The differential equations that govern the particle mass and number concentration in each size section are solved using operator splitting. This technique has been widely used in large-scale atmospheric models and has the advantage of being considerably cheaper in CPU usage compared to the fully coupled solution. The accuracy of the operator split- ting depends on the length of the timestep used. A flowchart of the microphysical operations in GLOMAP is shown in Fig. 1. The TOMCAT model timestep is split into a num- ber of shorter subtimesteps that account for the time scales on which the different microphysical processes operate. The advection timestep is usually 1800s. This is split into NCTS timesteps (normally 2) over which the emissions and chem- istry are solved. This timestep is then further split into NMTS timesteps (normally 2) over which the aerosol micro- physics is solved. To accurately represent the competition between nucleation and condensation processes this micro- physics timestep is subdivided further into NNTS timesteps (normally 5) where condensation and nucleation are calcu- lated.
We develop a coupling technique for analyzing on-line models by using off-line models. This method is especially effective for a growth-deletion model which generalizes and includes the preferential attachment model for generating large complex networks that simulate numerous realistic networks. By coupling the on-linemodel with the off-linemodel for ran- dom power law graphs, we derive strong bounds for a number of graph properties including diameter, average distances, connected components and spectral bounds. For example, we prove that a power law graph gen- erated by the growth-deletion model almost surely has diameter O(log n) and average distance O (log log n ).
Abstract. In this paper, an off-line synthesis approach to robust constrained model predictive control for uncertain polytopic discrete-time systems is presented. Most of the computational burdens are moved off-line by pre-computing a sequence of state feedback control laws that corresponds to a sequence of polyhedral invariant sets. The state feedback control laws computed are derived by minimizing the nominal performance cost in order to improve control performance. At each sampling instant, the smallest polyhedral invariant set containing the currently measured state is determined. The corresponding state feedback control law is then implemented to the process. The controller design is illustrated with two examples in chemical processes. The proposed algorithm is compared with an ellipsoidal off-line robust model predictive control algorithm derived by minimizing the worst-case performance cost and an ellipsoidal off- line robust model predictive control algorithm derived by minimizing the nominal performance cost. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better control performance. Moreover, a significantly larger stabilizable region is obtained. Keywords: off-line, model predictive control, polyhedral invariant sets, nominal performance cost, chemical processes.
involvement etc. and theexperimentalresult shows that multiclass model for classifier with global inputs yields good classification accuracy. In India huge volumes of historical documents (handwritten or printed in Devanagarilanguage) remain to be digitized for better access, sharing etc. This will definitely be helpful for other research communities in India in the area of social sciences, economics and linguistics. The digitization of documents and their automatic processing would be easier than keying in the Devanagari text.As we mentioned above we have used robust feature extraction method and multi class model for SVM which gives higher classification accuracy. For further research work, the simplification of HOG using Local binary patterns for gradient and magnitude computation and the complex normalization can be replace by simple linearization, leading to significant saving of area cost without sacrificing too much detection rate and a new SimMSVM algorithm that directly solves a multiclass classification problem. The SimMSVM reduces the size of the dual variables from l*k to l, where l and k are the size of training data and number of classes, respectively. The new SimMSVM approach can greatly speed-up the training process and achieve competitive or better classification accuracies.
An 8T SRAM cell contains two inverters, one inverter (M1-M3) and another one (M2-M4), which are linked mutually. Single-ended write operation is performed with the help of Access transistors (M5, M6)  and Single-ended read operation is performed by us- ing two NMOS transistors (M7, M8). The write bit line bar, write bit line and write word line (WBLB, WBL, WWL) are used for ac- complishing write operation. For achieving the read operation, a read word line (RWL) and a read bit line (RBL) are used. In this cell both read and write operations can be performed at sub-thresh- old region to an operating voltage at 0.1V.The structure of the pro- posed 8T SRAM cell is shown in Fig 2.
The basic idea of this approach is to merge the off-line cutting condition optimization algorithm and adaptive force control (Fig. 1). Based on this new, combined control system, very complicated processes can be controlled more easily and accu- rately compared to standard approaches. The ob- jective of the developed combined control system is keeping the metal removal rate (MRR) as high as possible and maintaining the cutting force as close as possible to a given reference value. The com- bined control system is automatically adjusted to instant cutting conditions by adaptation of the feedrate. When spindle loads are low, the system increases feeds above and beyond pre-programmed values, resulting in considerable reductions in the machining time and production costs. When spin- dle loads are high the feedrates are lowered, safe- guarding the cutting tool from damage and break- age. When the system detects extreme forces, it au- tomatically stops the machine to protect the cutting tool. This reduces the need for constant operator supervision. The sequence of steps for on-line opti- mization of the milling process is presented below. 1. The recommended cutting conditions are determined
9283:1998. Since the positional output of the robot encoders can be inaccurate due to deviations of the kinematic parameters , an ex- ternal measurement system was used: an absolute laser tracker Leica AT901b . The AT model available in our laboratory can only measure three degrees of freedom (DoF) and thus cannot be used to measure the orientation path accuracy. ISO 9283 prescribes four al- ternative paths which can be used to characterise a robot ’ s path accu- racy: a straight line, a rectangular path and two circular paths. The rectangular path was chosen since it is the morphologically closest to the scan path used to scan the leading edge skin panel. The followed path is shown in Fig. 8. As prescribed by ISO 9283, the robot ’ s Tool Centre Point (TCP) moved along the rectangular path at three override speeds: 10%, 50% and 100% of the rated velocity. Ten cycles were performed as required by the standard. The laser tracker acquired continuous readings of a Tool Ball Reﬂector (TBR) mounted at the TCP of the robot with time separation between readings being 1 ms, which is the highest acquisition rate of the AT901 sensor. Robot transmitted the command and the actual coordinates via Ethernet RSI interface to an Fig. 1. Riveted ﬁxed leading edge skin panel made from AL-2014A-T4.
