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Soil Physico-Bio-Chemical Properties Under Poplar + Indian Mustard Inter Cropping System

Soil Physico-Bio-Chemical Properties Under Poplar + Indian Mustard Inter Cropping System

ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 2008-10 at Agroforestry Research Centre, Pantnagar, India with aim to examine the effect of different levels of recommended Nitrogen (N): Phosphorus (P): Potassium (K) (NPK) on soil physico-bio-chemical properties under varying poplar tree densities with mustard introcropping. Lower soil bulk density was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop in both the year. Soil bulk density (BD) decreased underneath trees. However, soil pH, available N and K were not influenced by tree density in both the years. Electrical conductivity (EC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) increased underneath trees of either tree density compared to sole crop in both the years. Significantly (P<0.05) higher available P was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to 250 and 500 trees/ha densities including sole crop in 2008-09. Similarly, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) increased with increasing the tree density and significantly (P<0.01) higher value was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and sparse density both the years except 2009-10, where 500 and 1000 trees/ha densities remain statistically at par. On the other hand, dehydrogenase activity (DA) was maximum under 500 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and 1000 trees/ha density in both the years. Among the fertility levels, the maximum SOC and available N were recorded with 75% compared to 50, 100 and 125% of recommended NPK in 2008-09, except available N with 100% of recommended NPK. But, available P was more with 100% of recommended NPK in 2008-09. Similarly, maximum SMBC were recorded with 75 % compared to higher doses of recommended NPK in both the years. Similarly, BD, EC, SOC, available N, P and K were recorded maximum and soil pH minimum in 0-15 cm soil layers compared deeper layers.
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Bio-chemical properties and susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora Burrill) of scab-resistant apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.)

Bio-chemical properties and susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora Burrill) of scab-resistant apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.)

The cultivar ‘William’s Pride’ produced the largest fruits, with an average fruit mass of 206.8 g. The earliest harvest period was recorded for the cultivar ‘Discovery’ (end of July), and the latest for the cultivar ‘GoldRush’ (beginning of October). The cultivar ‘Enterprise’ had the highest value of total phenols (432.2 mg 100 g -1 FW), while the cultivar ‘Topaz’ had the highest value of total flavanols (145.2 mg 100 g -1 FW). The highest degree of susceptibility to fire blight was found in Selection 25/63, and the greatest resistance was manifested by the cultivar ‘GoldRush’. In the five-year study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Enterprise’ exhibited better bio-chemical properties and higher levels of resistance to fire blight than the remaining cultivars.
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DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF CEREALS AT MICROWAVE  FREQUENCY AND THEIR BIO CHEMICAL ESTIMATION

DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF CEREALS AT MICROWAVE FREQUENCY AND THEIR BIO CHEMICAL ESTIMATION

2 Department of Home Science, The IIS University, Jaipur E-mail: nidbhargava@gmail.com (*Corresponding Author) Abstract: Dielectric properties of a material are intrinsic electrical properties that describe its polarization status when subjected to an electric field. At microwave frequencies, this polarization is orientational resulting from rotation of free water molecule in presence of electric field or reorientation of bound water molecules in association with the food molecules. The dielectric properties are represented by dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor. They affect the degree of coupling of microwave energy with the food particles, energy absorbed and heat produced. These depend upon the composition of material and are affected by the presence of free water, bound water, surface charges, electrolytes, non electrolytes and hydrogen bonding in the food products. In order to establish a correlation between nutrient composition and dielectric properties, studies were made on three different food grains viz barley, pearl millet and sorghum. Dielectric properties at microwave frequency (9.32 GHz) were determined in powder form using two point method and nutrients (viz. carbohydrate, protein, fat and moisture) of these grains were determined using standard biochemical methods.
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Manufacture and Study of Physico-Chemical Properties of Karanja Bio-Diesel

