Background: Health care workers especially interns may be at increased health risk due to exposure to blood and body fluids. Objective: To determine the prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (EBBF) among interns at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching hospital (UPTH). Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among interns at the UPTH. Informed written consent was obtained. The obtained data from a self-administered questionnaire and Infection Control Team records were analysed using SPSS version 21 and are presented as prose and tables. Results: Eighty four interns were studied giving a response rate of 93.3%: 40 (47.6%) were males while 44 (52.4%) were females giving a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Thirty two (38.1%) were aware of the availability of sharp bins, 55 (65.5%) re- capped and discarded into waste bins while 4 (4.8%) discarded into sharp bins without re-capping. Prevalence of EBBF was 89.3%. Thirty one (41.4%) had Blood and Body Fluid Splash (BBFS), 22 (29.3%) had Needle Stick Injury (NSI) while 22 (29.3%) had combined NSI and BBFS. Thirteen (29.5%) of the NSI occurred during rotation in Paediatrics. Seventeen (32.1%) and 16 (30.2%) of BBFS occurred during Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics rotation respectively. Eleven (25%) reported the NSI to the Infection control team (ICT) and 3 (27.3%) completed 28 days of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). Common reason for not reporting was not been aware of the Infection Control Team (ICT) in 10 (30.3%). Conclusion: There is a need for improved training and close supervision of interns.
This study showed higher percentage of occupational ex- posure to blood and body fluids among health care workers in the study area. Lack of training on prevention of occupa- tional infection, HBV vaccine status, and recapping needles were found to be independent predictors of occupational exposure to BBFs among HCWs. Based on the current as- sessment, relevant stakeholders need to provide training on prevention of occupational infection to HCWs, arrange provision of infection prevention supplies, formulate strat- egies to create a favorable working environment, and in- crease their adherence to universal precautions.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are employed in traditional health care workplaces face a se- rious danger that may threaten their life; it is their exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF). In Lebanon, the introduction of a hospital accredi- tation system has put a particular emphasis on staff safety, and on the evaluation of professional practice (EPP) programs. Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted amongst 277 HCWs working in 4 general hospitals in South Lebanon. Objective: 1) describe the prevalence and the risk factors for occupational exposure to BBF among HCWs; 2) evaluate knowledge, atti- tude, and practices of HCW concerning blood- borne pathogens and adherence to universal safety precautions. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.14 years (SD = 10.33), 57.4% were females. 43.3% of HCWs expressed that they use gloves all the time for every active- ity of care. 67.1% were aware that needles should not be recapped after use; registered nurses and nursing students were more aware than physi- cians and nursing assistants (nurse) in this subject. 30% of HCWs declared having had at least one occupational exposure to BBF; 62.7% of all accidental exposure was reported to the department responsible for managing exposures. Percutaneous injuries were the most frequently reported. Vaccination coverage was 88.4% for hepatitis B, and 48.4% against influenza. The source patient was tested in 43.4% of reported BBF exposures. Accidental exposure to BBF was more frequent in older people (OR = 3.42; p = 0.03) and the more experienced. Subjects
Injuries caused by needlestick and exposure to blood and body fluids are considered to be highly significant occupational hazards requiring special attention due to the risk of transmission of infection. This systematic review focused on the incidence of injuries caused by needlestick and exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Iran. The results of several studies reviewed in this research showed that the prevalence of injuries caused by needles ranged from 10.0% to 84.29% and that on average, damage caused by needles among healthcare workers is 47.9%. As the results indicate, the prevalence of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Iran is significant; almost half of all healthcare workers are affected. Given that the majority of studies conducted around the world have indicated that many health professionals do not report injuries from needlestick, 57,56 the actual rate of injury caused by needlestick
for ~ 6 years in order to estimate the risk of HIV transmission among health care workers and HIV infection risk associ- ated with the exposure to various risk factors. The median follow-up of health care workers subjected to parenteral exposure to a potential source of HIV infection in the course of their activities was 30.2 months (from 6 to 69 months). In the studied group of 1,344 health care employees, 179 reported percutaneous and 346 mucous membrane exposition to potentially infectious body fluids from a person infected with HIV. After sending an additional questionnaire to 559 employees, it is found that 2,720 reported cutaneous expo- sure to infected blood with HIV. Also, over 10,000 health care workers reported skin exposure in health care workers to blood from all patients over 12 months. Transmission of HIV was observed in one employee after parenteral exposure to blood from a HIV-positive patient. There was no infection after exposure to HIV-infected blood at the mucosa or skin. Summing up the test results, Henderson et al 16 estimated
These study data include the reported consequences of the incident. Over half of the incidents that occurred were reported to have minor consequences. Forty-four percent had no recorded consequence and 2% of the incidents had moderate consequences. This does not reflect the availability of support in occupational health services to support health care personnel in this hospital, but may be a reflection of the low severity of the incidents. Nonetheless, this analysis highlights the need for incidents to be taken seriously, fully recorded, and followed up. Further research in this area should involve monitoring and reporting of blood samples of staff and patients.
