appearance or means of transportation, the OldOrder Mennonites believe that up-to-date fashion is classified as pride that contradicts the virtues of humility. Hence, the worship and community life of the OldOrder Mennonites has not changed significantly since the split (Draper 2010:103-123). The OldOrder Mennonites in present time still travel by black horse-and-buggy. OldOrder Mennonite women put their hair up in a bun and cover it with white coverings both in and outside their home, and wear black bonnets if they need to dress up to go into town to visit friends or to go to church. The long dresses and aprons that cover a woman’s body from clavicles to ankles are homemade from mostly dark coloured fabrics with printed flowers. Pants are forbidden for women because they are considered to symbolize masculinity and therefore are only appropriate for men. OldOrder Mennonite men sometimes wear shirts and suits purchased from town, but they always wear straw hats when working in the field, and broad brimmed black hats on Sundays. Despite the fact that most of the OldOrder Mennonite families have connected to the public grid and started using telephones in their daily life, they are not allowed to possess things such as jewellery, bicycles, motorcycles, automobiles, wall-to-wall carpets, ceiling fans, cabbed tractors, microwaves, dishwashers, dryers, computers, televisions and cell phones. OldOrder Mennonite children go to their own parochial school for eight years where they learn English, German, mathematics, singing and painting. While the OldOrder Mennonite adults pay taxes, they do not accept any social insurance or welfare offered by the Canadian government. Photos are generally forbidden and in the case of border crossings, they have travel documents issued by the government that can exempt photo identification.
This paper presents the results of a 2010 survey exploring the determinants of rural mental health in two farming groups in Waterloo, Ontario, Ca- nada: OldOrder Mennonites (OOMs) and non- OOM farmers. Comparing these two groups re- duces the likely impact of many contextual fea- tures impacting both groups, such as local eco- nomic conditions. We explore a comprehensive list of health determinants to assess their rela- tive importance and thus enable policy action to focus on those having the greatest impact. The mental component summary (MCS) of the short- form health survey (SF-12) was used to measure mental health. We compare mental health in the two populations and use multiple regression to determine the relative importance of the deter- minants in explaining mental health. The results show that OOMs experience better mental health than non-OOMs, in part due to the strong mental health of OOM women. Coping, stress and social interaction shape mental health in both groups, reflecting the broader determinants literature and suggesting these are important across many populations with different life circumstances. Other determinants are important for one group but not the other, underscoring the diversity of rural populations. For example, different social capital measures shape mental health in the two groups, and sense-of-place is associated with mental health in only one group (OOMs). The re- sults are discussed in terms of their implications for future health determinants research and po- licy action to address rural mental health.
The OldOrder Amish community is a population characterized by a homogeneous lifestyle, including intensive farming practices and low mobility, and has been relatively unchanged across generations . In areas where many large dairy and poultry farms are con- centrated, the land area for disposal of animal wastes is limited. This situation often results in overloading the available land with manure, with considerable nitrogen ending up in groundwater or surface water [8,12]. Lan- caster County in southeastern Pennsylvania is an exam- ple of such an area where extensive dairy enterprises with high stocking rates prevail. High levels of nitrate in the groundwater  suggest that the Amish are a poten- tially highly exposed population. Given the biological effects of nitrate intake on the thyroid, investigation of whether the Amish in this area exhibit an increased pre- valence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid disease is of interest.
This thesis examines how the social structure and language attitudes of the OldOrder Amish in Adams County, Indiana have affected the maintenance of their heritage language of Swiss. The Amish left Switzerland on account of religious persecution, and despite being separated from their homeland in the Bernese Jura for over two centuries, the OldOrder Amish in Adams County have maintained Swiss as a first and a home language. Research was conducted in the towns of Berne, Geneva, and Monroe in Adams County, Indiana. Information was collected through interviews and participant observation in OldOrder Amish communities in these three towns. This research found that despite increasing modernization and contact with the external society, the OldOrder Amish have maintained their colloquial language of Swiss and liturgical language of Standard German. The reason for this maintenance relies on the social structure of these communities and they way they interact with the external society. The OldOrder Amish in Adams County have maintained horizontal social structures, which as Lucht, Salmons, and Frey (2011) discuss, plays a large role in maintaining heritage languages. In addition, instead of shutting out all contact and attempting to deter all change, the OldOrder Amish have allowed minor changes in both their customs and language in order to maintain them.
