oil and grease (FOG)

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Characterization of Grease Interceptors for Removing Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) and Mechanisms of FOG Deposit Formation in Sewer Systems.

Characterization of Grease Interceptors for Removing Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) and Mechanisms of FOG Deposit Formation in Sewer Systems.

Fat, oil and grease (FOG) in wastewater create problems including the production of foul odors, interference with proper operation of wastewater treatment works and the blockage of sewer lines leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Fifty percent of SSOs occur as a result of line blockings with the largest source of these blockages (47%) attributed to FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer lines (U.S. EPA 2004). SSOs can potentially release high pathogens, nutrients, and solids loadings that result in harm to public health and the environment. Many microbial species have been found to have abilities to degrade oil (Quek et al., 2006; Sadouk et al., 2009; Nisola et al., 2009; Zhou and Shen, 2010). Bioaugmentation has also demonstrated its advantage in oil degradation in contaminated soil (Hua et al., 2010). Multi-species bioaugmentation products have successfully reduced FOG in wastewater in lab scale and demonstrated their potential to minimize FOG accumulation and blockages in sewer lines (Brooksbank et al., 2007). However, there is no previous research on the microbial communities in full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), the first “line of defense” preventing the FOG from entering the sewer lines. In addition, the effect of bioaugmentation on the microbial communities in full-scale GIs has not been reported.

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Solvent debinding variables on leaching fat, oil and grease (FOG) derivatives of green part stainless steel SS316L metal injection moulding

Solvent debinding variables on leaching fat, oil and grease (FOG) derivatives of green part stainless steel SS316L metal injection moulding

FT-IR stands for Fourier Transform InfraRed, the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. In infrared spectroscopy, IR radiation is passed through a sample. Some of the infrared radiation is absorbed by the sample and some of it is passed through (transmitted). The resulting spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmission, creating a molecular fingerprint of the sample. Fig 8 shows the analysis of the green part as compare to PP copolymer and also FOG derivatives[14], [15]. As can be seen that FOG derivatives has several characteristic between regions of 1500cm -1 to 3000cm -1 . In Fig

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR FISH PROCESSING WASTEWATER

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR FISH PROCESSING WASTEWATER

Hypersaline effluents are generated by various industrial activities such as seafood processing, vegetable canning, and pickling, tanning and chemical manufacturing. This wastewater, rich in both organic matter and total dissolved solids, is difficult to treat using conventional biological wastewater treatment processes (Ludzack and Noran, 1965). Saline wastewater biological treatment systems usually result in low BOD removal because of the adverse effects of salt on the microbial flora. High salt concentrations cause plasmolysis or loss of activity of cells. So an efficient treatment process for these saline wastewaters has to be considered since conventional wastewater treatment processes will not give better results with saline wastewater. Lipids (characterized as oils ,grease, fats and long-chain fatty acids) are important organic components of wastewater. Carawan et al.(1979) reported the FOG values foe herring, tuna, salmon and catfish processing were 60-800mg/l, 250mg/l,20-550mg/l and 200mg/l respectively. The behavior of lipids in biological treatment systems has led to many studies, which have evaluated their removal, but still the exact behavior of lipids in these processes is not well understood. The main components of fish processing wastewater are lipids and protein (Gonzalez, 1996). The Fat, oil and grease (FOG) should be removed from wastewater because it usually floats on the water’s surface and affects the oxygen transfer to water.

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Establish In-House: A Pre-treatment Method of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) in Kitchen Wastewater for Safe Disposal

Establish In-House: A Pre-treatment Method of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) in Kitchen Wastewater for Safe Disposal

The results revealed that the flow rate and sampling time factors contributed mainly in the removal of FOG. Moreover, the optimum operation for the removal efficiency percentage was varied with each factor separately and as combined factors. The collected data were analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA, p<0.05). The independent factors which included flow rate values (8 L/min – 12 L/min) and sampling time (8.00 am – 2.00 pm), were selected in order to examine the comprehensive factors which might have effects on the reduction of FOG concentration in the water sample. The regression coefficients for reducing FOG in the kitchen wastewater at the end of the treatment process are presented in Table 3. The effect of flow rate factor was considered strong significant at P-value <0.01 and 99% of the confidence level and the sampling time P-value is > 0.05 and indicate the sampling time has no significant effect on the removal the FOG in the wastewater.

