The timeline and when the Olympic games selected took place include the 1988 Winter games in Calgary, Canada for Debi Thomas, the 1988 Summer games in Seoul, South Korea for Florence Griffith Joyner, and the 2016 Summer games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for Simone Biles. The dates of the papers selected ranged from five days before the opening ceremony to the day after the closing ceremony. This timeframe was selected for two different reasons. First, coverage around the Olympic competitions tends to have an uptick as the press begins coverage of the popular and most likely to win athletes heading in to the games. Also, more editorials and columns will be published leading up to the Olympics, highlighting star athletes expected to succeed. The day after the closing ceremony was chosen because that is when stories and items about the last day of the event typically appear.
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.…When the Pyong Yang [P’yŏngyang] team saw that they were going to be beaten they and their friends, the Pyong Yang [P’yŏngyang] people rushed the referee Hyŏn [Hyŏn Hongun], stopped him, stoned him and shouted to kill the man from Seoul. The police had to draw their pistols to protect the referee and barely saved him from the infuriated mob. What a sad comment on the patriotism of the Pyong Yang [P’yŏngyang] people! To invite people to their city and then pelt them with stones—striking the referee, trying to kill him! Yi Pyong Sam [Yi Pyŏngsam] who used to be a physical director in Seoul Y. and who acted as co- referee with Hyŏn made no efforts to pacify the fury of his people, but slipped off when the storm broke out. The meanness of the Pyong Yang [P’yŏngyang] people on this occasion beggars description. During the five centuries of the Yi Dynasty, the people of [the] Northwestern provinces [P’yŏngan, Hwanghae, and Hamgyŏng] were placed under political disqualifications and subjected to humiliating discrimination. That the North Westerners had a just cause for hating the Southern Koreans—especially those of the ruling caste-goes without saying. But is this the time to harbor and practice the spirit of an eye-for-an-eye and a tooth-for-a-tooth in a plan for revenge? If everybody wants to get even with their enemies in Korea, when shall we ever become a united race? 220
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Besides its irreplaceable role in staging the Olympic Games, the OCOG is also able to influence the adding of sports to the Programme, even though it is the IOC’s responsibility to make final decisions. Sports that have originated from or are popular in the host country tend to contribute to medals for the host. Thus, the OCOG would try to add such sports to the Programme. Judo, a modern combat sport that started in Japan, was added to the Summer Games Programme at the 1964 Tokyo Games and contributed three gold medals and one silver medal to the host team. Handball is a very popular sport in Europe. It first appeared at the 1936 Berlin Games, and then officially joined the Programme at the 1972 Munich Games. Sometimes, such sports do not make the official Programme, but the OCOG can still introduce them as demonstration sports, which could lead to a better chance to be included in the future. For example, the Korean sport taekwondo was a demonstration sport at the 1988 Seoul Games, and later became a full medal sport at the 2000 Summer Games, contributing three gold medals and one silver to the Korean team. Although the IOC decided to eliminate
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The main drawback of the Pyeongchang polyclinic was the lack of CT or MRI services. Three strategies were used to over- come this problem. First, the assistant director remained at the ED to arrange booking and transportation to hospitals from 7 am to 11 pm. Second, the MRI booking and insurance check- ing processes were simplified by sharing a regular form con- taining patient details with the social network service (SNS), thereby eliminating the need for telephone communication. In cases wherein patients were transported to the Olympic hospi- tals (GAH or WSCH), the SNS was quite useful. BAND (Camp mobile, Seoul, South Korea) was used to communicate with each venue, GMC, and GAH (Supplementary Fig. 1, only on- line), while Kakaotalk (Kakao Corporation, Jeju, South Korea) was used to communicate with WSCH. Third, the drive from the polyclinic to GMC generally took 30 minutes, and two am- bulances remained near the polyclinic to transport patients quickly.
