Obesity – Prevalence with age (a)

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Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by education. Overweight/obesity by age. Overweight/obesity by region

Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by education. Overweight/obesity by age. Overweight/obesity by region

Sample size: 31050 Area covered: National References: Djalalinia S, Saeedi Moghaddam S, Sheidaei A, Rezaei N, Naghibi Iravani SS, Modirian M, Zokaei H, Yoosefi M, Gohari K, Kousha A, Abdi Z, Naderimagham S, Soroush AR, Larijani B, Farzadfar F. Patterns of Obesity and Overweight in the Iranian Population: Findings of STEPs 2016. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Feb 26;11:42. doi:

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Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by age. Insufficient physical activity. Estimated per capita fruit intake

Obesity prevalence. Overweight/obesity by age. Insufficient physical activity. Estimated per capita fruit intake

Diabetes prevalence Adults, 2021 Ireland Belgium Norway Netherlands Austria Switzerland Croatia Sweden Denmark France Iceland Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Moldova Russian Federation Ukraine Georgia Lithuania Slovakia Slovenia Latvia Luxembourg Finland Liechtenstein N Macedonia Monaco United Kingdom Greece Italy Estonia Romania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Poland Germany Hungary Uzbekistan Czechia Bulgaria San Marino Malta Israel Cyprus Bosnia & Herzegovina Montenegro Portugal Serbia Andorra Albania Spain Turkey 0

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Age and gender based prevalence of obesity in residents of Punjab, India

Age and gender based prevalence of obesity in residents of Punjab, India

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is observed to be more in females than males. Such gender based differences in obesity prevalence have been reported in many studies conducted in different regions of world. The national family health survey 3 reported obesity to be more prevalent in women than men in India. 25 Pandey et al and Al Mahroos et al, also reported higher obesity prevalence among females, in all age groups. 26,27 Serena et al, observed more females to be obese than males especially in the developing countries. 28 In this study female to male prevalence ratio is 1.38:1 for overweight, 1.32:1 for obesity and 0.92:1 for morbid obesity. A study by Shirazi etal also found female to male obesity prevalence ratio to be 1.26:1. 20 A study conducted by health ministry of Singapur in 1999 also reported similar findings. 29 It is interesting to note that the prevalence of morbid obesity was more in males than females (ratio 0.92:1) with peak prevalence in 40-49 years age group for both sexes.
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Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

dren under 12 years of age has not been permitted in Swe- den since commercial television began over a decade ago, although children's television programs from other coun- tries, and through satellite television, probably dilute the impact of the ban in Sweden. Norway, Denmark, Austria, Ireland, Australia, and Greece also have some restrictions on television advertising to young children [51]. The fact that children would still be seeing some television adver- tisements during adult programs or other types of market- ing, such as billboards, does not contradict the rationale for the control on the television watching of young children.
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Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in US Children, 1999–2016

Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in US Children, 1999–2016

There are several important limitations to note. First, the NHANES data are repeated cross- sections and do not allow for the examination of within-child changes over time. However, this approach allows for a richer picture of obesity prevalence across the United States. A second limitation is that the sample sizes prevent detailed subgroup analyses. We present prevalence rates by age, sex, and race, but caution should be used when interpreting these results. Readers should consider the body of evidence rather than focusing on individual tests of

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PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY RELATED  HYPERTENSION

PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY RELATED HYPERTENSION

Discussion This study found that prevalence of obesity related hypertension more in females (60%) than males (40%). This is insignificant, confirming almost equal prevalence as reported in other studies 2 . This difference is may be due to difference in study population. But some other studies proved that obesity prevalence is greater among females than males and Pakistan demographic health survey 2013 also supported those studies 4, 5 . Prevalence of Obesity related hypertension was found to be more in middle and older age, than in younger age people. This is may be due to that the hypertensive subjects of younger age group were less likely to be aware of their elevated BP, while elderly people pay more attention to their health which result in their higher treatment rate 1, 6 .
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PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY RELATED  HYPERTENSION

PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY RELATED HYPERTENSION

Discussion This study found that prevalence of obesity related hypertension more in females (60%) than males (40%). This is insignificant, confirming almost equal prevalence as reported in other studies 2 . This difference is may be due to difference in study population. But some other studies proved that obesity prevalence is greater among females than males and Pakistan demographic health survey 2013 also supported those studies 4, 5 . Prevalence of Obesity related hypertension was found to be more in middle and older age, than in younger age people. This is may be due to that the hypertensive subjects of younger age group were less likely to be aware of their elevated BP, while elderly people pay more attention to their health which result in their higher treatment rate 1, 6 .
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Obesity and asthma: an association modified by age

Obesity and asthma: an association modified by age

It has also been observed that obese asthmatics have a lower response to glucocorticoids, measured by a lower expression of protein-kinases. 30-32 The difference in the effect of obesity that we observed between the 6-7 year-old group (where the asthma prevalence is increased), and the adolescents, in whom no significant effect could be associated, at least in part, with the low prevalence of obesity in this population. This obesity prevalence, which was 2.2%, places us in the lowest values in the European population.
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Prevalence of obesity among school-age children and adolescents in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States : a systematic review

Prevalence of obesity among school-age children and adolescents in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States : a systematic review

particular publication bias) N/A No formal testing for publication bias was possible due to small number of eligible studies. Main sources of bias in prevalence studies were considered: sample size and representativeness; use of BMI to estimate obesity prevalence is biased (underestimates obesity prevalence) as noted in the manuscript.

