up against another ultimate principle which may have consequences for his identity. In a nut shell, Williams interprets Barth’s volume four stance as evidencing a reversal of his principle that finitum non capax infiniti such that, that which God has posited in freedom and love as ontologically distinct from him has the capacity to determine or constitute or have an effect upon who God is; on God’s identity as God. What has been established then in the event ad extra is the revelation of a ‘plurality of agency within the Trinity’, ad intra, and ‘the inclusion of the history of man in the being of God’ (178). Williams gets this aspect of his argument from Von Balthasar’s use of Barth’s articulation of the ‘way of the Son into the far country’ seeing Von Balthasar’s interpretation ‘to show us just how far from the schema of I/1 we are led
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National culture pervades all aspects of life, frames cultural perceptions , and impacts significantly on consumer behavior . Although some socialization issues may be universal (e.g., parents from all societies must nurture their children and educate them to become skilled consumers), both cultures and parents differ in the way they proceed to promulgate these goals [24,25]. Individualistic countries, such as France, encourage independence, self-reliance and self-expression whereas collectivist countries, such as India, value social relationships, obedience, reasoned control and authority . Despite the important role of culture in consumer socialization [26,27], it is surprising to note the large gap in the literature on the ecological resocialization process in different cultures. Recently, studies on ecological resocialization have been centered on singular nations (e.g., [8,9,28,29]), but such studies offer mixed results. Grønhøj  found no evidence that Danish adolescents directly influence their parents to purchase green products or decrease energy consumption. In contrast, research from the US [30,31], Europe [9,32], Australia  and Asia  have shown some effects of intergenerational learning and influence from children to their parents related to environmental issues. Twenty years ago, a cross-cultural study between Denmark, France, Portugal and the UK found that adolescents have a limited influence on their parents’ pro-environmental behaviors . In a meta-analysis of studies from five countries (England, Costa Rica, Australia, Canada, and the United States), Duvall and Zint  found support for ecological resocialization and recommended the involvement of parents and the importance of focusing on local environmental issues to foster engagement. Nevertheless, the strategies and lines of argument employed by adolescents in negotiations with their parents over issues of ecologically oriented consumption are relatively unexplored, as is the key role of parental styles underlying the ecological resocialization process.
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As Pandolf arrives to question King John about his barring of the papal appointee Stephen Langton from the see of Canterbury, he attempts to procure the subjection of England by symmetrically greeting both King John and King Philip as “anointed deputies of God” (3.1.62), monarchs whose right to rule has been conferred by papal ordinance. However, when Pandolf and King John begin to debate, the question-and-answer process assumes a radically different form. Equivocation is hardly King John’s tactic, and when Pandolf “religiously demand[s]” (3.1.66) that King John provide an explanation, he replies full of scorn and derision: “What earthy name to interrogatories / Can task the free breath of a sacred king?” (3.1.73-4). Trenchantly stating that his authority is divinely bestowed by God and that he will not answer to any “earthy name,” King John topples the question-and-answer structure by refusing to be subject to the Roman Church. He answers a question with a question, reversing both the catechetical process and the hierarchy, and implicitly calls Pandolf to account for his behaviour. He goes on to assert his right as head of both church and state:
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Apart from these bodily issues, rehabilitants often experience the consequences of their habits: pain, chronic disease, itching, insomnia, fever. These hardships force many to drop the program and leave. The conditions were initially intended to be modest, but exceeded the ministers’ expectations. However, all hardships fit into the rehab ide- ology, for it is claimed that they train humility, obedience, and decency. Brothers and sisters who complain are reminded that they stay in the rehab voluntarily, for free, and there are things much more important than their weak bodies – their immortal souls are in great danger of eternal damnation.
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Across both case and control dogs, the use of exclusively reward-based training methods was associated with more trainability compared to a mixture of reward- and punishment-based methods. In this study, 29.4% of owners reported using positive training methods exclusively; more than described in previous studies (16-20%) (Hiby et al., 2004; Blackwell et al., 2008b). This may reflect the increased promotion of positive methods over time. Previous studies have had similar findings, for example, significantly higher obedience scores are seen in dogs trained exclusively using reward-based methods (Hiby et al., 2004). In addition, the greatest numbers of problematic behaviours have been reported by owners who used punishment only, or a combination of punishment and reward to train their dog (Hiby et al., 2004). As the current study was cross-sectional, it is possible that the use of exclusively reward-based training methods may lead to increased trainability, but it is also possible that when dogs show an initial high level of trainability, their owners are more inclined to use reward-based methods or that, following a decline in trainability, owners include punishment-based methods in their training. Regardless of the direction of this relationship, there is mounting evidence that using aversive training methods can jeopardize both the physical and mental health of dogs and, although positive punishment can be effective, there is no evidence that it is more effective than reward-based training (Ziv, 2017).
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