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The Development Of An Active Grease Trap For Domestic Application

The Development Of An Active Grease Trap For Domestic Application

Every day, tons of waste were been produced by residential kitchens, stalls and restaurants. On the same hand, usually, solid waste can be collected and managed into trash bins which later would be dumped properly and accordingly at the authorized dumping site. On the other hand, the liquid waste is harder to retained and disposed. More often than not, these types of waste are being discarded into the municipal sewage line and end up polluting the underground soil and water. In addition, this liquid waste which usually contaminated with “yellow grease” comprises of fat, oil and grease (FOG) in which worsen the situation by floating on top of the wastewater (Services, 2004). Hence, not allowing the oxygen to neither get into or out from the wastewater. Besides that, there are also fine solid wastes, lubricant and emulsifier agent like soap that only lengthen the retention time for oil- based waste and contaminated the water by forming a layer which stop the oxygenation of the wastewater. An accumulated FOG inside the pipeline or sewage system would congeal over the time which could cause the blockage in the system and the waste would back-up into the sink or manhole (Services, 2004).

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Treatment of Automobile Service Station Wastewater by Coagulation and Activated Sludge Process

Treatment of Automobile Service Station Wastewater by Coagulation and Activated Sludge Process

of different types of vehicle. In the existing facility 2 to 3 vehicles are serviced on rotation basis. The washing is done by spraying high pressure water jets through nozzle guided by compressor motor assembly. Usually 2 - 3 kilo litres of water is used per day for washing of 2 to 3 nos. of vehicle. Grease gun is used to trigger lubricants to different parts of the vehicles as a routine procedure. Each garage unit is facilitated with one washing bay. For washing purpose, vehicles are aligned on the bay and high pressure water jet is sprayed on the vehicles. The washed wastewater is then drained to municipal sewerage system through the washing bay. The washing bay is made of cement concrete platform. The spent water containing dirts, oils and other solids is drained through gutters and then collected in a pit. The whole content of the raw effluent is led to the municipal drainage system through overflow system.

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SET-UP FOR GREASE FILLING MACHINE

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SET-UP FOR GREASE FILLING MACHINE

As the piston of the power cylinder is operated using the lever operating mechanism, due to the advantage of leverage the piston is reciprocated inside the vertical cylinder. During the upward motion of the piston, the partial vacuum is created inside the cylinder to fill up this vacuum non-return valve installed at the bottom of the cylinder will open towards the inside in the cylinder and the grease is sucked in the cylinder. During downward motion of the piston the massive pressure is exerted on the surface of the grease. As the grease is incompressible,its pressure will increase. As the pressure of grease exceeds the spring tension of the non-return valve no2 and valve no3 which opens out of the cylinder, it will open and pressurized grease is allowed to flow in the header pipe on which the valves and the pressure gauge are installed. This high pressure grease will enter the valve and pressure gauges and fill the grease in required position.

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Lignocellulosic fiber media filters as a potential technology for primary industrial wastewater treatment

Lignocellulosic fiber media filters as a potential technology for primary industrial wastewater treatment

oil and emulsion by charge neutralization mechanism. The physico-chemical properties of chitosan related to the presence of amine functions make it very efficient for binding metal cations in near neutral solutions, and for interacting with anionic solutes in acidic POME solution. This electrostatic attraction mechanism is responsible for the strong interaction existing of chitosan. Consequently, the cationic chitosan can easily coagulate with the anionic POME waste. This natural coagulant used has a high molecular weight, high cationic charge and large polymeric molecules. Coagulation is a well-established process in water treatment to remove suspended particles by combining small particles into larger aggregates [20 – 21]

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Supplementation of different fat sources affects growth performance and carcass composition of finishing pigs

Supplementation of different fat sources affects growth performance and carcass composition of finishing pigs

Commercial sources of dietary fats from the Midwest of the United States were obtained and analyzed for fatty acid profile prior to diet preparation (Table 1). In Exp. 1, 5 dietary treatments for each phase were formulated (Table 2): a control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no addition of dietary fats and 4 additional diets by adding 3% SBO, 6% SBO, 3% CWG, or 6% CWG in each phase, respectively. In Exp. 2, 6 dietary treatments for each phase were formulated (Table 3): the control diet that was same as that in Exp. 1 and 5 additional diets by adding 6% SBO, 6% CWG, 6% palm oil, 6% animal-vegetable blend (AVB), or 6% tallow in each phase, respectively. The experimental diets used in each phase were formulated to meet or exceed all nutrient re- quirements of finishing pigs according to the Nutrient Requirements of Swine [11] and to have equivalent stan- dardized ileal digestible lysine per Mcal of metabolizable energy. No antibiotic growth promoters were used and all diets were provided in a meal form.

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Performance of powdered and granular sugarcane bagasse activated carbon in removing pollutants of car wash wastewater

Performance of powdered and granular sugarcane bagasse activated carbon in removing pollutants of car wash wastewater

Panizza et al., (2005) have summarized the use of surfactants as the cleaning agent for car washing purposes. Surfactant comprising of water-soluble (hydrophilic) and a water-insoluble (hydrophobic) component. As a result of this structure, the molecules of surfactants align themselves and surrounds the oil and grease (O&G) droplets with a layer of surfactant molecule to enable the water soluble coating to remove the dirts (Zaneti et al., 2011). Generally, synthetic detergents used for cars washing are anionic surfactants as (MBAS). Kuokkanen et al., (2013) has 96 mg/L MBAS, higher than Baddor et al., (2014) and Shahbazi et al., (2013), with 32 mg/L and 24 mg/L respectively. The MBAS with high chemical contents of Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) might surround the O&G droplets with a layer of MBAS molecules to give them a water soluble coating. Hence, failed to have less values in effluent (Yasin et al., 2012).

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Investigation of methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of food waste, fats, oil & grease, and thickened waste activated sludge using Automatic Methane Potential Test System

Investigation of methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of food waste, fats, oil & grease, and thickened waste activated sludge using Automatic Methane Potential Test System

Food waste and waste cooking oil (FOG) used in the study were obtained from the University of Southern Queensland Refectory, Toowoomba, Australia. The food waste comprised of a mixture of chips, bacon, fruits and their peals, and bread. It was grinded to form a slurry. FOG used in this study was mainly Canola oil. Thickened waste activated sludge was obtained from the Wetalla Wastewater Treatment plant in Toowoomba. The inoculum was obtained from the pond at a piggery farm located in Lockyer Valley in Queensland, Australia. A bio-medium, which provides essential micro-nutrients and macro- nutrients to microbes, was prepared and added to each of the AMPTS bottles at the start of experiments along with substrates and inoculum.

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Comparative Study of Seasonal Variations in Bio Corrosion of Steel Coupons in New Calabar River and Ndoni River Aquatic Systems of the Niger Delta

Comparative Study of Seasonal Variations in Bio Corrosion of Steel Coupons in New Calabar River and Ndoni River Aquatic Systems of the Niger Delta

A 10-ml portion of the water sample was shaken with 10-ml of toluene in a separator funnel. The hydrocarbon grease and oil content was then determined by the absorbance of the extract at 420nm in a spectrophotometer. A standard curve of the absorbance of different known concentration of equal amount of crude oil and grease in the extractant was first drawn after taking reading from the spectrophotometer. Oil and grease concentrations in the water were then calculated after reading the optical density of the extract from the spectrophotometer. The standard curve was used to estimate the oil and grease concentration after multiplying by an appropriate dilution factor. All other parameters such as Sulphate, Sulphite, Total Organic Carbon, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Salinity, Chloride, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand were determined employing methods from APHA (2000). Total Dissolved Solids by gravimetric method, Sulphite by Iodometric method, Sulphate by Turbidimetric method, Chloride and Salinity by Argentometric method, Total Organic Carbon by Rapid Oxidation method, Biochemical Oxygen Demand by modified Winkler method, Total Suspended Solids by Gravimetric method.

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Pilot Scale Biological Treatment as Pre Treatment for Reverse Osmosis

Pilot Scale Biological Treatment as Pre Treatment for Reverse Osmosis

One-month trail runs were performed wherein treated effluent from SBR is fed to reverse osmosis. The results were promising with the higher end removal of TDS, COD and ammonia recorded as 96%, 88.62% and 87.50% respectively. Meagre studies are found in context of integrated treatment using SBR followed by RO especially for treating pharmaceutical wastewaters. Gangavarapu et al. , 2015 [42] conducted a study on medium scale active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing industry that adopted recycling process through zero liquid dis- charge system. They reported the flow of effluent treatment process consisted of multi-effect evaporator followed by sequencing batch reactor which is concluded by reverse osmosis. They achieved reduction in total dissolved solids, total sus- pended solids and biological oxygen demand in the order of 99.2, 100 and 100 percent respectively. A combination of membrane sequencing batch reactor with reverse osmosis has achieved 90.9% reduction in chemical oxygen demand, 92% of total organic carbon and 91.5% of oil and grease from produced water of oil and gas field [43].

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Preparation and Variation in Initial Viscosity of MR Fluid

Preparation and Variation in Initial Viscosity of MR Fluid

Abstract: Magneto rheological (MR) Fluid is fluids, whose apparent viscosity increase with application of magnetic field. The apparent yield strength of these fluids can be changed significantly within milliseconds by the application of an external magnetic field. MR Fluids have become very popular s smart materials due to its convertible properties. A very beneficial fluid for engineers and scientist engaged in design of shock absorbers, dampers, brakes, clutches and engine mounts. A MR Fluid consists of three major components including magnetic particles, carrier liquid and additives. This research work presents the preparation of MR Fluid which can be easily prepared by mixing synthic oil as carrier liquid, grease as additives and iron powder as magnetic particles in determined proportion. An experiment is conducted which shows the variation in initial viscosity (viscosity without application of magnetic field) of MR FLUID with different content percentage of magnetic particles. The aim is to provide a basic understanding of MR Fluid preparation and variation in initial viscosity to the readers.

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Performance Analysis Of Oil Skimmer For Grease Trap System To Shorten The Retention Time

Performance Analysis Of Oil Skimmer For Grease Trap System To Shorten The Retention Time

The conventional techniques found by abstract oil and grease utilizing skimming tanks and oil and grease traps in treatment plants but the main disadvantage of these methods is their low efficiency of abstraction. Altogether sort of grease trap regularly uses the similar physics where densities show a vibrant character where the grease is lighter than water and drive rise to the upper once the mixture is allowable to settle for some time (also called retention time) (Nidzamuddin et al., 2015). However, a grease trap which designed to hold the grease within its separation chamber/compartment constantly reducing its working volume and hence its ability to allow separation required retention time will reduce (Aziz, 2010). This will decrease the productivity of the oil and more FOG will go through the oil trap then flow into the waste water sewer pipes system.

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Design and Fabrication of A Pedal-Operated Floor Mopping Machine

Design and Fabrication of A Pedal-Operated Floor Mopping Machine

Automatic floor scrubbers, also known as auto scrubbers, are a type of floor cleaning machine that are used to scrub a floor clean of light debris, dust, oil, grease or floor marks. These machines have either rotary(disk) or cylindrical scrubbing head and an automated system for dispensing cleaning solution and then vacuuming it up. So, in one pass over the floor, a user can dispense cleaning, scrub it into the floor, then vacuum it all up with an auto scrubber squeegee attachment at the back of the machine. Auto scrubbers have a separate dispensing (solution tank) tank and a collection(recovery tank) tank to keep the clean water from the dirty water and can be categorized into one of two main types: walk behind or riding. Floor Scrubbers are a more hygienic alternative to traditional cleaning methods such as a mop and bucket.