that were in the Cold War boycotted the Games. United States with 64 Western countries boycotted 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow due to the Soviet invasion to Afghanistan; while the 16 West countries attended the Moscow Olympics. Because of this sanction only 80 countries participated in this Olympic. Since 1956 this was the lowest number of countries that has been participated in the Olympics. Soviet and 14 members of East Bloc (except Romania), because of this issue that security of their athletes is not providing were not presented in 1984 Los Angeles Olympic. Boycotters of 1984 Olympic Games began a friendship Cup in the months from July to August. In 1988 North Korea did not participate in the Seoul Olympics in protest to not being shared-host with South Korea. Three other countries including Cuba, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua (mostly due to economic problems and not being able to send their athletes) were not participate in Olympic Games, but for prevent of sanctions by IOC, they officially boycott this Olympic Games. After it turned out that the Chinese government has bought 800 thousand meters of tropical and endangered forests of Papua Province in Indonesia for the 2008 Olympic Games cost one billion dollars, environmentalists groups boycotted the 2008 Olympic Games (Johnson, 2008; Sharp et al., 1998).
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national shooting competitions in the venue. By holding the competition events, the Center could earn revenue for its own use. Operation costs for holding the events was not a consideration. They were covered by the operation funds from GASC. The Center also attempted to find sponsors for the events; the money from the sponsors could be retained by the Center instead of transferring it to GASC. The Shooting Range Hall included two areas - the qualification hall and the final hall. The national teams usually trained in the qualification hall, while the final hall was only opened for large-scale international competition events. Similar to the reasons attached to the Velodrome, such as strict PSB (Public Security Bureau) regulations and being an unpopular spectator sport in China, the competitions held in the Center were not open to the public. In addition, because weapons were involved in the competitions, a highly sensitive issue in the city, PSB would censor the application and set ultra-high security levels for the events. As a result, after the Games, there were no spectators at the competitions in the venue. There is no plan to change this in the future. Moreover, there was also a shooting club in the Center that was opened to the public in the 1980s. The club was owned by the Center and operated by staffers. The club had no marketing promotions or commercial advertisements, due mainly to its weapons-involved sensitivity. 335 Thus, the Center did not set revenue goals for the club. Obviously, the club was not operated with market mechanisms in mind. Furthermore, the Center at one time opened its swimming pool to the public. Though the pool was popular with the local people, the recreational swimmers had to cross the pathway of the athletes to reach the pool. The athletes always carried guns and bullets with them; the safety issue once again produced problematics. Besides, whenever the Center organized competitions events, the pool had to be closed for at least two weeks, a
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National Olympic committees or sport ministries often pay bonuses to medal-winning athletes. The country offering the biggest bonus for an Olympic medal in Sochi is Azerbaijan which will pay any athlete who wins a gold medal more than half a million dollars ($510000), $ 255 000 for a silver medal and $ 130 000 for a bronze medal. Kazakhstan athletes will receive a quarter of a million dollars for a gold medal, $ 150000 for a silver medal and $ 75000 for a bronze medal. Italy will pay $ 190 000 for a gold, $ 100 000 for a silver and $ 68 000 for a bronze. Russian athletes will receive $115600 for a gold medal, $ 72200 for a silver medal and $49000 for a bronze medal. The USA bonuses seem downright stingy. A gold medal for a USA athlete will mean a $25000 bonus, while a silver will bring in $15000 and a bronze will net $10000. Unlike many other countries, the USA taxes these bonuses, which can mean that as much as 39.6 %, will end up going back to the IRS. Not all countries offer prizes to their winners; competitors from the UK, Sweden, Croatia, and Norway do not receive money for winning a medal in the Olympics.
that initially predated the successful Olympic bid. PE, School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL) and later Physical Education and Sport Strategy for Young People (PESSYP) represented a large investment in school sport; the 2008 Legacy Action Plan identified a commitment to increase the guaranteed minimum hours of PE and school sport from two to five hours. This commitment alongside funding for School Sport Partnerships was withdrawn post-2010 in favour of the Primary PE and Sport Premium, the School Games and health-focussed Change4Life Sports Clubs (2012-2015) (see DCMS 2010 and DCMS 2012 for a heavily revised legacy action plan). . . It is noteworthy that policy and delivery in these legacy spheres are very much focussed on provision for children and young people as individuals. Education and sport policy spheres supports the provision of sporting opportunities for children and young people largely outwith wider facilitative relationships such as family and peer networks. Health-focussed initiatives such as Change4Life recognise relational dependencies in the
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Professor Arne Martin Klausen (1927-) is the only social anthropologist in Norway who has tried to ana- lyse the culture of the country as a whole. In doing this, he has explored several central themes of the country’s culture; like egalitarianism, the class journey, the strong tradition for development aid to poor countries, connected to a so-called humanitarian super-power which in its turn was an extension of Chris- tian mission, the very wide-spread newspaper reading; however self-centered to national and local issues and finally, the collision between an elitist Olympic culture with Norwegian egalitarianism. Klausen also tried to tie some threads together in editing a collection of essays on Norwegian culture.
