In 1951 Canada was experiencing rapid, post-war industrialization which placed a demand upon the society for professional and skilled labour (Porter, 1951, p. 44). At this point in time, the Canadian labour force showed its principal S.M.D. decrease. Again, however, not all socio-economic levels followed the same pattern. Level I did register an S.M.D. decrease. As in the preceding decade, this decrease was 10%. This, then would lead one to conclude that when a demand is placed upon society for workers in a particular area, sexual segregation in that area will decrease. Certainly, as Porter stated, the professional worker was in great demand in 1951.
If deindustrialisation can be considered the main driver of changes in occupationalsex and ethnic segregation for these groups, with men and women replacing manual and manufacturing for service occupations, a new phase of job polarisation in high- and low-status jobs can be considered as one of the main factors explaining recent trends and differences in the occupational structure of both men and women. Job polarisation is largely the result of technological progress which results in the decline of ‘routine middling jobs’, with an increasing number of people being employed at the extremes, and far fewer in the middle of the occupational skills spectrum. Of course, gender differences in skills, qualifications and choice, as well as labour market imperfections such as discrimination, all contribute to different degrees to the levels of occupationalsegregation shown in Figure 15. It is important to note that although ‘female-dominated’ or ‘male-dominated’ occupations are sometimes seen as protective from gender competition, they can potentially limit labour market choices. Thus, high occupationalsegregation can also be particularly detrimental for those groups that are systematically concentrated in certain occupations, such as women in lower-paid jobs (e.g. caring, catering, cleaning, clerical, cashiering). Within this context, the persistence of high occupationalsegregation is likely to reinforce stereotypes and, at the same time, become a source of labour market rigidity and economic inefficiency (Anker, 1998).
The reasons why feminists (of both sexes) should be concerned with work seg- regation by sex are, surprisingly, rarely made explicit. We will suggest some here. First, it is strongly linked to inequality. For example, jobs and occupations carried out by women rather than men tend to be paid less. This is made strikingly clear when pay rates between countries where a certain occupation is dominated by men (such as dentists in the United States) are compared with a country where women have a more equal or even dominant share of jobs in that occupation (such as dentists in parts of Europe). Pay tends to be considerably lower for the same job in the latter case. Second, work segregation by sex limits the auton- omy, freedom and recognition accorded to individual women and men. When a woman has a set of talents that would make her well suited to thrive in a par- ticular occupation, but that occupation is considered ‘male’, then this makes it much more likely that she will not pursue that occupation. The same is true of men who wish to pursue occupations that are gendered female, but given the ex- tra limitations on women entering labour markets, occupationalsegregation as a whole disadvantages women more than men, and this exacerbates inequality. Third, work segregation by sex limits collective ﬂourishing, because it leads to a situation where it is harder for people to match their talents to occupations, thus inhibiting the way in which people’s talents might serve the common good. Fourth, work segregation by sex both draws upon, and in turn contributes to, social ‘stereotypes’ which limit women and men’s freedom and recognition – re- inforcing the problem of gendered occupationalsegregation. We return to this important issue of stereotypes in what follows, as it has a considerable bearing on sexsegregation in the cultural industries which is itself the key source of social representation, whether stereotyped or otherwise.
