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Securing transnational oil: 
Energy transit states in the Malacca strait

Securing transnational oil: Energy transit states in the Malacca strait

Though these indicate support for protecting international shipping in a general sense, they also have implications for seaborne oil trading. The ISPS Code, for instance, as the first international security standard for maritime infrastructure, applies to facilities involved with transporting crude and refined oil by sea just as much as containerised (and other) cargo. In a similar manner, Singapore’s efforts through the PSI to coordinate the SAF with its diplomatic and intelligence agencies, its law enforcement, maritime and aviation authorities, as well as industry actors, are not only useful for preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction 154 but strengthen its overall capability to respond to incidents at sea. Singapore has also sought to reduce environmental vulnerabilities related to its oil sector and maritime logistics. It is phasing out the use of single hull oil tankers (which its bunkering firms regularly use) in accordance with the IMO’s 2005 Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973/1978 (MARPOL). 155 Singapore was one of the first countries in the world to begin using ultra low sulphur fuels to meet MARPOL ship exhaust requirements and ISO 8217 marine fuel
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Securing transnational oil: 
Energy transit states in the Malacca strait

Securing transnational oil: Energy transit states in the Malacca strait

energy transit state’ and the ‘rising energy transit state.’ I find that the three countries under review have markedly different stakes in Middle East-East Asia oil flows, and that this has shaped the scope of their agendas as well as the intensity of their security cooperation. In addition, I find that competition among the three has also been

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Energy return on investment, peak oil, and the end of economic growth

Energy return on investment, peak oil, and the end of economic growth

For the economy of the United States and al- most every other nation, the prospects for future, oil-based economic growth are bleak. Maintaining the status quo of growth economics based on an oil energy base is simply not possible for more than a decade or two at most, presuming that trade lines and international politics remain amenable. For the United States, which is currently in the deepest re- cession since the Great Depression, it seems highly unlikely that oil production can increase enough, for a long enough period of time, to grow the economy from this recession, let alone any future recessions. Furthermore, even if oil production can increase in the near term, the price of oil needed to maintain that production will be high enough on its own to incite a recession. Taken together, it seems clear that the economic growth of the past 40 years will not continue for the next 40 years unless there is some remarkable change in how we manage our economy.
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Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Vegetable Oil Refinery

Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Vegetable Oil Refinery

Energy and exergy analysis was conducted for a vegetable oil refinery in the Southwest of Nigeria. The plant, powered by two boilers and a 500 kVA generator, refines 100 tonnes of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) into edible vegetable oil per day. The production system consists of four main group operations: neutralizer, bleacher, filter, and deodorizer. The performance of the plant was evaluated by considering energy and exergy losses of each unit operation of the production process. The energy intensity for processing 100 tonnes of palm kennel oil into edible oil was estimated as 487.04 MJ/tonne with electrical energy accounting for 4.65%, thermal energy, 95.23% and manual energy, 0.12%. The most energy intensive group operation was the deodorizer accounting for 56.26% of the net energy input. The calculated exergy efficiency of the plant is 38.6% with a total exergy loss of 29,919 MJ. Consequently, the exergy analysis revealed that the deodorizer is the most inefficient group operation accounting for 52.41% of the losses in the production processes. Furthermore, a critical look at the different component of the plant revealed that the boilers are the most inefficient units accounting for 69.7% of the overall losses. Other critical points of exergy losses of the plant were also identified. The increase in the total capacity of the plant was suggested in order to reduce the heating load of the boilers. Furthermore, the implementation of appropriate process heat integration can also help to improve the energy efficiency of the system. The suggestion may help the company to reduce its high expenditure on energy and thus improve the profit margin. Keywords: Vegetable Oil Refining; Crude Palm Kernel Oil; Energy; Exergy; Irreversibility
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Saint-Gobain Oil & Gas Group. Partnering for energy progress

Saint-Gobain Oil & Gas Group. Partnering for energy progress

Specialty Refractories: The Specialty Refractories business unit of Saint-Gobain Ceramics has been supplying complete refractory linings to gasifiers for more than 50 years, and has been a market leader since the late 1970s in supplying products to gasification refractories, which produce synthesis gas from low or negative-value carbon feedstocks such as coal, petroleum, coke, high sulfur fuel oil and materials otherwise disposed as waste. In addition to the products listed at left, the company offers services that include supervision of refractory installation, technical support for lining inspection and problem solving.
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Fossil energy: From conventional oil and gas to the shale revolution