games authorities wanted all facilities to be completed within deadline set for games and developers had to do extraordinary effort during that duration which led to increased volume of jobs done during that period. Material resources like cement, steel, different types of metals, oil, gas and many other items related to infrastructure development and different type of services from all over the world was used in huge quantities which resulted in increased demand for these item in the world market which was well reflected in Nasdaq, Dow Jones, S&P indices. Many big companies of the world were involved in preparation of these games and benefited from this megaevent either directly or indirectly.
This symposium arises from a public event held on March 14 2008 by the Academy of Social Sciences, in cooperation with the University of East London, as part of the ESRC 2008 Festival of Social Sciences. The purpose of the symposium is to explore the contribution which social scientists can make to the understanding of the London Olympics, and to clarify issues of public benefit of different kinds which arise from the hosting of the 2012 Games in London.
There is of course a general assumption that the Olympic Games are ‘a good thing’ on many levels. As we have noted above, hosting the Games can have many positive benefits, although as we have also noted, the Games are not without their critics. That there are these polarities of views is to be expected in events on this scale. However, perhaps because of the general view that they are beneficial to the host city, region and state, the overprotection of many of the rights afforded to the IOC and the organising committees has gone unquestioned, or at least remained under the radar. Whilst the first appearance may be of a benign network of rights and protective measures, its impacts are potentially austere, both in terms of the possible side effects on non-intended targets outside of the original purview of the legislation, and more importantly, distances even further the Games from the cultural and ethical underpinnings of the Olympic Movement and its traditional values.
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In this sense, if institutions desire to spread Olympic and sports values in contemporary societies, it is essential for them to participate in the digital space and to make use of innovation in technology and com- munication. But to achieve the objectives agreed by Agenda 2020, for example, the IOC will have to make sure that communication strat- egies for different audiences should be put into practice. As a result, the processes of organization and carrying out the Olympic Games should also be changed. In order to effectively do this, the IOC must develop a thorough understanding of how digital and social media are used in the contemporary world. Some questions guide the tar- geting and monitoring of social media. What are the best social me- dia monitoring platforms for the proposal of Agenda 2020? What are the benefits of developing social media connected with sport me- ga-events? What ways to wield social influence scores to improved online interactions? How to measure the social Return On Invest- ment (ROI) 1 ? How to optimize new campaigns and to find influenc-
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unavoidable rise in world population is clearly not sustainable in the long term. Notice that, Olympic Movement (composed of the three main constituents: International Olympic Committee, International Sport Federations and National Olympic Committees) had putting effort to promote sustainable development in sporting world. Thus, in June 1992, world leaders were met in Rio de Janeiro for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as The Earth Summit to brought environmental and sustainable development issues into the global political arena. A plan of action for the introduction of sustainable development in the 21st century had been proposed in the meeting which known as Agenda 21 to encourages national and local political bodies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and citizen groups to recognize that environmental and development concerns are linked, and a global partnership for sustainable development would improve the living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a safer and more prosperous future .
