Although these studies have provided general information regarding the links between stress, coping, and problem gambling, crucial methodological limitations have constrained the practical applications of these results. The primary issue is that the findings from coping studies have been too general to inform clinical practice, largely due to limitations in the conceptualization and measurement of variables. For instance, previous investigations have typically assessed dispositional coping styles (i.e., assessing reported use of general coping habits), which may have little bearing on the effectiveness of coping in response to real life stressors (see Coyne & Racioppo, 2000). Further, these studies have repeatedly focused on the same three general coping methods using the same global measures of life stress, resulting in a degree of stagnation in this area. Moreover, conclusions drawn from studies using such general measures tend to be very broad, and thus clinical implications of these findings are unclear (Coyne & Racioppo, 2000). To advance research in this area, investigators need to identify more specific stress-coping processes that have the capacity to inform clinical practice.
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consideration in this benchmarking study, which is to use measures that enable comparisons across professions, industries, and occupational groupings. Although this approach overlooks operational factors that may be confined to particular occupations, such as dealing with trauma, there is evidence in the stress literature that generic organisational factors are more important than local operational factors when predicting stress responses. Hart and Cotton (2002), for example, showed that levels of personal distress for Australian police officers are more affected by organisational climate than by events that occur during the conduct of their daily duties. In other words, despite the popular conception that it is the nature of police work per se that leads to distress, low morale, and withdrawal behaviour among police officers, the reality is that broad organisational climate factors such as appraisal and recognition systems, management practices, role clarity, goal congruence, and so on, are the major determinants of these responses.
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The Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey (NASS) was con- structed especially for the present study to measure ambu- lance-specific stressors. In order to establish an adequate list of relevant stressors, two focus group interviews were performed at two ambulance stations with different organizational size and structure. A set of 29 items was described and assessed in the same way as the Job Stress Survey. Nine items tapping co-worker support, and two other items ('high work-load' and 'rumours about changes in the organization') were excluded because they overlapped with the 'lack of co-worker support' and 'chal- lenging job demands' items from the Job Stress Survey. To identify a factor structure of the remaining 18 severity items, we performed a principal component analysis with varimax rotation. This approach resulted in a tree factors solution with eigenvalues (i.e. the variances extracted by the factors) above 1. However, four of the items loaded equally high on two of the factors, and the content of these items was ambiguous with regard to the two factors. Thus, these four items were deleted. The final analysis, based on the 14 remaining items, was resolved as three factors with good conceptual meaning: 'non-emergency tasks' (five items, α = .80), 'serious operational tasks' (six items, α = .85), and 'physical demands' (three items, α = .93). It should be noted that the items "take care of seri- ously injured and dying patients" and "uncertainty about what you will meet" loaded approximately equally high on two of the factors (i.e. 'serious operational tasks' and 'non-emergency tasks'), however, based on an evaluation of the content of these items, they were included in the serious operational task index (Table 1).
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The proliferation of the call center industry has often been accredited to the widespread quest for rapid service deliveries (Mukherjee & Malhotra, 2006). However, occupational stress has remained a central challenge within most call center milieu (Rasila, 2012). For instance, one main stressor associated with these cost-effective facilities utilized by companies to connect with potential and existing customers is often attributed to the heavy deployment of technology to scrutinize and uniformly control service performances (Choi, Cheong & Feinberg, 2012). Consequently, diverse research especially undertaken in developed countries have reported extensively on the impact of this tightly controlled systems on employee well-being while developing countries remains under-researched despite the fruitful development of call center stations in these regions (Budhwar, Varma, Malhotra, & Mukherjee, 2009). Consequently, the importance of addressing customer service working conditions in developing countries is because there is still limited research focus in these regions despite the economic benefits gained by large companies from industrialized economies outsourcing their call center operations and engaging in off-shore customer service activities in these low income countries such as the Philippines, Pakistan and India (Das, Dhawadkar, & Brandes, 2008). Furthermore, the lucrativeness of the telecommunications business in developing countries of Africa has attracted foreign direct investment from global ICT firms gaining entry into some West African markets in Ghana, Benin republic and Nigeria (Pyramid Research, 2010). However, reports on call center operations in various countries seem to present a broad resemblance of working environment, management practices and job characteristics. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to make valuable contributions by examining the nature of call center stress existing in a context-specific culture by exploring views of call center employees on service systems operationalized in the Nigeria.
