The Unified Modeling Language i.e. known as UML is a very popular and powerful modeling language which provides a collection of modeling tools for drafting the software designs based on the object-orientedtechnology. It is one part of any software system which is to be de- veloped by software programmer by using the object- oriented language. It s not a process oriented language but it provides only visual syntax for designing the UML models. Therefore, one can say that the UML is a stan- dard modeling language in the software development field which shows the every aspects and behavior of the system. The software professionals and researchers have used it very widely to develop an object-oriented system in the current scenario. The object-oriented paradigm is generally used by the software professionals and re- searchers for the development of real complex software systems. This paradigm moves around the objects and classes; it requires the real analysis of the system to view the interconnections between objects with the classes and attributes with methods. The interconnectivity between objects and attributes is monitored by the coupling and cohesion technique. A coupling finds the connectivity between classes while cohesion gives the strength to the bond between attributes.
sification results semantic information will be richer . A lot of scholars from home and abroad have studied the land use and land-cover classification using optical images based on object-orientedtechnology. The results show the accuracy of classification improves significantly compared with the traditional classification methods [2,3]. There are also many scholars who have studied the object- oriented classification using SAR images. [4,5]. However, the theoretical foundation, model building and other as- pects in this field are less advanced than optical images obviously. This paper tries to conduct the double-polarized SAR image classification based on object-oriented tech- nology, and confirms that the method is also suitable for the high-precision classification of dual-polarized SAR images.
This paper describes techniques for designing both front & back end of a data warehouse in such a way that companies can continue to progress their warehouse and query tools as their business changes, customer demands changes, instead of continuously having to restructure and rewrite their existing tools. Object –Oriented approach are driving the current development of ODBMS that will handle complex objects, inheritance and other features that enable direct implementation technology that is being extended to combine data management capabilities with application of logical rules to provide more refined information to management. Object-oriented approach is used in different areas i.e Software Engg, Database Management System and Latest Approach is used in Data warehouse. Object-Oriented envelopment involves more than learning a program, it includes capability for development. A purely Object –Oriented tool like Java, Smalltalk , or the object –oriented use of C++ requires that problem domains be conceptualized in terms of the paradigm inherent in objecttechnology. Most research in Object-oriented programming (OOP) including object –oriented database Management systems (OODBMS), is concerned with supporting users which are not served well by more conventional technology. Our research has been from a different point of view – our primary motivating factor is to show how existing applications can be enhanced using object –orientedTechnology.
Evaluation of the SQL injection vulnerability conducted by the expert indicated that modifying object-orientedtechnology and parameterized queries could prevent SQL injection penetrating through both authorization bypass and execute commands of the web application being tested. Whereas two web scanning tools detected that the SQL injection vulnerability was significantly reduced to 62 and 84%, compared to the web- based application using non-parameterized queries.
Object-oriented design and development is becoming very popular in today's software development environment. Objectoriented development requires not only a different approach to design and implementation, it requires a different approach to software metrics. Since objectorientedtechnology uses objects and not algorithms as its fundamental building blocks, the approach to software metrics for objectoriented programs must be different from the standard metrics set. Some metrics, such as lines of code and cyclomatic complexity, have become accepted as "standard" for traditional functional/ procedural programs, but for objectoriented, there are many proposed objectoriented metrics in the literature . The question is, "Which objectoriented metrics should a project use, and can any of the traditional metrics”. This paper presents the possibility of using object-oriented software metrics for the automatic detection of a set of design problems.
Cloud computing multimedia database is based on the current of database development, object-orientedtechnology and object-oriented fields in the database, which increasing display its vitality .Cloud computing provides a computer user access to Information Technology (IT) services which contains applications, servers, data storage, without requiring an understanding of the technology. An analogy to an electricity computing grid is to be useful for cloud computing. To enabling convenient and on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources are used for as a model of cloud computing. Cloud computing can be expressed as a combination of Software-as-a-Service which refers to a service delivery model to enabling used for business services of software interface and can be combined creating new business services delivered via flexible networks and Platform as a Service in which Cloud systems offering an additional abstraction level which supplying a virtualized infrastructure that can provide the software platform where systems should be run on and Infrastructure as a Service which Providers manage a large set of computing resources which is used for storing and processing capacity. Through Virtualization, they are able to split, assign and dynamically re-size these resources to build ad-hoc systems as demanded by customers .