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Environmental Impact of Idol Immersion on Tapti River of Multai, Distt. Betul, MP, India

Environmental Impact of Idol Immersion on Tapti River of Multai, Distt. Betul, MP, India

The Immersion of Idol of Lord Ganesh and Durga during Ganesh Utasav and Navratri festival is a major cause of contamination of Tapti River Betul, which originates from the kund popularly known as Tapti pond. Idols are made of clay alongwith non bio-degradable thermocol and paints containing heavy metals and other toxic compounds. The immersion practices resulted in degradation of water quality apart from siltation. The parameters like turbidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD), bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), oil and grease have been studied in Tapti ponds of Multai to assess the impact of idol immersion on water quality of the pond and subsequently on the river. Parameter like turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) depicted higher values after immersion of the idols.

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Factors Affecting the Formation of Fats, Oils, and Grease Deposits in Sewer Systems and Fate of Fog Deposit Forming Precursors in Sewer Systems

Factors Affecting the Formation of Fats, Oils, and Grease Deposits in Sewer Systems and Fate of Fog Deposit Forming Precursors in Sewer Systems

The proposed overall mechanism reveals several interesting questions. First, it is apparent that free fatty acids, and not the free oil, is the primary reactant in the saponification reaction. It appears that the type of free fatty acid determines the structure (e.g., stickiness, hardness) of the FOG deposit. Thus, some types of food will contribute to a more problematic FOG deposit than other food types. How this will result in operation and or monitoring of specific food service establishments is an interesting question. For example, if certain types of food/cuisines are known to have high levels of a specific fatty acid, will those food service establishments be subject to more stringent monitoring or regulations? This appears to be a challenging regulatory situation, and more research is necessary to confirm these results and understand the underlying mechanisms. Second, the release of calcium from concrete (or calcium arising from hardness in wastewater) needs to be examined in detail. It is plausible that microbial activity not only assists in hydrolysis of oil to free fatty acids, but also may play a role in inducing concrete corrosion. The low pH in GIs (as a result of fermentation and acidification processes) also plays a role. Known sulfur oxidizing and sulfate reducing bacteria play a role in crown corrosion of sewers, and may also be important factors in releasing calcium from concrete. Third, other reactions, e.g., the formation of free radicals, may also assist in oil rancidification processes. These free radicals can occur from various reactions that may also be present in the GI and sewer

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OIL AND GREASE CONTAMINATION OF EUPHRATES RIVER

OIL AND GREASE CONTAMINATION OF EUPHRATES RIVER

Oil is a natural product which results from plant remains fossilized over millions of years, under marine conditions. It is not surprising, therefore, that all components of oil are readily biodegradable by bacteria, although different components degrade at different rates, tars being one of the slowest. When oil is spilled on water body, being light, it is spreads over the surface as a slick. The lighter components, which are also often the most toxic, either evaporate or dissolve in the water. Immiscible components become emulsified and dispersed in the water, while heavy residues form tar balls. The immiscible fraction forms a water-in-oil emulsion called" chocolate mousse", which contains about 75 per cent water. This forms sticky brown masses when it comes ashore and causes major problems on tourist beaches and river banks (Kiely, 1997).

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Design & Development Of Oil Disposal System For Grease Trap Using PUGH Method

Design & Development Of Oil Disposal System For Grease Trap Using PUGH Method

The main problems that occur in this project, is that there is no other designs such as mechanical passive grease trap that dispose oil automatically. Around the world, there are no grease trap with automatic disposal to be designed or made. So, as the solution to this sort of problem, the design will be made to build this kind of grease trap that can be used in small restaurants.

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