Obesity prevalence by sex and family type

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The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi

The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi

The objective of the present study was to assess the obesity prevalence and the sex differences in factors such as diet and physical activity among middle-class men and women living in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We hypothesized that the prevalence of overweight and obesity would be higher in the middle-class sample compared to available urban estimates because of the purchasing power and higher living standards of this group. Second, we hypothesized that women would be more likely to be overweight or obese and to be less physically active given that all previous reports suggest that the burden of disease disproportionately affects women.
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Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by education. Overweight/obesity by age. Overweight/obesity by region

Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by education. Overweight/obesity by age. Overweight/obesity by region

Sample size: 2195 Area covered: Regional - Semnan Province References: Batool Karimi; Raheb Ghorbani. Overweight and Obesity in the Iranian Schoolchildren. Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health 01/2015; 2(1). DOI: 10.17795/mejrh-24433 Notes: Overweight is defined as a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex. Obesity is defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex.

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Current and Future Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in the United States

Current and Future Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in the United States

lower bounds on the 95 percent confidence interval were obtained using these forecasts and the linear interpolation procedures described above. Secular increases in obesity may reflect a combination of a general rise in body weight and disproportionate growth at the top of the distribution. The contribution of population-wide growth is BMI was obtained by the following procedure: 1) quantile regression was used to estimate annual growth in sex-specific median BMI; 2) the increase in median BMI predicted to occur between the baseline and forecast periods was then calculated and added to the BMI of each respondent in the baseline NHANES survey; 3) median BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence rates were computed using the transformed data and differences between these and corresponding statistics from the untransformed data were attributed to general growth in body weight. To illustrate, assume that median BMI was predicted (in step one) to increase by 0.110 kg/m 2 per year. This implies projected growth of 2.035 kg/m 2 (18.5 x 0.110 kg/m 2 ) between 2001.5 – midpoint of NHANES 99 – and 2020. If adding this amount to the BMI of each NHANES 99 sample member raises obesity prevalence from 30 to 35 percent, then a 5-
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Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in US Children, 1999–2016

Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in US Children, 1999–2016

There are several important limitations to note. First, the NHANES data are repeated cross- sections and do not allow for the examination of within-child changes over time. However, this approach allows for a richer picture of obesity prevalence across the United States. A second limitation is that the sample sizes prevent detailed subgroup analyses. We present prevalence rates by age, sex, and race, but caution should be used when interpreting these results. Readers should consider the body of evidence rather than focusing on individual tests of

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Do routinely measured risk factors for obesity explain the sex gap in its prevalence? Observations from Saudi Arabia.

Do routinely measured risk factors for obesity explain the sex gap in its prevalence? Observations from Saudi Arabia.

Given that the magnitude of the sex gap varies vastly across countries however also suggests that reproductive factors alone are unlikely to explain the excess in female obesity. More research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. From our initial exploratory analysis in the Saudi setting, it appears that the local context privileges being female above other factors in determining obesity outcome. If confirmed, a broader implication then may be that the female excess in obes- ity prevalence in Saudi Arabia may itself be a telltale of the underlying structural imbalances between men and women that are in place. This would suggest that, be- yond promoting lifestyle modifications in individuals, as advocated by the Saudi MOH [66], it may also require changing the structural position of women and men in Saudi society in order to achieve improved health out- comes for both. The impact of such changes on the sex gap in obesity prevalence, if any, may only become ap- parent in future epidemiological surveys.
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Prevalence of Obesity among Type-2 Diabetics

Prevalence of Obesity among Type-2 Diabetics

In the present study attempt was made to find out the trend of overweight/obesity (measured by BMI) and abdominal obesity (indexed by WHR) in diabetic patients because it influences the metabolic status of type2 diabetics. Results clearly depicted that majority of the patients were overweight/obese and having abdominal obesity. Pi-Sunyer (1993) also reported that high BMI associated with elevated abdominal and peripheral adiposity. It is now recognized that excess abdominal distribution of fat is more closely associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities. It is speculated that the unfavorable changes observed with high BMI may in fact be attributed to the detrimental influence of abdominal adiposity on the metabolic processes. While the cause of this association is not fully established, the possible mechanism is hypothesized to be mediated by the intra-abdominal fat depot. A preponderance of enlarged fat cells in this type of adipose tissue increases the risk of glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and hypertrigly- ceridemia (Chandalia et al. 1999; Despres 1994; Karter et al. 1996). These hypertrophied adiposity are more responsive to lipolytic hormones than smaller fat cells leading to increased delivery of free fatty acids in to the portal circulation. Elevated levels of free fatty acids may induce insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and liver as well as leading to increased rates of hepatic glucose production. Therefore, the poor glycemic control as observed in the study is witnessed in most of the diabetic patients. However, the effect of body fat distribution varied between sexes, but overweight and abdominal obesity were prevalent between both sexes.
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Sex Difference of Type 2 Diabetes Affected by Abdominal Obesity versus Overall Obesity

Sex Difference of Type 2 Diabetes Affected by Abdominal Obesity versus Overall Obesity

82.5%, 83.6%, and 74.1% for BMI = 24.8, WC = 94 cm, and WHR = 0.94, respectively. In contrast, research among Pima Indian subjects found that BMI represented the best predictor of type 2 diabetes in both men and women. 7 The same results emerged from a Jamaican study with predominantly black participants, using a cohort design; although BMI, WC, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) represented predictors of diabetes, additional measures of body fat distribution did not affect the predictive value of general obesity for dia- betes. 9 Although WHR can be used instead of WC to mea- sure abdominal obesity, we used WC for the following reasons. First, numerous studies have reported that WC showed higher predictive value than WHR or BMI in regard to health risk. 11 Second, WC can robustly account for the risk of CVD or type 2 diabetes. 3,12,13 Third, WC measure- ments are simpler than WHR measurements and have relatively smaller measurement errors. 3 In addition, WC has been validated as more representative than WHR of visceral fat levels. 14,15 It has also been reported that the biological mechanisms involved in the relationship bet- ween WHR and heath risk are more difficult to understand
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Prevalence of Cholelithiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in a Basic Family Health Centre in Irecê, Northeastern Brazil

Prevalence of Cholelithiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in a Basic Family Health Centre in Irecê, Northeastern Brazil

9. Conclusion Analysis of the data obtained in this study showed a prevalence of cholelithiasis of approximately 37% out of 70 patients with type 2 diabetes in a Basic Family Health Centre in Sao Francisco neighborhood in the city of Irece, Bahia. This high prevalence can be explained by the following hypotheses: bile of diabetic patients is more li- thogenic since the supersaturation of cholesterol in bile is higher and the concentration of bile acids is lower. It leads to the formation of gallstones; and the gallbladder hypomotility of diabetics that, due to hyperglycemia, leads to autonomic neuropathy, stenosis of the arterioles and reduction of the smooth muscle sensitivity that facili- tates the biliary stasis and therefore the formation of stones. Due to the high prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with diabetes and obese patients supported in the literature [17] [20], it is questioned the utility, during primary health care, the application of abdominal ultrasonography in basic propaedeutic diabetic and obese patients in dif- ferent degrees facilitates the possibility of cost reduction (treatment of complications) and decreases mortality in this group of patients.
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Prevalence of Obesity in Black Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes in Benin

Prevalence of Obesity in Black Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes in Benin

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Abstract Background: Abdominal obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of corpuscular and abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetes in the two major cities in southern Benin. Methods: It was a multicentric, prospective, descriptive and analytical study that had as framework the center for screening and monitoring of diabetes “Banque d’insuline” of Cotonou, the Polyclinic Atinkanmey of Cotonou and the Internal Medicine Department of the Departmental University Hospital of Ouémé-Plateau in Porto-Novo. The study was a six-month period (March-August 2014). Results:
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The prevalence of obesity, and especially of morbid obesity,

The prevalence of obesity, and especially of morbid obesity,

This study has a number of limitations. First, the number of patients was determined to assess for differences in weight loss, and not in the rate of early or long-term complications. To assess for differences in the number of complications with the same power, several hundreds of patients would have been required in each group, as stated in the “Patients and Methods” section. We had initially planned to include at least 300 patients over a 3-year period. Since laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has progressively become our procedure of choice for morbid obesity over the past few years, the number of banding procedures has de- creased dramatically to only 15 in 2002, and we had to close the study prematurely. As already mentioned, the risk of type 2 error is high when comparing early or late morbidity. A second limitation is the length of follow up, which, with a mean of 39 months, is less than the minimum standard of 60 months considered as adequate to report on the results of bariatric procedures. We will continue to follow these pa- tients and will report 5-year results when they are available.
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The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity,

The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity,

Our primary analyses stratified by sex and smoking status and adjusted only for age. Adjustment for education and physical activity did not change the relative risks asso- ciated with overweight and obesity. The results of our pri- mary analyses do not differ greatly from those obtained after analysis of only participants without hypertension or diabetes at baseline. We argue against adjusting for such factors as hypertension and diabetes because they are

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The prevalence of obesity and the factors affecting obesity in the students of secondary education

The prevalence of obesity and the factors affecting obesity in the students of secondary education

However, here, the type and the amount of carbohydrates are of great importance. 14 One article reported that diets low in carbohydrates are more effective for maintaining short-term (≤6 months) body weight loss. 15 In another study, a strong relationship was found between obesity prevalence and the type of carbohydrate consumed in developed countries. 16 In our research, we determined that there was a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of obesity and overweight as the daily pastry food cooking and consumption at home increased. In our region, pastry foods prepared at home are fermented and prepared from whole wheat flour containing no sweetening agent. Separately, these foods are enriched by adding several additional local nutrients, such as cheese, skim-milk cheese, spring onion, nettle, spinach, mallow, yoghurt, and eggs, and the dough or pastry is thus enhanced. There are major differences in our cultural nutritional habits and those of Europe and the USA, which are quite distinct in terms types of fast foods consumed. This factor is considered prominent.
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A study of prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents

A study of prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents

females and American Indian and Hispanic youth of both genders. 9 Childhood obesity affects both developed and developing countries of all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Worldwide over 22 million children under the age of 5 are obese, and 1 in 10 children is overweight. 10 Wide range of prevalence levels exist, with the prevalence of overweight in Africa and Asia on an average well below 10 per cent and in the Americas and Europe above 20 per cent.

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In the United States, the prevalence of severe obesity in

In the United States, the prevalence of severe obesity in

pected costs and outcomes between gastric bypass and no treat- ment of severe obesity from the payer perspective. If no treat- ment was chosen, we estimated the patient’s lifetime medical costs for the treatment of selected obesity-related diseases, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy conditional on age, sex, and initial body mass index (see Tables 3 and 4). If surgery was chosen, the patient bore the cost and burden of the initial surgery and its complications. Surviving patients may require corrective surgery within a year of the initial surgery. We assumed that at the end of that year, the patient had died, re- turned to the original weight, or lost weight. If the procedure was reversed, we further accumulated lifetime cost and health outcomes as in the no-treatment group, except that quality of life was halved for the remainder of the patient’s life because of the psychological burden of treatment failure. Successful pa- tients incurred additional costs and burden from weight loss– related events, namely treatment for cholelithiasis and abdomi- noplasty. We assumed that 5 years after the initial surgery, the weight loss of successful patients stabilized, and we similarly estimated lifetime cost and health outcomes based on age, sex,
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Sex-Related Differences in Microvascular Adaptations to Obesity

Sex-Related Differences in Microvascular Adaptations to Obesity

1.8 Sex Differences in Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders In most industrialized countries, the increased prevalence of obesity and comorbidities associated with it is a major health concern. Although both males and females are affected, the susceptibility to develop obesity-related metabolic disorders is higher in males (Fuente-Martín et al. 2013; Kanter and Caballero 2012; Power and Schulkin 2008; Shi et al. 2012). In developed countries, more males are obese versus pre-menopausal females (Kanter and Caballero 2012). This coincides with a higher prevalence of insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in males compared to females (Beigh and Jain 2012; Eliza B. Geer and Shen 2009). In a report released by Statistics Canada, 62% of men versus 46 % of women have an increased health risk due to excess weight gain ( http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2015001/article/14185-eng.htm) . In experimental animal models, the metabolic challenge of a HF diet induces more weight gain in males compared to females (Benz et al. 2012; Hong et al. 2009a). Moreover, with chronic consumption of a HF diet, male rodents are more often to develop severe hypertension, systemic glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (Benz et al. 2012; Renee E. Stubbins et al. 2012). Interestingly, even in a study of weight matched male and female mice, HF-fed females maintain a better glucose tolerance compared to HF-fed male mice (Nickelson et al. 2012).
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Prevalence and Correlated Factors of Obesity, Overweight and Central Obesity in Southwest of Iran