1. Introduction. The support of large scale software systems has long been the focus of research in software engineering. ObjectOriented Systems have attracted wide attention due to its many desirable prop- erties which aid software development such as enhanced maintainability and reusability. With the support of characteristics such as inheritance, modularity, polymorphism and encapsulation, this paradigm can help the development of complex software programs . However, the development of parallel and distributed appli- cations is not significantly simplified by Object Orientation. The onus is still on the programmer to explicitly manage each parallel component and to ensure proper synchronisation. The interaction of parallel components in a large system can be complex and this complexity is compounded in sophisticated environments such as heterogeneous clusters and computational grids. Moreover, the encapsulation concept in OO is complex in a parallel environment. OO does not impose constraints upon invocation of an object’s attributes or mem- ber functions. This complicates the relationship among objects when there are several method invocations. Similarly, memory management is a major concern. Most of the current Garbage Collection methodologies work sequentially; only a few OO languages can support automatic garbage collection in a parallel system. In addition, parallelism poses additional challenges for access control mechanisms and object state determination. The Condensed Graph (CG) model of computing is based on Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). This model is language independent and it unifies the imperative, lazy and eager computational models . Due to its features including Implicit Synchronisation and Implicit Garbage Collection this computational model can be effectively deployed in a parallel environment. CGs have been employed in a spectrum of application domains, from FPGAs to the Grid [7, 4]. The most advanced reference implementation of the model is the WebCom abstract machine . WebCom is being used as the basis of Grid-Ireland’s middleware development and deployment .
One of the most widely referenced sets of ObjectOriented software metrics has been proposed by Chidamber and Kemerer (CK). The authors have proposed six class-based design metrics for Object. The CK metrics suite defines class-oriented software metrics that focus on the class and the class hierarchy. Chidamber and Kemerer worked in collaboration with experienced software engineers and collected data from two different commercial projects. They made some interesting and practically useful observations on when analyzing their results .
Today’s practices of software metrics utilize global indicators, which provide insights into improving the software development and maintenance process. The improved process helps to achieve organizational goals established for improving software quality and development team productivity. The use of metrics can be a valuable aid in understanding the effect of actions that are implemented for improving the software development process. The metrics provide visibility and control for the complex software development process, and therefore they are valuable for providing guidance on improving the software development process, and for meeting organizational goals to improve software quality and productivity. Objectoriented heuristics encapsulate software problems and their solutions and provide a link between sets of software development principles and quantitative software metrics to produce high quality software. Metrics use in the future will be applied more frequently for the prevention of faults within a feedback mechanism to analyze where problems have occurred so that the development process can be improved, which will reduce the time delays from the point when a software development process improvement is implemented to when it positively impacts quality and productivity.
Several techniques for limiting aliasing in object-oriented programs have been dis cussed in the literature (Hogg et al. 1992). One is the use of so-called “copy” or value semantics: whenever an object is to be returned by a function, a copy is made first and that is returned instead. In many object-oriented languages, basic types like CHAR and INT have value semantics. If this were the way SORTED_LIST oper ated, in Figure 3.12 x ’s reference would not point into the list. However this can be expensive if the objects are large, and is not always the most suitable behaviour: any other references to the SORTEDJJST object would also be broken. “Islands” are a more sophisticated method of isolating groups of classes, so that aliasing can only occur within an “island” (Hogg 1991). In some situations, correct behaviour in the presence of aliases can be described by a predicate on the classes in a subsystem or cluster (Duke 1994). For example, it is perfectly acceptable for other objects to access elements in a SORTEDJJST as long as the elements are not changed. However, this too requires special language support.