Fossil energy: From conventional oil and gas to the shale revolution

Summary. — The fossil fuels have provided more than 80% of the total energy con- sumption for more than 100 years; although in perspective renewables are expected to be the fastest growing energy sources, it is likely that fossil fuels will dominate energy use at least through 2050. This is still due to the increased worldwide need for energy, to their superior energy intensity and reliability and to the very huge numbers that underline world exposition to fossil fuels, not easily substitutable. A few brief considerations, regarding the chain of production, transport and use of the energy carriers, make us realize that the success that oil has had as an energy source cannot be attributed only to its great availability and the relatively cheap price but also to the ease with which liquid hydrocarbon derivatives can be transported, stored and distributed for their final use. In fact, their liquid state enables their energy density per unit of volume to be optimized, and this has great advantages especially for the storage and the distribution of the carrier. This does not mean that there are not challenges and dilemmas in the exploitation of conventional reserves, such as for example the decline of great reservoirs for lacking of suitable technology and reservoir management, the increased produced water from oil reservoirs and related management and the need to cope with the issue of climate change due to the CO 2
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Oil Equipment, Services & Distribution [0570] Alternative Energy [0580]

Oil Equipment, Services & Distribution [0570] Alternative Energy [0580]

Real estate investment trusts or corporations (REITs) or listed property trusts (LPTs) that primarily invest in office, industrial and flex properties. 8672 Retail REITs Real estate inv[r]

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Free Energy Trade: Time to Lift the Oil Export Ban

Free Energy Trade: Time to Lift the Oil Export Ban

There would be trade benefits as well. In fact, as shown in Figure 1, expanded crude production in the United States has already cut America’s oil import sub- stantially. Crude oil imports have steadily declined since 2008, reducing wealth transfers from the United States to other countries and keeping several billion dollars home for investment. One study GAO reviewed estimated that removing crude oil export restrictions would improve the U.S. trade balance by $72 to $101 billion per year over the next 15-years. 8 Also promising from a trade standpoint is

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Do Crude Oil Prices Affect Energy Consumption in Nigeria?

Do Crude Oil Prices Affect Energy Consumption in Nigeria?

GDP per capita (constant 2005 US$), Inflation (consumer prices- annual %), domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP) and the ratio of total trade (export and import) to GDP are included in this study to control for economic conditions in the level of macroeconomic performance, financial sector development and openness of the economy to international trade. As the economy is growing, it demands more energy for economic, technological and social activities [5]). Higher levels of economic growth could therefore be interpreted to mean more economic activities and higher level of energy consumption. On the other hand, a lower level of economic growth could indicate a lower level of economic activities and energy consumption in the economy. The level of inflation in the economy measures the degree of macroeconomic uncertainty in a country. While financial sector development could influence the energy substitution habit of households and firms in the economy by making it easier for them to access credit, international trade allows them access to both energy consuming and efficient products, all of which could alter the level of energy consumption in the economy [5]. Definition of all the variables and data sources is provided in Table 1.
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Analysis Of Algae Oil As A Future Source Of Energy In Indian Outlook

Analysis Of Algae Oil As A Future Source Of Energy In Indian Outlook

In this paper, we have assessed several techniques and methods for the culture of algal oil and in addition, we have experimented several harvesting and extraction methods of algal oil. Of the various culture method like open ponds, fermenters methods and photo bioreactor, the photo-bioreactor method is considered to have greater adavantages than the other methods. Using this method have several merits like high surface to volume ratio, higher efficiency in CO R 2 R conversion, able to consume better,

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Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Solar Energy: Case Study

Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Solar Energy: Case Study

Libya’s economy is largely built on the oil and gas industry, and the economic well-being of the province depends heavily on maintaining a steady level of oil production. The industry is based on oil deposits in the sand in the northern, southern and western parts of the country. The oil fields of Libya are shown in Figure 2. Moreover, the oil industry in Libya is affected by fluctuations in oil prices in the global oil market, and low oil prices are devastating to the country’s economy. The recent low oil prices have negatively affected many oil companies in Libya, but industries that consume oil instead of producing it thrive. For ex- ample, the plastics industry and the rest of the petroleum industries are investi- gating ways to invest their surplus. Enhanced solar thermal recovery could be a good and economical alternative. In this paper, the possibility of implementation of the solar steam generation system is shown on utility scale and extraction techniques that can be used.
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Canadian Oil Sands Investments: FOCUS on a Controversial Energy Source