While this story is by now well known, it merits brief recapitulation, because it is sharply at odds with the current situation. Not only has the role and arguably the legitimacy of the United States as a stabilising force changed as a consequence of events it set in train when it ‘closed the gold window’ and effectively terminated the oldorder (Gowa 1983), but the underlying dynamics of the system have changed in important ways, too. The historical development of the IMF, which has seen it evolve from a mainstay of a regulated system of financial relations, to a position in which it is a champion of greater deregulation and market-determined exchange rates, is emblematic of this transformation (Pauly 1997). In effect, the period from the demise of the ‘old’ Bretton Woods order in the early 1970s until September 11 saw inter-governmental organisations like the IMF become increasingly important elements of the IFGS. Significantly, however, this did not necessarily mark a decline in the power or influence of the United States. On the contrary, American hegemony and the norms and principles associated with the ‘Washington consensus’, were institutionalised within, and promoted by, a number of key international financial institutions (IFIs) over which the US exercised a disproportionate, but arms-length influence. The recognition that the IFIs were not independent, but closely associated with a particular set of ideological assumptions, policy prescriptions, as well as sectional and national interests (Bhagwati 1998; Woods 2003), generated a undercurrent of opposition to IFI policy, ultimately providing part of the impetus for calls for a new institutional architecture.
The plot of The Forsyte Saga is the mode of sentimental domestic comedy. However, the main theme of the trilogy is the decline of a family or the dispossession of the Forsyteism. This decline is portrayed as part and parcel of the decline of England and the values of the Victorian middle class. In this plot, the family’s decline is a “fortunate fall” from a masculinist utilitarian instrumentality to the kinder, gentler operational principles of the “feminized” moral and aesthetic sense, in which people and things are supposedly allowed to subsist in the unreified state of being for themselves. In fact, the decline of the Forsyte family is the death of the oldorder and the birth of the new society, which is deepened by the image of death in this trilogy.
The objective of this paper is to obtain the developing tendency of outcrop coal fire under the multi-ventilation powers and fire pressure, so as to provide technical support for the governance of the fire area and ensuring mine work safety. The structural characteristic of the thermal dynamic system of outcrop coal fire under the control of multi-ventilation power factors have been analyzed and the practical application has been carried out. The thermal dynamic system of the outcrop coal fire under the control of multi-ventilation power factors include five sub-systems, namely combustion, heat dissipation of coal and rock, gas seepage and oxygen supply, gas discharge, and goaf leakage. Then, the mathematical model of the thermal dynamic system is set up and is applied in the old Shaft II fire area of Didao coalmine. At last, the changes of combustion product concentration, pressure and seepage velocity in the outcrop, which is under the condition of the even air pressure fan of the old Shaft II is done or stop, are acquired. As the even air pressure fan of the old Shaft II stops working, the seepage range in the fire area will reduce, and then, the growth speed in the fire area will reduce to some extent. However, because the pumping action of the even air pressure fan disappears, part of the combustion product will flow into working area of the coalmine. Thus, it is recommended to add automatic air door and CO sensor between the old shaft II and shaft XI in -480m main haulageway, so as to monitor the impact of fire area on work safety, and gradually close the fire area.
A sixty-six-year-old woman presented to us with Swelling, serve pain, limitation of movement above the right knee after a primary total knee arthroplasty. Attributing to a severe osteoarthri- tis, she received total knee arthroplasty. But this time, she fell down from the lift to the ground at home. Before this accident, her flex- ion function of the right knee could be up to
so the models can be considered to be accu- rate and reliable. In this study, although the model was consistent with the patient’s dam- aged bone, only one case limited the persua- siveness of the results, and the more cases need to be accumulated and studied. The sys- tematic and rigid research of the accuracy error between real bone and model was still needed in order to make 3D printing technology widely used in clinical field on a large-scale in the future. In addition, the model could only reflect the pathological changes of the bone, however, the cartilage, soft tissue and other structures cannot be presented, which was the factors to limit the application of the technology. But with the development of 3D printing technology, this problem would be solved.
With the deployment of commercial WDM systems, it has become apparent that the cost of network components, especially line terminating equipment (LTE), is a dominant cost in building optical networks, and is a more meaningful metric to optimize than, say, the number of wavelengths. Furthermore, with currently available optical technology, the data rate of each wavelength is of the order of 2.5-10 Gbps, while channels operating at 40 Gbps will be commercially available in the near future. In order to efficiently utilize the capacity of each lightpath, a number of independent lower- rate traffic streams must be multiplexed into a single lightpath. These observations give rise to the concept of traffic grooming, which refers to the techniques used to combine lower speed components onto available wavelengths in order to meet network design goals such as cost minimization. Traffic grooming has received considerable attention recently. For reviews of the traffic grooming problem area, see ; it also provides a detailed example and a precise formulation as an ILP.