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Prevalence of obesity among school-age children and adolescents in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States : a systematic review

Prevalence of obesity among school-age children and adolescents in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States : a systematic review

particular publication bias) N/A No formal testing for publication bias was possible due to small number of eligible studies. Main sources of bias in prevalence studies were considered: sample size and representativeness; use of BMI to estimate obesity prevalence is biased (underestimates obesity prevalence) as noted in the manuscript.

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Prevalence of obesity among school-age children and adolescents in the Gulf cooperation council (GCC) states: a systematic review

Prevalence of obesity among school-age children and adolescents in the Gulf cooperation council (GCC) states: a systematic review

Surveillance of childhood obesity is considered central to tackling the obesity epidemic [7], but there may be a number of important limitations in surveillance of child and adolescent obesity prevalence in the GCC at present. Specifically, we were unable to find a recent systematic re- view of obesity prevalence of children and adolescents in the GCC, so prevalence of the problem is unclear. Our initial scoping review also suggested that many previous studies combined the prevalence of overweight and obes- ity, and so the prevalence of obesity could not be deter- mined. In addition, many previous studies in the GCC collected data over 10 years ago and these studies may now be out of date given the rapid increases in prevalence in the region [8, 9]. The recently published global esti- mates of obesity prevalence [10, 11] used data from the GCC countries which were also over 10 years old for ex- ample, so there is a need for prevalence data from more recent studies and surveys. An additional problem with older evidence is the fact that definitions of child and ado- lescent obesity have evolved over the past decade. Specif- ically, the WHO definition of child and adolescent obesity based on BMI-for-age was not published until 2007, and was not in widespread use until some time after that. A further problem with existing obesity prevalence data is that systematic reviews demonstrating limitations of BMI-for-age as a surveillance tool (high specificity for ex- cessive fatness, but only low-moderate sensitivity) have be- come available only relatively recently [12, 13] and recent obesity prevalence studies or surveys from the GCC coun- tries may not have made allowances for this important source of bias in prevalence estimates.
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Obesity Prevalence and Risks Among Chinese Adults

Obesity Prevalence and Risks Among Chinese Adults

However, our main results closely resemble age- standardized prevalence estimates using the 2010 Chinese Census data and 2 most recently published, independent reports based on nationally representa- tive data from 2014. 5,18 Second, we do not currently have diet and physical activity data on all participants to interrogate their associations with obesity at the individual level; instead, we focus on understanding socio-demographic factors in China to address obesity at the population level. Third, given its cross-sectional design, this study lacks data to assess BMI and WC patterns over time or establish causal determinants of obesity, although a longitudinal study on a similar scale is unprecedented.
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Forecasting the prevalence of overweight and obesity in India to 2040

Forecasting the prevalence of overweight and obesity in India to 2040

Secondly, we used standard global BMI thresholds over which there is some controversy. Some researchers advocate for using lower BMI thresholds for South Asians[ 35 ] due to a higher percentage of body fat among South Asians compared to Caucasians of the same BMI [ 33 , 34 ]. Some research has documented a nearly 10–15% higher prevalence of overweight among individuals with Asian heritage if Asian-specific cut-offs are used[ 34 ]. Others have found no higher risk of mortality among obese Asians compared to obese non-Asians, and advocate for global consistency in the definition of overweight and obesity[ 9 , 37 , 38 ]. We opted to use global cut-offs for this reason and in order to facilitate direct comparison of the predictions with similar forecasting studies in Western countries[ 39 – 41 ]. We sought to rem- edy this limitation by performing sensitivity analysis using South-Asian BMI cut-offs, and identified potential underestimation of our results ( S2 File ). For instance, among urban men, we identified a potential underestimation of the 2040 obesity prevalence of around 20 percent- age points, suggesting that using global cut-offs may underestimate the future overall public health challenge related to excess weight in India.
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Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in old age in Germany

Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in old age in Germany

Moreover, little is known about predictors of overweight and obesity in old age. These might differ from younger population groups as in old age changes occur in body composition, height, food intake and energy expenditure [9, 18]. Old adults have more body fat which, in addition, is distributed differently. Likewise, a decrease in muscle mass and height is associated with ageing. Old adults tend to have a lower food intake and become less hungry. Fur- thermore, the degree of physical activities decreases in old age. Eventually, old adults frequently lose weight for rea- sons of frailty, morbidity and imminent death.
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Children’s body fatness and prevalence of obesity in relation to height for age