Canadian Oil Sands Investments: FOCUS on a Controversial Energy Source

These key results show the positive impacts the oil sands can offer to Canada’s economy as it slowly trends to its new higher natural level of output starting in 2015. As mentioned earlier, with the good aspects clearly seen and plentiful within our analyses, also come some negative aspects, which are calls against the oil sands projects. The environmental issues cause large debates and protests, and although the economic and social benefits that arise seem to outweigh these issues, they still are a heavy burden on the future of the projects. Issues with air, water and land pollution lead to negative impacts on plant and wildlife but more importantly, they are reflected in health hazards to people in surrounding areas. These health issues have negative economic impacts, also in terms of the costs of health care for the people who are affected by the pollution and related disease/illness. When factoring all these pros and cons into a decision making process, one must ultimately decide in favour of the oil sands.
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Calculations for energy-saving modes for batching oil blends in trunk pipelines

Calculations for energy-saving modes for batching oil blends in trunk pipelines

Batch pumping takes place at the Uzen-Atyrau section of the Uzen-Atyrau-Samara trunk pipeline for batches of Buzachi and Mangyshlak oil blends. Mangyshlak oil is the crude oil used at the Atyrau oil refinery (AOR). Depending on the volume of the batches and the time they are pumped, it is possible to calculate the length of the section of oil pipeline and location of these batches within the Uzen-Atyrau section. Where two batches come into contact, changes occur in the physico-chemical properties of the oil blends [1].

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Protecting “cybersecurity & resiliency” of nation’s critical infrastructure   energy, oil & gas

Protecting “cybersecurity & resiliency” of nation’s critical infrastructure energy, oil & gas

secure, resilient energy is paramount to the prosperity of the United States. As the experience and sophistication of cyber adversaries grow, so too must the US power system’s defenses, situational ditionally, power systems were operated with dedicated communication channels to large generators and utility-owned assets but network connectivity in today’s industrial entities, including electrical utilities, has exposed many digital ontrol aspects to the threat of cyber-attacks. When forward-looking improvements including smart grid, smart meters and other advancements are considered, security is of foremost concern. In fact, governments around the world have recognized the existing vulnerability and need to protect the grid infrastructure. To solve the problem, regulations and standards are being developed to ensure that the proper security steps are taken. In addition, cyber attackers have targeted panies, with attacks growing in frequency, sophistication, and impact as the industry employs ever more connected technology. But the industry’s cyber maturity is relatively low, and O&G boards show generally limited strategic appreciation of cyber issues. This gaps across Energy, Oil & Gas sector systems spread throughout US, highlights required security enhancements and recommendations to foster
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THE PRESENT CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF OIL SECTOR IN THE WORLD FUEL AND ENERGY COMPLEX

THE PRESENT CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF OIL SECTOR IN THE WORLD FUEL AND ENERGY COMPLEX

At the nearest three decades the demand for oil and oil products will grow. Concerning to the oil supply in the world market significant changes will take place in this sector. In spite of the fact that in the developed countries-exporters of oil the extraction and export of oil will be considerably reduced, exporters assume that the world petroleum industry can provide the necessary amount of oil to satisfy the growing demand. In conditions of the increasing of world prices the world oil recovery will be still concentrated in a small number of the countries. Along with the reduction of oil extraction in the USA and the Northern Sea the role of ОPEC will increase. It is expected, that the share of this organization in the future extractions will increase from 38, 4 % in 2000 (1435 mln. t.) up to 40, 4 % in 2010 (1795 mln. t.), 48, 3 % in 2020 (2510 mln.t.) and 54, 1 % in 2030 (3245 mln.t.).
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An analysis of energy security: with reference to oil imports in relation to the European Community

An analysis of energy security: with reference to oil imports in relation to the European Community