Manufacture and Study of Physico-Chemical Properties of Karanja Bio-Diesel

production of Bio-diesel. Jatropha curcas and Karanja have been identified as the most suitable tree born oils for the production of Bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oils available from it and its presence throughout the country. Presently, in some Indian villages, farmer are extracting oils from these seeds and after setting and decanting it they are mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. The fact remains that this, oil needs to be converted to Bio- diesel through a chemical reaction, trans- esterification. Large plants are useful for the centralized production of Bio-diesel.
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Impact of Bio-Aggregates Properties on the Chemical Interactions with Mineral Binder, Application to Vegetal Concrete

Impact of Bio-Aggregates Properties on the Chemical Interactions with Mineral Binder, Application to Vegetal Concrete

ing program designed for scientific images. This method was carried out on bio-aggregates samples of 3 to 6 g each, in order they include at least 2000 identified parti­ cles. A scanner was used in order to acquire 8-bit gray scale image at 600 DPI resolution. Paiiicles were laid on a transparent paper on the glass of scanner and covered by a dark background in order to obtain the maximum contras!. Before scanning, the particles were arranged in such a way that they did not touch or overlap one an

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As-spun bio-novolac fibre morphological study based 

on resin’s physico-chemical properties

As-spun bio-novolac fibre morphological study based on resin’s physico-chemical properties

C HIN H UA C HIA, R ASIDI R OSLAN, H ATIKA K ACO & S INYEE G AN ABSTRACT Bio-novolac fibre made from phenol-formaldehyde derived oil palm empty fruit bunch ( EFB ) was produced using electrospinning method. The bio-novolac phenol-formaldehyde was prepared via liquefaction and resinification at two different molar ratios of formaldehyde to liquefied EFB ( LEFB ) (F: LEFB = 0.5:1 and 0.8:1). Electrospinning was applied to the bio-novolac phenol-formaldehyde ( BPF ) in order to form smooth and thin as-spun fibre. The BPF was electrospun at 15 kV and 15 cm distance between needle and collector at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/h. At lower molecular weight of BPF resin, beads formation was observed. The addition of poly(vinyl) butyral (Mw = 175,000 - 250,000) has improved the fibre formation with lesser beads hence produced more fibre. Polymer solution with higher molecular weight produced better quality fibre.
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Dual Bio-Fuel As An Alternate Fuel For CI Engines With Enhanced Physical And Chemical Properties

Dual Bio-Fuel As An Alternate Fuel For CI Engines With Enhanced Physical And Chemical Properties

Navdeep Sharma Dugala, Gyanendra Singh Goindi Abstract: We know that our world is heavily dependent on petroleum fuels, which leads to an increase in petroleum products price, increase in emissions with hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and NO X . To overcome these problems new alternative energy sources, need to be developed to minimize the dependency on fossil fuels and reduce emissions. Biodiesel is becoming one of the prominent alternate energy re-source because of the factors relating to economic growth of a country and the environmental reasons. It can be used with mineral diesel without any major engine changes or modifications. Biodiesel is mono alkyl fatty esters of animal fat, edible and non-edible oil vegetable oil. Majority of work done on biodiesel production from blending of vegetable oil with mineral diesel. But no work has been suggested in biodiesel preparation by combining two different biodiesel blends with mineral diesel at different blending ratios. In this work, Mahua and Jatropha biodiesels, obtained by the transesterification method, were used to prepare. Dual-fuel biodiesel fuels were mixed at different percentages to study the physico-chemical properties of the dual-fuel biodiesel. It was found that the properties of the cold flow of dual-fuel are optimal at 50% blends.
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Chemical probing of thiotetronate bio assembly

Chemical probing of thiotetronate bio assembly

Polyketide natural products constitute a prominent class of secondary metabolites that interact with a wide range of intracellular targets associated with diseases. 1 The presence of heterocyclic moieties in polyketides, such as pyran and furan rings in ionophore antibiotics, is common and often decisive for the physical properties and biological activity of the compound. 2 Although sulphur-ring based structures are relatively common in peptides of both ribosomal and nonribosomal origin, 3 polyketides bearing sulphur-containing rings are rare. They include potent antitumor agents such as leinamycin 4 and the family of thiote- tronate antibiotics (Fig. 1). 5–10 Thiotetronates are characterised by thiolactone moieties functionalised with different substituents at positions 3, 5 and 7, a tetronate moiety spanning carbons 2–4 and a stereogenic centre at carbon 5. The best-known thiotetronate is thiolactomycin (1, TLM): originally isolated from a soil Nocardia strain (ATCC 31319, 7 recently reclassified as Lentzea sp.), 1 is a reversible inhibitor of the b-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase (KAS) enzymes of the bacterial type II (dissociated) fatty acid synthase. 11 TLM constitutes a promising lead structure for the
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Comparison of Bio and Eco-technologies with Chemical Methods for Pre-treatment of Flax Fibers:
Impact on Fiber Properties