learned this idea at the International Olympic Academy (IOA) during a postgraduate student seminar, where it is an annual ritual for the students to dress in togas and take part in sprinting, long jumping, wrestling, discus and javelin. With almost a year’s preparations and without any funding, we designed the model: olive-branch crowns, angel wings for our “Olympic Angel Choir,” a torch stand with flame, actually, it was not a real flame, just colored cloth blown upward with a fan. It was such a difficult time in my life------We did not get any support from the government, and all the expense were from our own pocket. I remember clearly that we bargained for the price of constructing the torch stand with a carpenter, eventually reaching a deal of 200 RMB for the stand (around 41 CAD). During his work, the carpenter chatted with us and asked why we were doing this and for what? After I explained to him over the reason, and about Olympic spirit, he refused our money. His only request for his pay was: ‘could you please go to my hometown and give our children a chance to experience the Olympics? I am living in a mountain area.’ 27
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Aside from the Russian authorities (who see hosting the Olympics as international recognition for the regime), we might ask who profits from the 2014 Olympics? While a number of scholars have noted that the “trickle-down” narratives of mega-events rarely benefit the local (or broader) population (for example, Harvey, 1989 and Ren, 2008), this is especially true in the case of the 1,000 or so families who have been forcibly relocated from their properties to make way for construction in Sochi (Moscow Times 2010) (see also Slavin, 2008). What about the ‘Olympic Law’ (passed by the State Duma in December 2007), which provides the legal framework for transforming Sochi into an Olympic city and, importantly, lays out the process governing land acquisition for the purpose of building Olympic facilities? In contravention of Russia's Land Code, the Law states that confiscation disputes would be resolved in court under abridged procedures that allow the state alone to set the price (Zarakhovich, 2008). At a time when land prices in Sochi were between $100,000 to $200,000 per 100m 2
In this brief content analysis, we retrospectively examined the relationship between the Olympic medals won (the total of gold, silver, and bronze) in the 2012 London Olympic Games and the participant nations' population size, GDP Per Capita (GDP-PC), and the national average temperature (degrees Celsius C ͦ ) on the grounds of the earlier proposed 'demographic-', 'economic-', and 'geographical' hypotheses (Hoffmann et al., 2002). We did not attempt to make any predictions, but simply tried to uncover earlier factual relationships.
The reason that this supports my argument is because the world constantly seems appalled by the methods of preparations that host cities implement for the sake of the Olympic Games. When the Games are said and done, the human rights violations surface and it appears as though everyone is in disgust. Although the 2016 Games have not occurred yet, and there is the opportunity for Rio de Janeiro to compensate for the damages imparted, it is doubtful this will be the case, based on the profound recurring history of the Olympic Movement. This means that from the current standpoint, we can rationally extrapolate to the events that will occur in the timeframe leading up to, and during, the 2016 Games and identify the influence they will have on Rio de Janeiro. The resulting coercion and violation of human rights will no doubt be rationalized to meet certain expectations of the world. In saying this, it seems absurd that once the Games are said and done, only then does the world seem to acknowledge the disarray of the preparation. This raises questions about the ethical nature of being a fan of sport of this kind, which I will later discuss. This also poses a huge ethical gap with the IOC: If they are able to predict such unethical happenings, why have they refrained from taking any step of action toward the prevention and demise of these violations? The IOC may realize that few places in the world could host the Olympic Games without violations. If the IOC has come to this conclusion, they should evaluate whether having stationary Games, instead of having a new host city every four years, would better achieve Olympism. Through their ambitious and virtuous definition of Olympism, they seem fairly passive in achieving such ethics and universal peace, if they are willing to accept the continual mishaps of the past, and evidently the future of the Olympic Games.
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sustainable by 2020. This resulted in more public transportation, a travel plan which strived for shared personal automobile usage, such as carpooling or minimizing personal automobiles. In order to provide a more festive and celebratory atmosphere around Games venues, there were more road closures as well. A public information campaign was launched to provide adequate notice to residents and communities of these changes in advance to make them aware of route changes. The primary goal was to notify residents of changes, the secondary goal of the campaign was to notify, identify, and influence these people of the alternative means of transportation able to be utilized in their daily commutes (Bid Book V3, 81). These closures and changes are an example of displacement and may be seen as a limitation to residents, going against the definition of urban renewal, by decreasing the functionality of the city. However, through VANOC’s efforts to educate and provide alternative methods of transportation, the displacement of residents and limitations of functionality, relative to transportation throughout the city, may not have been as drastic as could have been anticipated when hosting a mega-event such as the Winter Olympics.
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Cera (Continuous Erythropoiesis Receptor Activator) (S2.1. 1.1 ), Anabolic steroids (S1.1 a ), Methandrostenolone (S1.1 a ), Tetrahydrogestrione (S1.1 a ), similarly Stanozolol(S1.1 a ), Clenbuterol(S2), Nandralone(S1.1 a ) had 2-2 male cases each. It is quite shocking to note that that (75%)of female cases and (57.874%) of male cases of all the banned substances used in athletics at Olympic games is from S1 group which is Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS). It was very clearly identified that female athletes use (17.126%) more of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) then male athletes in athletics at Olympic game.
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