The development of a Community policy on oil has to be seen against the background of the secular trend of a declining use of coal and an increasing use of oil. This trend influenced the development of energy policies within the Community. Prior to 1945 the European states had always had access to abundant energy (and oil), either domestically or in the control of overseas sources through their colonies or controlling interests. Briefly, after 1945, the situation with regard to oil altered considerably as demand for oil increased (along with high economic growth rates) and demand for coal declined as it became uncompetitive. Between 1950 and 1970 world wide consumption and production of energy grew at an annual rate of 4.2 percent from 31 million bpd in 1950 to 73 million bpd in 1970(1). Of this, oil and natural gas accounted for the greatest expansion so that by 1970 oil consumption stood at some 46 million bpd. The Nine EC member states had a combined energy consumption of some 968.5 mtoe by 1973.(2) Along with the boom in energy went changes in the pattern of supply. In 1945 the future EC members’ requirements were met primarily by solid fuels
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Thermal Energy on Water and Oil placed Squeezed Carreau Nanofluids Flow

Thermal Energy on Water and Oil placed Squeezed Carreau Nanofluids Flow

Abstract— this research work is focused on the numerical study regarding Carreau nanofluids’ squeezed flow via a permeable sensor surface. The nanofluids’ thermal conductivity is considered to be dependent on temperature. A convenient transformation is employed to reorganize governing equations into ordinary differential equations. The Runge–Kutta method and shooting technique are employed to accurately solve the boundary layer momentum as well as heat equations. Graphical and tabular aids are used to evaluate the solutions of applicable parameter with regards to temperature as well as the rate of heat transfer. In this work, a comparison is done from three nanofluids, i.e. copper, oxide aluminum and SWCNTs (nanoparticles) based fluids (water, crude oil and ethylene glycol) to improve heat transfer. It is found that the temperature dimensionless was dropped and dominated with the squeezed flow parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter. That is for all nanomaterials. When compared with water and ethylene glycol, crude oil is cooler and a thinner thermal boundary layer is presented. For the rate of heat transfer (Nusselt number) was higher in: Ethylene glycol- SWCNT with high permeable velocity parameter 0.2, Ethylene glycol- SWCNT with low squeeze flow parameter 0.1 and Ethylene glycol- oxide aluminum with low nanoparticle volume fraction 0.05
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Energy Delivery at Oil and Gas Wells Construction in Regions With Harsh Climate

Energy Delivery at Oil and Gas Wells Construction in Regions With Harsh Climate

Elements of the investigated power supply system were used to develop heating complex (see Figure 3), utilizing associated petroleum gas to warm objects of the actual oilfield, located beyond the Polar circle. This system works as follows: APG is used as a fuel for heaters, which heats water circulating in the heating circuit. Hot water flows through the control center where technicians and operators are located, oil reservoirs (R1, R2 and R3) with crude oil and also through the administrative and living quarters where personnel works and lives, and then goes back to the heaters to be heated again what forms so-called closed loop. Detailed description of the system is presented in the literature [13]. Further research is aimed at experiments on drilling rigs located in harsh environmental conditions. It can be concluded that introduction of such autonomous combined heat and power units is justified in remote regions with no access to unified power grid where heat energy is required.
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The Role of OIL in the Energy Industry s Risk Management Landscape

The Role of OIL in the Energy Industry s Risk Management Landscape

Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC CITGO Petroleum Corporation ConocoPhillips Company Drummond Company, Inc. DTE Energy Company Energy Transfer Partners, L.P[r]

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Oil States Energy Services v. Greene’s Energy Group: The Future of Inter Partes Review and Its Impact on the Energy Sector

Oil States Energy Services v. Greene’s Energy Group: The Future of Inter Partes Review and Its Impact on the Energy Sector

The purpose of this comment is to offer an analysis of a particular process used in patent law and its potential impact on the energy sector. Part I will provide a general overview of the purpose and goals of patent law. Part II will then describe the inter partes review process, a process used in patent law that allows parties to challenge the validity of previously issued patents. Part III will provide an overview of Oil States Energy Servs., LLC v. Greene’s Energy Group, the case currently before the Supreme Court in which the constitutionality of the inter partes review process is being challenged. Part IV will discuss how the inter partes review process has been used, in general as well as within the energy sector. Part V will discuss the various advantages and disadvantages of the inter partes review system. Part VI will then discuss the Supreme Court’s impending decision and the effect it may have on the energy sector, in particular. Finally, Part VII will conclude by arguing the importance of holding the inter partes review process constitutional.
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