Object classes are the building blocks for object-oriented software. Design methodologies have focused on methods, tools and representations to build classes taking advantages of inheritance and encapsulation properties. The guiding principle being that if all classes are correctly constructed a system consisting of objects in these classes will be correct. Efforts to include object constraints in object-oriented programs have not attained the role commensurate with the role invariants play in traditional imperative programs in understanding the programs and in establishing correctness properties. The paper describes use of a model checker to establish the correctness of an object-oriented design.
Josuttis [25, p. 26] describes SOA as “an architectural paradigm for dealing with business processes distributed over a large landscape of existing and new heterogeneous systems”, and summaries the key technical concepts as services, interoperability, and loose coupling. We consider the definition of a service- ready architecture to be similar in definition, but without the service and interoperability concepts. Instead, we propose to analyse the approaches to SOA that promote loose coupling in order to discover appropriate patterns that can be applied to object-oriented systems so that services can easily integrate or even evolve from of existing functions when the need arises. A typical approach for SOA introduces a layer of abstraction that enables new and existing object-oriented systems to be integrated into the business through an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). The role of an ESB is to act as a universal connectivity middleware solution which enhances communication and simpli- fies integration . ESBs are a popular business solution due to their ability to retain existing investment in resources whilst providing additional tools for interaction with other business processes, accordingly, we argue that this ap- proach underpins our study as the quantity of retained resources will always subject to system design.
Object adapter pattern use composition, it can not only adapt an adapter class, but any of its subclasses. Class adapter pattern do have trouble with that because it’s committed to one specific adapter class, but it have a huge advantage because it doesn’t have to re implement its entire adapter. Class adapter pattern can also override the behavior of my adapter if it need to because it’s just sub classing. In object adapter pattern, we like to use composition over inheritance; class adapter may be saving a few lines of code, but all class adapter is doing is writing a little code to delegate to the adapter. Object adapter can keep things flexible. Using a class adapter there is just one of that, not an adapter and an adapter, which means efficiency. In general the adapter acts as the middleman by receiving requests from the client and converting them into requests that make sense on the vendor classes, without changing your existing code .The Adapter
Object : A self-contained set of processes (those little instructions) and the variables the processes will do something to (remember, the computer needs to have all the variables defined before it will be able to do any processing...). Right now, just think about objects as little tiny programs that are designed to behave like a real- life object. You can make a table object and make it exist inside of a room object. Each object is just a little program that behaves like the real-world counterpart, or some abstract idea in your imagination. The cool thing about objects is they are portable between programs, so you can build a larger program out of pre-written little programs... kinda.
Software size and complexity are major factors that contribute to the difficulty of software development. These factors, along with the intangible nature of software, make it challenging for developers to analyse the quality of their systems. ObjectOriented design heuristics have been recognised as an informal, yet effective method for establishing whether or not a particular design feels right. In our research, we investi- gate the ability to automate the analysis of software with respect to these heuristics, in an effort to support design decisions, and reduce the cognitive overhead involved in understanding large complex systems.
Second, DESA has two DP domains: model domain and user interface domain. This allows separate examination of the model and the user interface when evaluating functional dependencies. In contrast, ADOSS has only one DP domain that contains both the model DPs and the user interface DPs. Therefore, DESA has the potential to overcome the shortcoming of ADOSS presented in the preceding subsection. This potential was further investigated via a case study, in which DESA was employed to evaluate functional dependencies within an object-oriented application termed as Nim Game.
 Hector M. Olague, Letha H. Etzkorn, Sampson Gholston, Stephen Quattlebaum, "Empirical Validation of Three Software Metrics Suites to Predict Fault-Proneness of Object-Oriented Classes Developed Using Highly Iterative or Agile Software Development Processes," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 402-419, June 2007, doi:10.1109/TSE.2007.1015  Steve Counsell, Stephen Swift, Jason Crampton “The interpretation and Utility of Three Cohesion Metrics for Object – Oriented
For many application problems, it is necessary to maintain a concise form of the objectoriented information system. One way to complement this is to search for a minimal representation of the original data set. For this, the concept of a reduct is introduced and defined as a minimal subset R of the initial attribute set AT such that for a given set of attributes D, γ R ( D ) = γ AT ( D ) .From the literature ,R is a minimal subset if