Children’s body fatness and prevalence of obesity in relation to height for age

Introduction The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is now a global problem (Public Health England, 2013) with the most recent UK findings showing that overweight and obesity now affects almost a third of all children (National Child Measurement Programme, 2011). This is concerning as obesity increases the risk of morbidity in childhood as well risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood (Juonala et al. 2011). In trying to better understand causation and early risk factors, there is mounting evidence to suggest that some cases of overweight and obesity in childhood could reflect, in part, an altered pattern or rate of growth. Overweight and obese children (identified by their body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score, (SDS)) tend to be taller for their age compared with non- overweight children (Bosy Westphal et al. 2009, Pliakas and McCarthy 2010). Thus being tall for age could be considered an early predictor for overweight and obesity. For example, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been associated with taller stature at age 3 years, with tallness for age predicting overweight status at that age (Akaboshi et al. 2008). Additionally, an analysis of serial cross-sectional surveys in 3-year-old English children showed the steepest rise in the prevalence of obesity to be amongst the tallest in the study (Buchan et al. 2007). Complimentary studies have shown that taller children tend to have thicker skinfolds compared with their comparatively shorter age group peers (Freedman et al. 2004) and that greater childhood height may be a marker for increased risk of adult overweight and obesity (Stovitz et al. 2010).
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Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the Middle-age Popula-tion: A Priority for the Health System

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the Middle-age Popula-tion: A Priority for the Health System

According to our findings, overweight, especially obesity was significantly more common among women. The rate of obesity was significantly higher in women in the studies in Shiraz (10), northern Iran (11) and Semnan (12) as well. Ob- esity was also more common in women in Syria (18), Pakistan (20), Tanzania (16), and Nigeria (21); however, in Taiwan (22) the rate of obesity was higher in men. According to WHO data in 2008 (3), 151 of 189 countries showed a higher prevalence of obesity in women than in men; prevalence rates were the same for both genders in 3 countries, and the prevalence of obesity was higher in men in 35 countries. From a public health point of view, special attention must be given to women. Obesity in women can be ex- plained by two causes, 1- social living conditions, 2- physiologic conditions. In most regions of the world, especially Iran, women are less physically active than men (23-24). However, the percen- tage accumulation of subcutaneous fat in women increases with age as sex hormones decrease. In addition, because of anatomic reasons, the amount of subcutaneous fat is greater in all ages in women compared to men.
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Prevalence of obesity in Malta

Prevalence of obesity in Malta

SAHHTEK —the Malta Health and Wellbeing survey SAHHTEK was a cross ‐sectional survey utilizing a ran- domized age (18 –70years) and gender representative data that was obtained from the national registry. The data was further stratified to represent an approximate 1% of the population from each Maltese town. The ran- domized population (n=4,000) was invited to participate in a free health check ‐up. A letter of invitation along with an explanatory pamphlet was sent via post. The check ‐ ups were held in each Maltese town health clinic. Among the different measurements taken during the survey, trained personnel measured height and weight using val- idated machines. These measurements were used to cal- culate the body mass index (BMI) by dividing the weight (in kilograms —kg) over the height squared (in metres— m 2 ). The Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Malta together with the Information and Data protection commissioner gave their permission for this study.
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Prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in India

Prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in India

Our findings have considerable public health implica- tions for a populated country like India, where more than one-sixth of the total world population lives and about half of the women are within their reproductive age [21]. Furthermore, considering the population size, this sample represents more than one-twelfth of the total women in the world. The combined prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 56.2% as per the Asian cutoffs; in contrast, the WHO cutoffs found the combined preva- lence as 43.5%. Lowering the cutoff reclassified a signifi- cant proportion of women as overweight/obese. However, due to higher health risks for Asian people at a lower BMI cutoff, these findings indicate that more than half of these women could be at an elevated risk of cardiovascular and reproductive health-related adverse consequences [22]. Moreover, programs targeting reduction of neonatal or childhood mortality may not be successful without ad- dressing maternal nutrition issues, as maternal health is closely related to child health [10–13]. Although the prevalence of overweight/obesity categorized by the WHO-recommended cutoffs was lower than in high in- come countries, the prevalence of underweight was sub- stantially higher than in wealthier countries [5, 6]. Among women who are at a greater risk of complications result- ing from extreme BMIs, it is important to increase aware- ness to maintain a healthy weight; understanding the factors that are associated with higher prevalence or likeli- hood of both conditions are important in this context. All
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The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity,

The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity,

The major limitation of our study is that we could not identify what proportion of the described loss of life ex- pectancy is a direct consequence of obesity and would therefore be prevented through obesity prevention. Obesity clusters with other mortality risk factors, such as low phys- ical activity levels, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipid levels. Although we accounted for some of these factors at baseline, physical activity level was not available until 8 Table 5. Independent Effects of Body Mass Index in Adulthood and in Older Age on Mortality*

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Rural-urban differentials in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of child bearing age in Zambian

Rural-urban differentials in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of child bearing age in Zambian

Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are markedly higher among urban women than rural women, and that differences on how these occur between these two groups of women have a socioeconomic and demographic dimension. In order to deal with increasing overweight and obesity challenges among women in Zambia, the paper recommends continued sensitizations about dangers of overweight and obesity with emphasis on behaviour changes in feeding or eating practices focussing more on traditional low fat and low calorie foods which in actual sense are cheaper and produce healthier results. Added to this recommendation is the need to change life styles to include routine exercising and increased medical check-ups.
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