Although extensive research has been conducted on the factors that influence the duration of family-related employ- ment breaks, a key structural characteristic of the German labour market has been neglected so far: the occupation. Only few previous empirical studies have taken occupa- tions into consideration (Krüger et al. 1989; Stuth and Hen- nig 2014; Stuth et al. 2009), but those that have done so have always identified it as an important influencing fac- tor. For example, Krüger et al. (1989) analysed how occu- pational cultures and structures affecting work-family rec- onciliation influence the duration of women’s employment interruptions and their return to work in five occupations. They found that women in occupations with high part-time rates and/or flexible working hour arrangements, in this case commercial and administrative employees, returned to work more frequently than women in manual, physical jobs such as hairdressers (Krüger et al. 1989). Looking at data for 2006 and including a much larger range of occupa- tions (111 occupations), Stuth et al. (2009) come to similar conclusions: occupations requiring long weekly hours dis- play longer employment breaks, whereas flexible working hour models promote women’s return into gainful employ- ment. Building on this, Stuth and Hennig (2014) conducted a study for the year 2007, in which they also established the importance of the signalling function of occupations (mea- sured by the specificity of an occupation) and occupational closure (licensing, legal protection of the activity and cre- dentialing educational heterogeneity) as well as whether the occupation was typically found in a structured or unstruc- tured labour market (employee turnover, etc.) for the length of interruptions (Stuth and Hennig 2014). The two latter studies point to the importance of the occupation as a con- text that sets opportunities and constraints, within which the conditions for employment interruptions and possibili- ties for re-entry are structured.
In addition to examining demographic characteristics and master statuses, other types o f influences on attitudes have been researched in sociological literature, albeit in areas other than prostitution. In particular, connections between different kinds of attitudes, beliefs and knowledge and their influence on acceptance o f various forms o f sexual expression have been examined (Abrams and Della Fave, 1976; Cottle, Searles, Berger and Pierce, 1989; Cowan, Chase, and Stahly, 1989; Fisher, Byrne, White and Kelley, 1998; Herrman and Bordner, 1983; Wallace and Wehmer, 1972). With respect to attitudes toward sex and sexuality, Wallace and Wehmer (1972) evaluated the responses o f 1, 083 self-selected respondents from the Detroit Metropolitan Area. They examined sexually permissive attitudes toward visual erotica in efforts to classify respondents as either sexual liberals or conservatives. The researchers concluded that respondents with more sexually permissive attitudes were more likely to be liberal than conservative (Wallace and Wehmer. 1972). Sexually permissive attitudes have also been found to be
Based on the research results can be known workers that do not have smoking habits obtained value urine tt-MA levels are relatively the same as the respondents who smoke. Although smoking is a causative factor urine tt- MA high levels, but in this study found no significant association between smoking and urine tt-MA levels. Gender factor has no relationship with the urine tt-MA levels of both the respondents in the office area and in the operator area. In this study, in the area office to know the number of women as many as 7 people, and men 5 people. While in the area operator, the number of women as many as five people, and men 16 people. Urine tt-MA levels of female workers and male known to be relatively equal, it is known that there respondents with female sex had higher levels of tt-MA in the urine were higher than male respondents. Likewise, there are urine tt-MA levels of male respondents is higher than the female respondents. In this study, respondents in the office area and operator area both women and men have high levels of benzene exposure and interaction with different. Individuals other factors such as liver function is a benzene metabolism and tt-MA on the respondent is unknown. This becomes a limitation in this study, because the liver function will affect the metabolism of a chemical.
The results of this study showed that the prevalence of major depression in the patients referring to the clinic was 2.9 %. Considering the studied factors, it was shown that there was no significant relationship between depression symptoms and age, sex, marital status, occupational status, place of living, type of seizure, and family history. However, simultaneously there is a significant relationship between the level of education and the type of diet (monotherapy versus multitherapy) and the presence and the severity of depression. There was also a significant relationship between the last seizure and depression, but this relationship was not observed in the severity of depression.
In general, for those who remain employed, the occupational change from the agricultural sector leads to the trade and manufacturing industries. In Java the highest percentage of those who move from agricultural to non-agricultural occupations go into trade, followed by community, social and personal services, and manufacturing (see Table 2.3). The percentage of females who were working in trading occupations in the week preceding the enumeration, but who were working in agriculture in the last season, is higher than that of males. This is quite possible because most of the women have double jobs namely as agricultural labourers and trader. In this case Stoler (1977:83) confirmed that in Kali Loro, a village in the Kulon Progo regency, almost 40% of the adult women were engaged in some form of trade. Trading alone does not supply sufficient income, and thus they are
Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex, the main malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, are among the insects that mate in swarms [16, 25–32]. Because these species are of medical interest, a particular atten- tion has been paid to their mating biology and ecology. Nowadays, it is known that mating occurs outdoors at sunset in swarms formed by males in which virgin females come to mate [32–36]. Within the complex, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) (formerly the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae (s.l.), respectively) are sympatric in west Africa and are considered as two dif- ferent species . They have been described to have a swarm spatial segregation in which An. coluzzii mainly swarms over a ground marker and An. gambiae (s.s.) over bare ground [29, 32, 38]. In Burkina Faso and Mali, hybrids occur at low frequency (≈ 1%) [32, 39–42] and no evidence for selection against these hybrids was found . There is also no evidence of genetic incompatibili- ties between parental taxa in experimental crosses, with no obvious loss in the fitness of hybrids in laboratory set- tings [43–46]. This suggests that reproductive isolation between An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) is primarily achieved by distinct pre-mating behaviors [30, 45, 47]. However, the exact nature of these pre-mating barriers between the two sibling species, the mechanisms at the origin of male swarm segregation and the way females are attracted to species-specific swarms are unknown. Such knowledge could contribute in explaining the diversifica- tion and evolution within the genus Anopheles and could raise new avenues in the development of new control tools.
Three key steps in meiosis allow diploid organisms to produce haploid gametes: (1) homologous chro- mosomes (homologs) pair and undergo cross- overs; (2) homologs segregate to opposite poles; and (3) sister chromatids segregate to opposite poles. The XX/XO sex determination system found in many nematodes  facilitates the study of meiosis because variation is easily recognized [2–4]. Here we show that meiotic segregation of X chromosomes in the trioecious nematode Aua- nema rhodensis  varies according to sex (her- maphrodite, female, or male) and type of gameto- genesis (oogenesis or spermatogenesis). In this species, XO males exclusively produce X-bearing sperm [6, 7]. The unpaired X precociously sepa- rates into sister chromatids, which co-segregate with the autosome set to generate a functional haplo-X sperm. The other set of autosomes is discarded into a residual body. Here we explore the X chromosome behavior in female and her- maphrodite meioses. Whereas X chromosomes segregate following the canonical pattern during XX female oogenesis to yield haplo-X oocytes, dur- ing XX hermaphrodite oogenesis they segregate to the first polar body to yield nullo-X oocytes. Thus, crosses between XX hermaphrodites and males yield exclusively male progeny. During her- maphrodite spermatogenesis, the sister chroma- tids of the X chromosomes separate during meiosis I, and homologous X chromatids segregate to the functional sperm to create diplo-X sperm. Given these intra-species, intra-individual, and intra-gametogenesis variations in the meiotic program, A. rhodensis is an ideal model for study- ing the plasticity of meiosis and how it can be modulated.
With regard to segregation, there are a number of practical methods the industry could employ to attract and retain more women and a more diverse workforce. For example, over half of the participants in the study were in a senior grade. The industry would therefore benefit from not only more women in senior roles, but also through making these senior women more visible. This visibility may help in the eradication of the industry’s image as ‘for boys only’ and possibly attract more women. These senior women could also act as role models for the next generation of female game workers. Eccles (1994) suggests that inaccurate and insufficient information about professions is the main reason why young women do not consider or rule out occupations that might fit their self-schema. The industry may therefore benefit from highlighting the various roles and skills required in the industry as well as the various backgrounds, both educational and occupational, that women who enter the industry come from. Limitations of the study
MVWSL did not only use women’s softball as the means to foster community among lesbians and allies; it also used separatism to apply the feminist ideologies of its founding era, the 1970s, to the context of sport. This included radical feminism. In contrast to liberal feminism, which seeks equal opportunity within existing structures, radical feminism seeks to overhaul structures in ways that incorporate feminist values. Title IX, the law prohibiting sex discrimination by educational institutions, including in athletics programs, could be seen as a liberal feminist initiative—or having a liberal feminist effect—because it created a legal framework that opened the male-dominated sporting structures to women. Varsity sports were offered to women, the NCAA took over women’s sports, and the same rules that governed men now applied to female athletes as well. 21
have been reported previously for In(X)1H (as A1-F4), but of sex-specific differences in the control of mammalian not for In(19)37Rk (Beechey and Evans 1996). To define meiotic chromosome segregation. approximate centimorgan positions for the breakpoints for both inversions, we selected a series of nonchimeric yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) for each inversion-bearing chromosome (Figure 2). Individual YACs from the WI/MIT- MATERIALS AND METHODS 820 Mouse YAC library were obtained from Research Genetics (Huntsville, AL) and labeled using the Bionick labeling system Production of inversion homozygotes and heterozygotes: (GIBCO BRL, Gaithersburg, MD). YACs were assigned centi- For meiotic studies, breeding stock of control C57BL/6J in- morgan positions along the chromosome using the Mouse bred mice and of mice carrying the In(X)1H and In(19)37Rk Genome Database (MGD) map. To do this, we converted each inversions was obtained from Jackson ImmunoResearch Labo- YAC’s position on the MIT map to a position on the MGD ratories (West Grove, PA) and maintained as inbred stocks map by comparing the positions of simple sequence length via brother ⫻ sister matings. Inversion heterozygotes were polymorphism markers on the YAC for both maps. Two at a generated by crossing C57BL/6J females to a male hemi- or time, in all possible combinations, the YACs were hybridized homozygous for the inversion. All oocytes were collected from to fetal liver metaphases from inversion heterozygotes, pre- ⵑ4-week-old mice. For studies of preimplantation embryos, pared as described by Bean et al. (2001). By comparing the In(X)1H animals were obtained from Harwell. relative position and order of each pair of YACs in a heterozy- Meiocyte and embryo culture conditions and fixation: Oo- gous animal, the two YACs spanning each breakpoint location cytes for the analysis of both metaphase II and anaphase I were identified (Figure 2).
Our current study has shown that using a video as an educa- tional tool is effective in increasing short-term knowledge among glaucoma patients. This may serve as an alternative method to traditional educational materials. Moreover, our study has identified patient-related factors that are associ- ated with low knowledge scores, eg, old age, female sex, illiteracy, rural residence, low income, and unemployment. This subset of patients should receive more attention when planning future educational interventions.
Molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), indels, and SNPs, can, for the first time, be de- veloped for various applications in Guinea yam, includ- ing linkage mapping, genome-wide association analysis, genomic selection, and MAS. We have already analyzed sequences containing SSR motifs in the genome and identified more than 22,000 candidates that can be used to design primers (Additional file 1: Table S19). We de- signed primer pairs for 1000 of these sequences and ob- tained the information necessary for their immediate use in genetic analyses (Additional file 13). SSR markers iso- lated from one Dioscorea species can be transferred to other species . From a practical plant breeding point of view, the sp16 sex-linked marker should prove useful for selecting plantlets for crossing, substantially saving the space and labor required to grow plants and accelerat- ing breeding programs. However, the sex-determination system may vary among Dioscorea species (see below), so the transferability of sex-linked DNA markers from D. rotundata to other species should be addressed in future studies.
member as the unit of observation. I show means and standard deviations for men and women combined and separately and note several gender differences. First, women respondents have substantially less industry experience than do men (as is the case in Table 3.1). The statistical software package STATA does not permit t-tests to determine if means of weighted data are significantly different from one another, but the difference is substantial. When the means are exponentiated to restore the unlogged value, the difference is almost 1 year of industry experience. Men and women also differ in their occupations, with women having an average occupational SEI nearly ten points lower than men’s and women much more likely to be located in occupations with at least 65 percent women. Women’s teams are more likely to be sex diverse than men, not surprising given the underrepresentation of women in entrepreneurship. Men’s teams have are more likely to have more than one ethnicity represented. Men have invested more dollars than have women, on average. Men’s businesses are more high-tech that women’s businesses, women’s businesses are more likely to be in services or retail. Men have higher net worth but lower income than women. However, there are several