Results: 80%of the participants were exposed to the patients’ blood or body fluids during their clinical course. No association was found between the exposure and demo- graphic factors. Injection needle and recapping were the most common causes of these injuries. The most common sites that were injured and caused mucocutaneous contami- nation were finger and face, respectively. The most frequent activity causing contami- nation was using high-speed rotary instruments. Only 6.4% of the exposures had been reported to the related authorities and the remains were underreported.
Where H = the magnetic field intensity in ampere per meter (A/m); 𝐽 𝐶 = the volume conduction current density vector in ampere per square meter (A/m 2 ); D = the electric flux density in Coulombs per Square meter (C/m 2 ); B = the magnetic flux density in vector tesla (T); E = the electric field intensity vector in volts per meter (V/m) and 𝜌 = the volume charge density in Coulombs per cubic meter (C/m 3 ) The operator ∇ (pronounced ‘del’) expresses how strongly a quantity varies in space. The charge and current densities 𝜌 and 𝐽 𝐶 are believed to be the origin of the electromagnetic fields. When the electric and magnetic fields are generated and emitted from source, the can be transmitted far away from sources, and constrained in space spurt on the receiving antenna. The human body tissue possess the dielectric properties of permittivity and conductivity, and are equally dispersive and frequency dependent .  noted that the electric field component of the Maxwell’s equation can be represented as 𝐷 = 𝜖 𝑂 [𝑒 ′ (𝜔) − 𝑗𝑒 ′′ (𝜔)] E (v)
In summary, the BacT/Alert system gave excellent results when used for the culture of sterile body fluids other than blood. The FAN bottles demonstrated superior recovery com- pared to either the standard bottles or routine culture. The extent to which the BacT/Alert system could be used as a replacement for or supplement to routine culture methods will be influenced by specimen type, patient population, institu- tional supply versus labor costs, and further analysis of the clinical utility of results produced by broth-based culture meth- ods. Currently, two of our laboratories use aerobic FAN bot- tles for culture of synovial and CAPD fluids, while the third laboratory uses aerobic FAN bottles for all of the fluid types included in this study. Two of our laboratories use no plated media in addition to the FAN bottles, while the third labora-
who are infected with HIV, HBV, or HCV that they have a very small risk of infecting other competitors. Infected athletes can consider choosing a sport in which this risk is apparently relatively low. This may be protective for other participants and for infected athletes themselves, reducing their possible exposure to blood– borne pathogens other than the one(s) with which they are infected. Wrestling and boxing, a sport op- posed by the AAP, probably have the greatest potential for contamination of injured skin by blood.
In the present study, exposure to wood dust is restricted to only “inhalable” airborne dusts of any tree species. Wood dust refers to dust from solid wood, including bark; fresh and dried wood dust; dust from wooden boards; dust from chemically treated wood; and unspecified wood dust. Cellulose pulp and paper dust were not included in this definition. Exposure to formaldehyde is defined as occupational inhalation exposure to formaldehyde as gas, mist, or dust or to formaldehyde on a dust carrier. Occupations with more than 5% of persons exposed to the individual agent at any time between 1945 and 1984 are considered as exposed occupations in the FINJEM. The level of exposure to wood dust is quantified in milligrams of wood dust per cubic meter of workroom air (mg/m 3 ), and
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Received date: 01 August 2015; Accepted date: 29 August 2015; Published date: 03 Sep 2015. Citation: Peerschke EIB, Brandwijk RJM, Dembitzer FR, Kinoshita Y, Ghebrehiwet B (2015) Soluble gC1qR in Blood and Body Fluids: Examination in a Pancreatic Cancer Patient Cohort. Int J Cancer Res Mol Mech 1(3): doi http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2381-3318.110 Copyright: © 2015 Peerschke EIB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Evidence exists for HIV transmission by in utero, intrapar- tum, and milk-borne routes; however, the contribution each makes to the total transmission rate is less clear (2, 28). In utero HIV transmission is defined by virus isolation (VI) from blood obtained within 48 h of birth (6). Evidence supporting in utero transmission includes virus detection at birth, in aborted fetal tissues, or in the placenta (3, 4, 10, 19, 20, 24, 33, 36). Whether seroconversion by non-breast-fed infants in the post- natal period reflects late intrauterine or intrapartum infection remains an issue. Although HIV infection has been docu- mented in fetuses aborted as early as 11 weeks, many feel that the majority of infants are infected shortly before or during delivery since virus is not detected during the first week of life in greater than half of HIV-infected children (4, 21, 28). While it is not possible to differentiate between these two pathways of exposure, comparison of transmission rates in cesarean versus vaginally delivered infants suggests that perhaps 30% of HIV 1 children are infected during delivery (14, 15, 21). In addition, milk-borne infection continues to be an important mode of HIV transmission to children worldwide. While the actual con- tribution of milk-borne virus to HIV transmission is hard to
involves measures practiced by healthcare workers to reduce the transmission of infectious agents from patient to patient, patient to health worker or health worker to patient. More so, current trends public awareness and rising cost of healthcare have increased the importance of infection prevention and control and this is the reason nurses play a primary role in infection prevention and control. Healthcare workers protect themselves from contact with infectious materials, sharps injury and/or exposure to a communicable disease by applying the knowledge of infectious process and using appropriate personal protective equipment.