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The three-factorial analysis of variance with the fac- tors “gender”, “location of the practice” (East vs. West Germany), and “main therapeutic method” (psychoanaly- sis vs. depth psychology-based psychotherapy vs. be- havioral therapy) resulted in significant differences (see Table 3). The participating women reported more per- ceived “Reward” in “Appreciation” than the participating men (p < 0.05). The psychoanalysts whose practices were in West Germany expressed less perceived “Re- ward” in “Job Security” than the depth psychologists and behavioral therapists whose practices were also in the West. In contrast, in East Germany the correlation con- cerning this matter was reversed (interaction effect p < 0.01). The psychoanalysts with practices in East Ger- many expressed more perceived “Reward” in “Job Secu- rity” than the participating depth psychologists and be- havioral therapists with practices in the East. The female psychotherapists in West Germany experienced less “Re- ward” in the form of “Income and Occupational Promo- tion” than all of the other surveyed participants (interac- tion effect p < 0.05).
Unfortunately, it has been suggested that the prominent approach to dealing with work-stress in general is a focus on strain management rather than the reduction of occupational demands (Kahn & Byosiere, 1992; Le Fevre, et al., 2003). Although such efforts may temporarily relieve the stress experience, they only address symptoms rather than causes and fail to address employees’ work-stress experience in a systematic, long- term fashion (Kahn & Byosiere, 1992; Quick, Nelson, & Hurrell, 1997). Conversely, a considerable number of work-stress studies involving a wide range of occupations have found that social support may effectively decrease individuals’ strain responses by buffering the negative effects of occupational stressors (Cohen & Wills, 1985). Social support is regarded as having a consistent impact on individuals’ coping strategies through the provision of reliable and on-going relationships (House, 1981; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Furthermore, social support is thought to prevent social isolation and alienation by allowing for experiences of belonging and being cared for (House, 1981; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
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The estimator of the coefficient of the lagged dependent variable is consistent if the number of time periods in the sample goes to infinity. Our sample spans 26 years and is unbalanced because it includes individuals who are observed for a smaller number of waves. We repeat our analysis for a subsample of 10,373 individuals who have been employed for at least eight of the 26 years to counter the downward bias of the estimator of the lagged dependent variable that plagues short panels (Bond, 2002). The number of person-wave observations drops from 196,935 in our baseline sample to 135,130 in column 2 of table 4. The coefficients of the (age-interacted) occupational stressors are similar to those in our baseline specification. However, the coefficient of lagged health is now larger, suggesting that past health investment, occupational stress, and health shocks are more per- sistent than they appear to be in the full-sample analysis. We conclude that our estimates of the effects of occupational stressors are robust across specifications but that an analysis of the full sample leads to underestimation of the coefficient of lagged health. We may have underestimated the cumulative effects of occupa- tional history by underestimating φ, and the predictions in the previous paragraph provide—in absolute terms—a lower bound on the health effects, which indicates that the true health effects may, in fact, be even larger.
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According to the American Institute of Stress (n. d.), work stress in the US causes costs of nearly $300 billion dollars a year as compensation for absenteeism, decreased productivity, or as direct medical and insurance costs. Work stress has a negative effect on general physical (Nixon et al., 2011) and mental health (Iliceto et al., 2013) by significantly increasing the risk of developing burnout or depression (Cooper et al., 2001; Schaufeli et al., 2002). Furthermore, it contributes to fatigue (Zohar, Tzischinski, & Epstein, 2003) and, importantly, work stress has a spillover effect on family life: individuals who face occupational stressors have been shown to have a lower parentGchild relationship quality (van Roeters, & Kluwer, 2010) and are more likely to divorce (Poortman, 2005). However, while certain situational working conditions are likely to trigger stress responses in most employers (Karasek & Theorell, 1990), stress is a highly personalized phenomenon. Therefore, the individual response to a stressful event is even more predictive of negative outcomes than the event itself (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979).