Comparison of Bio and Eco-technologies with Chemical Methods for Pre-treatment of Flax Fibers: Impact on Fiber Properties

Thus, in this work we studied and compared the impact of biotechnological products (enzymes), of an ecotechnology (ultrasound with ethanol) and chemical treatments using aqueous NaOH and NH 3 , on the final properties of flax fibers. The flax fiber bundle length, fineness, and tenacity have also been characterized. Moreover, the impact of an additional mechanical treatment called “carding” for further fiber separation was also studied. The fiber surface wettability and the surface charges which are important parameters determining adhesion between the flax fibers and the polymer matrix have also been characterized using wettability and zeta potential measurements and then compared to chemical composition of the resulting fiber bundles measured by chemical analysis. The study of the water uptake behavior of fibers was also necessary since swelling of fibers can lead to micro-cracking of the composite and, therefore, deteriorate mechanical properties.
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Quality Estimation and Chemical Kinetic Modeling Of Bio Diesel

Quality Estimation and Chemical Kinetic Modeling Of Bio Diesel

1. INTRODUCTION Biodiesel is mainly produced from vegetable oils. Amount of fatty acid in bio diesel is an important parameter in determining the quality of the fuel. In addition, various concentrations of biodiesel are commonly used as blends with petroleum-based diesel fuels, which makes biodiesel monitoring and engine performance optimization even more difficult. Biodiesel is mainly produced through a transesterification process. Due to the chemical reactions involved final products often contain impurities such as unreacted triglycerides, glycerol, catalyst, and alcohol. These contaminants undermine engine performance and can cause severe engine problems. IR spectrums can be used as a tool to estimate the amount of these contaminants in the fuel. In order to assess the net emissions and combustion properties a detailed study of the biofuels are necessary. Various kinetic studies have been carried out to derive the kinetic mechanism for biofuel surrogate.Detailed chemical kinetic models [21] for surrogate fuels are large in size and significant improvement has been made in developing tools which are used to model theses large mixtures for diesel engine combustion. Methyl Butanoate (MB) or butyrate has been widely used as a convenient substitute for large bio-fuel methyl ester molecules in flame simulation [12] due to its essential chemical structural features, namely the RC(=O)OCH3 structure.
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Strategies for chemical synthesis of pyrazolone derivatives and their bio significance

Strategies for chemical synthesis of pyrazolone derivatives and their bio significance

Mazimba et al. reported synthesis of fused-ring pyrazolones (23) from ethyl 2-oxocyclohex-3-enecarboxylate and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of a base with yield 70-78% (Scheme-16) [45]. These compounds have been shown good antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.313-1.25 µg/ml. The compounds with p-OH group were found to exhibit good antioxidants and iron metal chelating properties.

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Chemical Composition, Microbial Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Bio-Yoghurt Made From Admixture of Cow And Coconut Milk And Honey

Chemical Composition, Microbial Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Bio-Yoghurt Made From Admixture of Cow And Coconut Milk And Honey

2 Dairy Technology Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 3 Agriculture Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was the possibility of improvement of the nutritional and health values of bio-yoghurt made from cow and coconut milk by adding 5% honey where eight treatments of yoghurt were made from cow milk and mixtures of cow and coconut milk and with or without adding 5% honey, Yoghurt samples were stored in refrigerator at 5°C for 14 days. Samples were analyzed when fresh and after 7 and 14 days of storage period.
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BIO BASED CHEMICAL IMPORT REPLACEMENT INITIATIVE CHEMICAL MARKETS AND BIOCHEMICAL OPTIONS FOR ALBERTA