during the on-line phase. The generation of the required signature is performed efficiently during the on-line phase by using the stored computation of the off-line phase. Based on Even et al scheme, Shamir and Tauman  proposed an improved on-line/off-line signature scheme by introducing the hash-sign-switch paradigm. Their scheme is based on an ordinary digital signature scheme, in which the size of the signature is reduced, compared with Even et al scheme. Shamir and Tauman in  suggest that some signature schemes such as Schnorr, Fiat–Shamir, and ElGamal signature schemes [13, 14, 15] can be efficiently partitioned into on- line/off-line schemes. A generic threshold on-line/off-line digital signature scheme was introduced by Crutchfield et al in  which largely reduced the size of the generated signature by using the chameleon hash function but it needs 2t + 1 out of n players to cooperate in generating a valid signature. In , the authors present a certificateless Online/Offline Signature (CLOOS) Scheme and give a tight security reduction to the Gap Diffie-Hellman problem in the random oracle model. This scheme suffers from the high computation overhead compared to other schemes. In , J. Kar proposes a secure and efficient online/off-line signature scheme for WSN. The scheme is secure against existential forgery on chosen message attack in random oracle model under the assumption of Computational Diffie- Hellman Problem (CDH) is hard. However, their paper lack comparisons with other schemes regarding the computation overhead. In this paper an elliptic curve threshold on-line/off-line signature scheme for IOT is presented. To generate a valid signature in our scheme, it needs a collaboration of only t + 1 out of n players. The scheme is suitable for distributed networks such as IOT networks where there is no trusted administration authority available. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme is more efficient compared with the one phase elliptic curve threshold signature scheme in terms of memory size and timing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: The system model and definitions are presented in Section II. Section III provides the scheme description of our proposed scheme. The security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented in Section IV. Section V provides the efficiency analysis of our proposed scheme and then the simulation results of the proposed scheme is presented in Section VI. Finally Section VII concludes the paper..
. explicitly draw attention to the process by which re¯ective practice can be undertaken. By using their power as a lecturer and making use of the psychosocial science list compulsory, the tutor in the second case study may have engaged some of her students in a `disabling dialogue' that may have hindered the potential for facilitating re¯ection. Some students in both case studies expressed ignorance regarding the purpose and relevance of the discussion list (see Tables 1 and 4). It is possible, therefore, that re¯ective thinking could be facilitated further if both tutors made the goals, purposes and expectations of using the discussion lists a lot more explicit. Placing such information in strategic places around the tutorial or posting messages to the discussion list at strategic times during the discussion could do this. One of the ways in which Brockbank and McGill argue that teachers can draw attention to the re¯ective process, is by modelling it. For the tutors in the two case studies, it is possible that they could model the re¯ective process by taking a more active part in the discussion list and posting responses that highlighted ways in which students could create meaning from the experience. This would have to be done very sensitively so that, students did not feel threatened by the tutor's `superior' knowledge.
Abstract. A modified corner line features based off-line signature verification method proposed for Uyghur handwritten signature in this paper. The signature images were preprocessed according to the nature of Uyghur signature. Then 3 types of corner line features and modified corner curve features were extracted separately. Experiments were performed using Euclidean distance classifier and non-linear SVM classifier for Uyghur signature samples from 150 genuine signatures, 72 random and skilled forgeries are selected from our Uyghur handwritten signature database. Experiments indicate that the MCLF-48 with training 75 samples has obtained 2.16% of FRR and 2.27% of FAR with none-linear SVM classifier. It was concluded that modified corner line features based verification method can capture the nature of Uyghur signature and its writing style more efficiently.
Recently someone asked me a question that if there is so much of online connectivity/Wi-Fi/Data Cards available now a days then why do we need off-line solution and for s ome strange reason(we will talk bit later on those reasons) we do need to have that solution, then what is the best off-line solution for my field force. Well, that made us think because each industry has different requirement and similarly on the technology front we have many options wit h different cost to pay for development, support and changes.
In , Eslami et al. presented an untraceable off- line anonymous electronic cash system based on cryptographic techniques such as ElGamal and blind signatures. Eslami and Talebi in  achieved the off- line property of e-cash system by the use of an expi- ration date for e-coins. Since the authors have used ElGamal functions as one of the key elements for the system, the security of e-wallet relied on the discrete logarithm problem and factoring problem.