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Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that stress among the senior civil servant in Kogi State, Nigeria was related to various stressors such as self-induced, environmental, organisational and psychosocial stressors. Demographic variables like sex, age, marital status, position and salary scale were important factors related to stress and coping strategies among the senior civil servants. However, sex of respondents was the best predictor of strategies for coping with stress. The State Government in Kogi State, Nigeria should provide stress free and conducive environment to enable the senior civil servants performing their duties without stress. Also, workshops and in-service seminars that focus on occupational stressors and effective coping strategies should be organized for all the senior civil servants in Kogi State, Nigeria.
Similarly, it may also be the case that stressors in the achievement domain ‘bleed’ into the interpersonal domain, thus activating both types of cognitive structures. That is, rather than being categorical in nature, it may be the case that stressors are better thought of as dimensional constructs that impact cognitions in multiple domains. Supporting this notion, previous research has found that negative social and achievement-related life stressors impact perceptions of self-worth in both the social and achievement domains (Frewin & Dozois, 2006). These authors argue that such findings suggest that the impact of interpersonal and achievement stressors are highly correlated, thus supporting a dimensional perspective of life stressors (Abramson, Alloy, & Hogan, 1997; Kwon & Whisman, 1998; Mischel & Shoda, 1995). Indeed, secondary post-hoc analyses carried out to confirm that individuals recalled a memory consistent with their assigned prime- type revealed that 14 of the 136 descriptions of memories 3 recalled during the prime were
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Psychological. The general connection between workplace stress and serious psychological problems is well established, as Ercolani (2008) has highlighted. Such problems include depression, acute anxiety and exhaustion. No empirical examinations of these conditions amongst family firm samples were discovered through the literature search methodology utilized in this study. A brief presentation of work relating to the selfemployed is thus utilized instead. Some arguments have been made to suggest that heightened decision authority/ task control, work engagement and autonomy will reduce the likelihood of psychological ill health for the self- employed (Parslow et al, 2004). However, empirical studies find no difference between the self-employed and employed in terms of mental health measures (such as depression and anxiety) in spite of the more satisfying work that the self-employed report. Jamal (1997) also could not differentiate between the self-employed and employed samples in his study in respect of the prevalence of mental health issues. It seems plausible that the positive impact of task control and engagement for the self-employed may be offset by the strains associated with entrepreneurship, which, as we have seen, result in worse physical health. It is interesting, however, that although apparently experiencing poorer physiological well-being than other occupational groups, the self- employed do not appear to enjoy worse mental health. Family firm managers and members enjoy – as we have seen – the additional benefits of social support and evolutionarily appropriate organizational cultures.
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Kobasa (1979b) demonstrated the possible buffering effects of personality hardiness in a retrospective study of executives identified as being high on life events stressors. The findings indicated that those executives in the high life events stressors - low illness group achieved scores on measures of hardiness that were significantly higher than the scores of executives in the high life events stressors - high illness group. Subsequent investigations appear to have overcome the methodological flaws inherent in the initial retrospective study and so have established the prospective buffering effect of
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Survey questions were developed around dimensions of risk and protective factors.. The first dimension was the awareness of potential stressors that impact on the work of preservice teachers in relation to coursework and professional experience; and the second, the awareness of ways preservice teachers can increase their resiliency in managing these stressors. Responses were collected and analysed using Nvivo to code categories from the data. These categories were then considered using the Knight framework for resilience education (Knight, 2007b) as an analytical tool.