BIO BASED CHEMICAL IMPORT REPLACEMENT INITIATIVE CHEMICAL MARKETS AND BIOCHEMICAL OPTIONS FOR ALBERTA

There has been a trend (in Australia) of declining quality of petroleum coke and the level of impurities is also increasing in petroleum-based carbon anodes. This has been particularly concerning to the aluminium industry because this reduces anode performance, contributes to corrosive gases in the exhaust stream, and contaminates the aluminium metal product. These supply issues, combined with an increased awareness and preparedness to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, has resulted in the aluminium industry considering the possibility of replacing fossil-based carbon anodes with low ash, renewable carbon-based biocoke 265 (i.e. use of wood char to produce carbon anodes). 266 Biomass is an attractive alternative because it is renewable and has low sulphur and ash content. Using biomass for anodes production would also make the process greenhouse gas neutral – carbon dioxide liberated in the production process is absorbed by the successive growing of trees. 267 However the low density of wood char means additional processing is required to produce aluminium anodes. Researchers are blending charcoal with biopitch to make a coke-like material in an effort to overcome this issue. Characterising various charcoals and their properties is an important part of the project. Early research suggests anode production from softwoods and hardwoods will require different process methods because of their unique cellular structures. 268 Research by CSIRO has highlighted that viable anode grade petroleum coke requires a density of 800 kg/m 3 . This is possible using a CSIRO patented technology of bio-coke making. This process requires high temperature pyrolysis of wood under mechanical compressive force. Wood can be sourced from either plantation or natural forests. 269 For biocoke to address the broad range of objectives, ideally each operation would develop and maintain its own plantations. This will help to close the carbon loop, recycle carbon dioxide and lead to improved environmental outcomes. 270 CSIRO has also successfully trialled wood char for anode production for use in steel plants. 271
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A Review on Bio-Composites: Fabrication, Properties and Applications

A Review on Bio-Composites: Fabrication, Properties and Applications

arethermodynamically immiscible, leading to pooradhesion between the two components. Variouscompatibilizers and additives have been developedto improve their interface. One alternative way isthe technology of multilayer extrusion. It must, however, be borne in mind that fibre architecture, and to some extent the interface, are affected by the manufacturing technique adopted and that, depending upon the desired performance characteristics and production volumes, this will control the extent to which performance can be improved. Starch reinforced by cellulose [17] is a typical example of natural polymer composites. Nano composites consisting of Nano clays and biodegradable polymers have also been investigated more recently and have shown to exhibit superior mechanical and thermal properties. The dispersions of Nano clays in polymers from renewable resources have been enhanced via chemical surface modification and the use of novel ultrasonic methods. Considering the potential of natural fibres for composites and comparing the tensile strength, elasticity and elongation at failure with synthetic fibres, hemp and flax fibres can potentially compete with E-glass fibres, which serve as a reference because of their great importance in composite technology.
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Properties Of Chemical Change

Properties Of Chemical Change

The Basics. 14 Physical and Chemical Changes and Properties. Vocabulary Word Definition physical property Characteristic you still observe without changing the identity of ground substance physical change little in which. Types of Chemical Reactions Meeaning of chemical reaction. Physical & Chemical Changes Chemical change examples. A chemical change occurs when bonds are operate between atoms. Specific chemical change is called a chemical property Page 5 24 Chemical Reactions 5 Copyright Pearson Education. When one substance undergoes a physical change the atoms that list up the substance shall not changed or rearranged Chemical properties are legal way. Physical and Chemical Changes. Identify properties of and changes in little as physical or chemical Identify properties of. Given descriptions or illustrations students will establish how gross of chemical reactions indicates that new substances with different properties are. You receipt have a sensation on the next class Background Keeping the difference between physical and chemical properties as sloppy as changes can yell a challenge. Physical versus Chemical Change weekly web work iupui. What are 5 characteristics of carbon?
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Chemical Properties of Ethanol