The focus of this article is to review the recent advances in proteome analysis of human body fluids, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, and amniotic fluid, as well as its applications to human disease biomarker discovery. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid requirments and repair.
Chemicals are widely used in industries. Many chemicals and radiations have bio-importance but the toxic effects of many of them in human biochemistry are of great concern. All these carcinogenic harmful substance pose serious public health issue as they are one of the most widespread environmental and industrial toxins. Hence, there is the need for proper understanding of the conditions, such as the concentrations and states, which make them harmful. It is also important to know their sources, processes, chemical conversions and their modes of deposition to pollute the environment, which essentially supports lives. These are released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources. They percolate into underground waters, moving along water pathways and eventually depositing in the soil. Poisoning and toxicity in animals occur frequently through exchange and co-ordination mechanisms. Exposures to hazardous materials have been associated with a number of serious systemic toxicological effects involving the nervous system, blood-forming organs, reproductive system, lung and kidney. Studies have shown genotoxic effects in workers exposed to toxic chemicals.Occupational exposure assessment is the strategy which helps employers to protect the health of workers who are exposed to chemicals in their workplace. Our study suggest workers comprise the risk group requires adequate safety, precautionary and preventivemeasures could only minimize exposure and the related health hazards.
Apart from phosphatases, there are also inhibitory binding proteins that can keep signaling under control. Such is IkB, which binds to NF-kB, preventing its transfer into the nucleus and its function as a TF. Upon phosphorylation, IkB becomes degraded and NF-kB is set free. Because phosphorylation of IkB can be catalyzed by Raf, a protein kinase in the MAPK cascade ( Fig. 3-11), and because the released NF-kB can transactivate the c-Myc gene, NF-kB is an important contributor to proliferative and prolife signaling. In addition, because NF-kB also targets the genes of several cytokines (e.g., TNF-a, IL-1b) and acute phase proteins (e.g., C-reactive protein, a1-acid glycoprotein), and because such cytokines acting on their receptors (items 2 and 3 in Fig. 3-11) also activate NF-kB, this TF plays a leading role also in inflammatory and acute phase reactions ( Lee et al., 1998; Waddick and Uckun, 1999). IkB degradation and NF-kB activation can also be induced by oxidative stress, and it appears that peroxides are the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate this effect (Dalson et al., 1999). Activated NF-kB probably contributes to the proliferative and inflammatory response to oxidative stress. NF-kB also protects cells from apoptosis by maintaining c-Myc transcription, which is required for survival ( Waddick and Uckun, 1999 ), and by transactivating the genes of antiapoptotic IAP proteins, which inhibit caspases ( Jäättelä, 1999 ). Another site from which abberant mitogenic signals may originate is the GTP/GDP binding protein Ras, which is active in GTP-bound form but inactive in GDP-bound form. The activity of Ras is normally terminated via stimulation of its own GTPase activity by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ( Fig. 3-11) that returns Ras into its inactive GDP-bound state. Fatty acids, which may accumulate, for example, in response to phospholipase A activation and exposure to peroxysome proliferators ( Rose et al., 1999), inhibit GAP and can delay the turning off of Ras. As discussed in more detail later in the chapter, genotoxic carcinogens may mutate Ras, and if the mutation leads to a loss of its GTPase activity, this would result in a permanent signaling for the MAPK pathway—a condition that contributes to malignant transformation of the affected cell population.
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The risk of these occupational exposure occurrences are on the rise in a developing country like India where health care delivery facilities more frequently encoun- ter overcrowding, low doctor to patient ratio, and lack of adequate facilities or uniform guidelines. Most of the pre- ventive interventions like adequate availability of post-ex- posure prophylaxis (PEP), safe injection practices, adher- ence to infection control guidelines, timely and appropriate post-exposure management or suitable legislations are rarely practiced all over in a low income country.
To arrive at a more accurate view about the most common bacteria isolated from patients with nosoco- mial infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility, we established a multicenter surveillance program in 2008 in Iran. Despite a large number of sporadic reports on antimicrobial susceptibity of bacteria from single hospitals in Iran, there is no accessible and comprehensive database about the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to the currently used antibacterial agents. This study was the first nationwide one to address the problem of drug resistance and suscepti- bility among nosocomial bacterial pathogens in Iran. The antimicrobial susceptibility rates of S. aureus and Gram-negative rods strains isolated from the blood and other sterile body fluids, were determined in the present study.
19. Brunekreef B, Beelen RMJ, Hoek G, Schouten LJ, Bausch- Goldbohm S, Fischer P, et al. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study. Research report (health effects institute). 2009(139):5-71;83-9.