Early childhood is often identified as a point of entry onto developmental pathways of risk for behavior problems. That is, when internalizing and externalizing behavior problems develop during early childhood, the risk for psychopathology during middle childhood and adolescence increases (Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000; Keenan, Shaw, Delliquadri, Giovannelli, & Walsh, 1998; Mesman & Koot, 2001; Moffitt & Caspi, 2001). Ecological theories emphasize that features of the social-contextual environment directly and indirectly affect children’s development, either adaptively or maladaptively (Bronfenbrenner, 1986). For instance, in-home characteristics, like quality of parenting (Bayer, Sanson, & Hemphill, 2006; Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, & Nagin, 2003), level of financial strain (Scaramella, Sohr-Preston, Callahan, & Mirabile, 2008) and residential overcrowding (Evans, Saegert, & Harris, 2001) as well as environmental characteristics, like neighborhood dangerousness (Callahan, Scaramella, Laird, & Sohr-Preston 2011; Linares, et al., 2001), have been found to predict higher levels of problem behaviors during childhood. For impoverished families, risk for exposure to multiple environmental stressors, like financial strain, residential overcrowding, and neighborhood danger, is substantially greater than for more affluent families. Nonetheless, few studies have considered the direct and indirect effect of multiple home and community level stressors simultaneously on children’s risk for elevated levels of behavior problems during early childhood.
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In occupational health field; one of the specific courses is occupational diseases. If this course teaches and learns suitable and useful, the students will prevent from occupational diseases in the workplaces. This course has theoretical and practical lessons. Objectives are in cognitive and psychomotor domains at least.
12- Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C. J. Relationships among life stress, social support, academic stressors, and reactions to stressors of international students in the United States. Intern J Stre manag, 2003, 10 (2): 137-157. 13- Misra, R., McKean, M., West, S., & Tony, R. Academic Stress of College Students: Comparison of Student and Faculty Perceptions. Colle Stud J, 2000, 34(2): 236-246.
The first author was a participant-observer of the production process in each of these settings; this allowed her to develop a deep understanding of the work practices and how structures and interactions interrelated to create coordination. Her research role varied depending on the occupational group she was studying. For instance, at EquipCo she helped build machines as well as observed assemblers’ and technicians’ work, while she observed engineers but did not participate in designing the machines. During the study of film sets she primarily worked as a production assistant, assisting and observing in a variety of areas including the production office and the locations, wardrobe, electric, grip, property, sound, and camera departments. 3 In both settings, she also participated in some social activities, such as meals and parties, with her informants. During both studies, she jotted field notes while at the site and elaborated the notes on her computer at the end of each day. For additional details about research participation in these settings, please see Appendix 1.
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15- Shokri, O., Kadivar, P., & Daneshvarpour, Z. The role of coping styles in academic stress and academic achievement. J Iran Psycho, 2007, 3 (11): 249-257. 16- Shokri, O., Kadivar, P., & Daneshvarpour, Z. College students assess their academic stressors and reactions to stressors. J Psycho Scie,2007, 6 (21): 52-65. 17- Shokri, O., Kadivar, P., Naghsh, Z., Ghanaei, Z., & Daneshvarpour, Z. Personality traits, academic stress and academic performance. Quar J Psycho Stud, 2007, 3 (3): 25-48.
Thirdly, in backward logistic and linear regressions, OS were considered jointly as explanatory variables to investigate the potential role of combined occupational explanatory factors on the T2-T1 SBP difference and on incident cases of hypertension over the 5-year follow-up, after adjustments for individual factors. The determi- nants which were associated with the dependent variable in bivariate analyses with a p-value< 0.20 were included in the a priori models. Then, explanatory variables were removed from the model one by one after likelihood ra- tio tests (considered significant if p < 0.05) to compare nested models. No interactions between OS and the confounders were observed in final models.
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Due to practical reasons the experiment was conducted in one session. The order of the stressors may influence the outcome in two ways. First, the first stressor might have created a certain expectation on what comes next for the participant. As the first stressor was the most stressful one, other stressors could have seem less stressful in comparison. Second, the experiment started with a social stressor, which is known to provoke the release of cortisol. Cortisol has a restricting effect on subjective perception of stress (Het et al, 2012) and peaks 10 minutes after the stressor occurred. It is agreeable that the cortisol release, activated by the first stressor, peaked during the second stressor and influenced the perception of the second stressor by making the environmental stressor seem less stressful. Therefore, the results could have been adulterated by the order of the stressors. This study did try to minimize the effect of other stressors by adding relaxation tasks between the stressors and calculated with the
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