The proteomic profiles of the constructs demonstrated using 1D gels showed that there was no gross difference in the profiles within construct type with ageing. When these results were compared with the number of identi- fied proteins there were a higher number of protein identifications within the osteogenic (2233 proteins) and chondrogenic (2226 proteins) constructs, indicating a more complex proteome in these tissues. This was simi- lar to the number of proteins identified in MSCs (2347 proteins) . A Rapigest™-based protein extraction workflow was utilised for tenogenic (615 proteins) con- structs whereas a guanidine-based extraction was used for chondrogenic and osteogenic constructs, because Rapigest ™ provided superior results compared with guanidine for tenogenic constructs in terms of proteins identified. The difference in number of protein identifi- cations was probably due to the altered cell to ECM ra- tios within constructs, evident from histological sections. One limitation of the study is that it cannot be ruled out Table 2 Top scoring networks from the IPA knowledge base that involve proteins differentially expressed in young compared with old chondrogenic, tenogenic and osteogenic constructs
started with John Wycliffe (1320-1384), the nominalist thinker before Luther who translated the bible into English for the first time 25 (see: MacCulloch, 2010: pp. 564-574). This was a kind of attempt to decentralise the Church from below. Nevertheless, Luther and Wycliffe were not the only persons who challenged the theoretical monopoly of the Church. Galileo did the same thing in his own time; however, he apparently failed. Galileo, in his famous inquisition trial, stated that the language of the Bible was the language of the people of the time or the common sense which describes the appearance of nature. Thus, one cannot use the Biblical language in science. He could easily have concluded from this that the Bible is not scientifically valid, or at least could have suggested the doctrine of the double truth as a diplomatic path in order to rescue himself. As it happens, he did not follow any of those directions. He stuck to a non-conformist position which states that scientific discoveries when established are not only true but are the truth. That is, a capable expositor of Scripture would be a scientist such as Galileo himself who has a sound knowledge of natural sciences (Brooke, 1991: p. 78). That is to say, ‘reason’ for him became the great supporter of the revelation and more than that the most sound bedrock for anyone who wants to interpret the Bible. So Galileo was more in support of a Saint-Scientist, rather than the myth of the warfare between the Athens of reason and the Jerusalem of faith.
Several examples exist of comparative phonological processes between Old English and Old Norse. For vowels, many of the conditioned phonological changes occur under the purview of the process called vowel umlaut, or mutation, the influence of a non-stressed vowel on the previous, stressed vowel in a word. I-umlaut, or Front Mutation, is perhaps the most prevalent example of this type of process and is shared by both Old English and Old Norse. I-umlaut involves the fronting and raising of vowels in the stressed position when followed by a syllable containing either an /i/ or /j/ at the syllable boundary. The Germanic languages had a particular affinity for this type of vowel mutation due to the prevalence of both /i/ and /j/ in several archaic plural noun forms as well as other inflectional suffixes. In many cases, the vowels which caused the mutation are lost historically, leaving only the umlauted vowel in plural noun forms (OE bōc ‘book’ > bēc ‘books’), specific verb tenses (ON segja ‘to say’ > sagði ‘said’) or
In the discussion above, the evidence supporting both the pecking order and trade-off theories was presented. Further, Beattie et al. (2006) argue that while the fundamental approach to financing may be based on the pecking order theory, the firm’s short-term financing decision may be determined by trade-off theory drivers, though Sogorb-Mira and Lopez-Gracia (2003) find little evidence to support this for Spanish firms. In this study we argue that although both theories have merit individually, considered together they explain firm financing behaviour more comprehensively in two different time frames and in a particular sequence. Consistent with Beattie et al. (2006), we propose that while the fundamental approach to financing for UK firms may be based on trade-off theory, their short-term financing decisions may be driven by pecking order theory considerations. Table 3 presents the hypotheses of this study. Our central hypothesis, H1, is that UK quoted firms have target capital structure ratios to which they adjust in the long run while in the short run they deviate from these target ratios and that in the adjustment process firms employ the securities with the lowest adverse selection costs. The supporting economic hypotheses, H2 to H5, enable us to be more precise concerning the definition of gearing ratio targeted and the source of finance employed in the adjustment process.
The complexity of the alter-globalisation movement is the key element in order to understand the way it exceeds the structure of an organization, but never succumbs to the depth of chaos. A social complexity due to inherent inclusiveness, and a cognitive complexity because of communication which enables a broad range of perspectives and hence make sure that the frames of the alter-globalisation movement never gets too comfortable, and a use of Computer Mediated Communication which exceeds both social as well as cognitive rigidity and enables the construction of always other alternatives to the present neo-liberal globalisation, which is presented as a main enemy. Chesters and Welsh describe the complexity as a direct cause of “resisting co-option by party discipline and ideological strictures” (p. 105), a capacity which is “growing as a direct result of increasing complexity” (ibid.).
midwives of the Ebrewe women' to kill all male babies (1:15-16), but the midwives, fearing God, disobeyed the king; when the king demanded an explanation, the midwives claimed that they had not been able to kill the male babies because Hebrew women tend to give birth before midwives are able to attend them (1:19). The Geneva marginal note makes the following comment: 'Their disobedie[n]ce herein was lawful, but their dissembling evil' (24, verso). The implication, then, as James saw, is that subjects may disobey a king Ð at least if his command goes against God's laws or if he is a tyrant. The Geneva Bible and its notes continued to be seen as a threat to monarchs and monarchists well into the seventeenth century, especially because of the way it was used by radicals in the revolutionary struggles of the mid century. In 1648, Sir Robert Filmer, in order to discredit the use of the Geneva Bible to label Charles I as a tyrant, noted that