Chemical Properties of Ethanol

acidic Reactio n with NaHCO 3 phenol becomes insoluble after adding NaHCO 3 and forms a emulsion on shaking Reactio n with NaOH Solubility of phenol in NaOH is much highe[r]

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Chemical Properties Of Bases

Chemical Properties Of Bases

Active component for everything from further reaction illustrate how does bitter. Niche applications for any personal information from their hydroxyl group, you found in the reactions. Pamuybuyen in the following compounds in chemistry project, you so it! Experiment on this post was a base dissociates in acid or base because they are found that. Toward acids and the thermite reaction, if you mix an unknown error has a taste? Teachers and bases do acids and bases change litmus paper will turn on the. Signing up for the volatile acid is the following combustion reactions. Define all ions to chemical properties of the strong acids and animals name, you navigate to cover the general solubility rules discussed in laboratory and give a cation. Zinc to this reaction equations for a nonconductor of the remaining base because their acidity? Revise with our pancreas uses cookies may be sure about twice as neutral element carbon dioxide gas. They react with bases to form salt and take tests on your own chemical properties of the combustion reactions. Wwe champion of the arrhenius acid have permission to form hydroxide ion that. Material on a acidic properties in a weak base types of electrons are physical properties in the moon last property? Selected is used in lemon juice is used in meeting the balanced net ionic. Answer and bases, substances that bases have a large volume of acids have? Familiar with those of substances with bases have another salt created from your love of the other vitriols gave the. Compiled css to chemical properties of electricity
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Chemical resistance properties

Chemical resistance properties

The data are based on laboratory tests and practical experience and apply to standard -20°C and 65 % relative humidity- ambient conditions. Substantial deviations from the standard ambient conditions may cause changes in the chemical resistance of theindividual coatings, e.g. interaction of moisture and heat. Please enquire. We recommend testing chemical resist- ance

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A Comparative study on the impact of bio fertilizer and chemical

A Comparative study on the impact of bio fertilizer and chemical

* Corresponding- pratiktalukder@gmail.com Abstract: Vegetables are the integral part of the balanced diet of human since time immemorial. Globally, the role of vegetables has been recognized in solving the problem of food and nutritional security. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is an important vegetable crop of Malvaceae family, which supplies higher nutrition. The present study was intended at determining the importance of using organic bio fertilizers instead of harmful chemical fertilizers in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The requirements of fertilizers in Okra are important for the early growth and total production. Integrated use of organic bio fertilizers can improve crop productivity. The modern system of farming, it is increasingly felt, is becoming unsustainable as evidenced by declining crop productivities, damage to environment, chemical contaminations, etc. The necessity of having an alternative agriculture method which can function in a friendly eco-system while sustaining and increasing the crop productivity is realized now. The objective of the study was to assess the comparative effect of organic bio fertilizers and chemical fertilizers in terms of growth, nutrition value and secondary metabolite production. The result of this study clearly indicates the nutritional benefits of consuming vegetables grown by using bio fertilizers and also states how enhanced accumulation of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols are additionally adding to our health benefits.
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SCHOOL OF BIO AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF BIO AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Thiamin deficiency produces beriberi, a word from the Sinhalese meaning “extreme weakness.” The symptoms include spasms and rigidity of the legs, possible paralysis of a limb, personality disturbances, and depression. This disease became widespread in Asia in the 19th century because steam-powered rice mills produced polished rice, which lacked the vitamin-rich husk. A dietary deficiency was first suggested as the cause of beriberi in 1880 when a new diet was instituted for the Japanese navy. When fish, meat, barley, and vegetables were added to the sailor’s diet of polished rice, the incidence of beriberi in the navy was significantly reduced. In 1897 the Dutch physician Christiaan Eijkman was working in Java when he showed that fowl fed a diet of polished rice developed symptoms similar to beriberi. He was also able to demonstrate that unpolished rice in the diet prevented and cured the symptoms in fowl and humans. By 1912 a highly concentrated extract of the active ingredient was prepared by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk, who recognized that it belonged to a new class of essential foods called vitamins. Thiamin was isolated in 1926 and its chemical structure determined in 1936.
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