Prevalence and Correlated Factors of Obesity, Overweight and Central Obesity in Southwest of Iran

The study was approved by the Ethics Commit- tee of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. After obtaining informed consent from volunteers, they were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire consisting of age, sex, marital status, history of parental obesity, smoking, pari- ty, ethnicity and educational level was filled for each person. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), as well as abdominal and waist circumference were measured in each participant. The inclusion criteria were the age (≥20) and the participant’s belonging to the urban population. Pregnant women and homeless people were ex- cluded.
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Obesity and type 2 diabetes

Obesity and type 2 diabetes

The prevalence of obesity and diabetes, which are heritable traits that arise from the interactions of multiple genes and lifestyle factors, continues to rise worldwide. Until recently, candidate gene and genome-wide linkage studies have been the main genetic epidemiological ap- proaches to identify genetic loci for obesity and diabetes, yet progress has been slow, with limited success. Recent advances have transformed the situation and there has been progress in understanding how genetic variation predisposes individuals to diabetes and obesity, and how candidate genes may alter drug response. The discovery of causal genes includes family-based linkage analyses and focused candidate-gene studies; among them, large- scale surveys of association between common DNA se- quence variants and disease were most successful. The current total of approximately 40 confirmed type 2 dia- betes loci includes variants in or near WFS1 (wolframin) and the hepatocyte nuclear factors HNF1A and HNF1B (genes that also harbor rare mutations responsible for monogenic forms of diabetes) [165-168]; the melatonin- receptor gene MTNR1B (which highlights the link be- tween circadian and metabolic regulation) [169-171];
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Family history of type 2 diabetes and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians

Family history of type 2 diabetes and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians

In the present study, it was found that individuals with SRVLWLYHIDPLO\KLVWRU\RI GLDEHWHVKDGVLJQLÀFDQWO\KLJKHU prevalence of MS and its confounding factors as compared to their counterparts. It suggests that family history could be used as a tool for genomic studies among the Asian Indians. It is, however, important to mention that in developing countries including India, a large section of the community remains undiagnosed and therefore accuracy of self-reported family history could be challenging. The major limitation of the study was the cross-sectional nature, and moreover, it was performed on a relatively small sample size and, therefore, is not representative of the Asian Indian population. Large-scale, nationally representative data, which is actually lacking in India, would have provided a better insight into the role of family history for the early diagnosis of chronic diseases, e.g., MS. It may also be argued that population screening would be of substantial importance for further research as family history may play a vital role in better understanding the etiological factors related to such complex traits.
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Prevalence of overweight and obesity among type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetes clinics in northern Tanzania

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetes clinics in northern Tanzania

Data collection methods included face-to-face interviews with questionnaires and anthropometric measurements taking by the trained research assistants. Using closed- and open-ended questions, senior research scientists and medical student’s year 5 participated in the face-to-face interviews with type 2 diabetic patients. Questions on socio-demographic, economic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics were asked during the face-to-face inter- views. Furthermore, information relating body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis were extracted from patient’s files.

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Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes Type 2 and Hypertension among a Sampled Population from Sokoto Metropolis-Nigeria

Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes Type 2 and Hypertension among a Sampled Population from Sokoto Metropolis-Nigeria

This study has been able to demonstrate the close association between obesity and some NCDs, notably hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Mean BP levels increased significantly with increasing BMI categories. The risk of hypertension was higher among population groups with overweight and obesity. Gender had a significant influence on the development of obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Until such time that regular screening for common NCDs become feasible in developing countries, screening for obesity markers should be encouraged at every contact with healthcare provider.
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