To cope with the required computation time constraints, we propose a very simple but efficient heuristic algorithm that generates a number of randomized solutions. The algorithm consists in performing a fixed number of iterations (maxIterations) in which one solution is built from a randomly sorted set of demands (lines 2-5 in Table 8-1). Next, k shortest routes are computed for each demand (line 6-7), which are afterwards sorted in decreasing slot width order (line 8). For each route, the larger available slot (considering both continuous free slices and available resources at end nodes) is selected and the restored bitrate is updated (lines 10-13). In case that the demand can be totally restored, the corresponding lightpath is allocated on graph G to prevent that these resources are used by subsequent restoration lightpaths. The lightpath is finally added to the solution being built (lines 14-18) and the algorithm continues with the next demand. In case that the demand can be only partially restored, we need to consider two options. Firstly, if multipath is allowed, the lightpath is allocated, added to the solution, and new lightpaths are considered, provided that the number of lightpaths already used does not exceeded the given limit (lines 19-25). Secondly, if bitrate squeezing is allowed, the lightpath is allocated and added to the solution (lines 26-30). Otherwise, the demand cannot be restored and it is blocked (lines 31-32).
Handwritten signatures are behavioural biometric traits that are known to incorporate a con- siderable amount of intra-class variability. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been suc- cessfully employed in many off-line signature verification (SV) systems due to the sequential nature and variable size of the signature data. In particular, the left-to-right topology of HMMs is well adapted to the dynamic characteristics of occidental handwriting, in which the hand movements are always from left to right. As with most generative classifiers, HMMs require a considerable amount of training data to achieve a high level of generalization performance. Unfortunately, the number of signature samples available to train an off-line SV system is very limited in practice. Moreover, only random forgeries are employed to train the system, which must in turn to discriminate between genuine samples and random, simple and skilled forgeries during operations. These last two forgery types are not available during the training phase. The approaches proposed in this Thesis employ the concept of multi-classifier systems (MCS) based on HMMs to learn signatures at several levels of perception. By extracting a high number of features, a pool of diversified classifiers can be generated using random subspaces, which overcomes the problem of having a limited amount of training data.
Subsequently, the same task was executed on the desk strapped with Mondial Slim Beauty Fitness Massager (100V – 240AC50/60HZ) belt in columns labelled as “With vibration 1” and “With vibration 2” (V) for the vibrational condition as shown in Figure 1. In order to simulate just sufficient effect of vibrations to the writing surface without letting the form fall off, the belt was set “low” throughout the experiment. The entire experimental procedures under normal and vibrational conditions impact were performed on a single session for two repeats in each task. The demographic information of the participants (gender and handedness) were also recorded in the form. A sample of handwritings under both (V) and (N) conditions are written by the same individual is as shown in Figure 2. Note that the style of writing differs despite being written by the same individual.
Crucible transpiles a topology described in the DSL into idiomatic Java based on the Crucible PE Model (the bottom layer of Figure 4.1). This is in contrast to many other JVM languages, such as Scala , which directly compile into unreadable bytecode. Compiler support is used to provide syntactic sugar for accessing global shared state and the security labelling mechanism, which are discussed in more detail in Section 4.1.3. The Code Generation component noted in Figure 4.1 is responsible for this transpilation process. It is built on the XText Java Model Inferrer, which uses the syntax description (as listed in Appendix A) to generate a parser and abstract syntax tree (AST) generator. This AST is supplied to code implemented in Crucible for gathering tuple types through XBase’s type inference, and generating Java classes in accordance with the description above. The result of this process is a series of Java classes which inherit from PEDefinition and interact with the internal Crucible Java API, shown in Figure 4.2. These classes turn the various Crucible keywords described above into class fields and methods – eﬀectively generating for the user the verbose Java “scaﬀolding” which Crucible avoids. For example, the 87-line sample Crucible file in Listing 4.1 is transpiled to 560 lines of Java across four separate classes; to give a sense of the complexity of these classes, the class representing the Filter PE consists of 10 fields and 14 public methods.
This thesis is concerned with the developm ent o f a generic condition m onitoring technique tha t can be applied to a w ide range o f pneum atic and electric powered passenger train doors. For this reason, an initial theoretical analysis o f a powered train d o o r was discounted, since any m athem atical m odel representing a specific type o f d o o r would not be valid fo r different powered train doors. A nother reason to discount the theoretical analysis and m odelling o f powered train doors was sim ply due to the com plexity o f the system. A m athem atical model probably could have been developed, however the results w ould have required extensive verification and calibration through com parison with practical data. In o rd e r fo r any model to be sufficiently accurate to use as a benchm ark fo r a condition m onitoring technique, it w ould need to be highly detailed, which w ould p robably result in a non-generic solution that could not sim ply be m odified fo r use on different powered train d o o r systems.
It has been shown that DCT features are effective in recognizing and classifying the Arabic character. However, employing hybrid features in off –line Arabic character recognition has shown promising results which increases the recognition rate. Further investigations will explore the use of hybrid features in word recognition, and use other classifiers such as the hidden Markov models (HMM), radial bassis function (RBF), and the Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN).