Oman and India

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Routing Gone Wild: Documenting Upstream Filtering in Oman via India

Routing Gone Wild: Documenting Upstream Filtering in Oman via India

This brief documents and analyzes the upstream filtering of web content for users of Oman’s Omantel ISP as a result of content restrictions implemented in India. Both India and Oman, it should be noted, already have domestic filtering regimes in place. Previous research by the OpenNet Initiative on Omantel has documented filtering of Internet content related to pornography, circumvention tools, gay and lesbian content, as well as content critical of religion. 7 Similar research by the OpenNet Initiative has found that ISPs in India selectively filter content relating to conflict/security and Internet tools, with a high degree of variability between ISPs. 8 Omantel has existing relationships with ISPs in India. Omantel and Indian ISP Bharti Airtel have a traffic peering arrangement through ASNs 9 AS8529 and AS9498, respectively. 10 Bharti Airtel was in fact reported to be a leading contender to purchase a 25% stake in Omantel during that ISP’s privatization process in 2008 11 ;
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Oman and the West: State formation in Oman since 1920

Oman and the West: State formation in Oman since 1920

representation was established in Muscat; the ratifying agreement declared that the friendship of the British and Omanis would ‘remain unshook till the end of time, and till the sun and moon have finished their revolving career’ (Risso 1986: 220). However, the realities of relations were somewhat less poetic. In 1803, in the words of the British chronicler Lorrimer ‘it was directly intimated to Sultan more than once, that, were he to throw in his lot with the French, the British government would have no alternative but to place his dominions under a commercial blockade from the side of India’ (quoted in Bhacker 1992: 41). In the same year, with the end for the time being of the French threat to India, the British agency in Muscat was closed down although it was reopened in 1805 when there was a renewed threat from the Qawasim of the Gulf to British shipping. This British ambivalence to the cultivation of an enduring relationship with the A1 Bu Sa’id continued. In the ongoing struggle for power at Muscat following Sultan bin Ahmad’s death, the British were compelled to take into account internal Omani disputes in their dealings with the Arab power for the first time in the history of British-Omani relations. At the beginning of Sa’id bin Sultan’s rule (r. 1806 - 1856) the British, in the absence of any direct threat from a Western power to their position, refused to become involved in his internal disputes. Indeed, in 1806 Britain even rejected Sa’id’s offer of an alliance which, until then, had been sought for over a hundred years. Renewed French activity (an alliance was concluded with Persia in
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SPAWNING PATTERN OF INDIAN OIL SARDINE, Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes, 1847 OF OMAN SEA, MUSCAT, SULTANATE OF OMAN

SPAWNING PATTERN OF INDIAN OIL SARDINE, Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes, 1847 OF OMAN SEA, MUSCAT, SULTANATE OF OMAN

The Indian oil sardine Sardinella longiceps is a commercially important small pelagic resource in the Indo-Pacific region. It is widely distributed along the coast of Omani waters. This species forms a considerable proportion in the fish catches of Oman. In fact, no more studies in terms of spawning pattern on this fish have been conducted in Oman. Hence, a study was carried out to investigate the spawning patterns based on gonado-somatic index analysis. Studies of ova- ries on a monthly basis considered as appropriate method for biological analysis including indicat- ing the spawning season and length at first ma- turity of commercial species. Studies of spawning patterns of oil sardine based on GSI have been investigated by different scientists. Al-Jufaili et al. (2006) observed two major spawning peaks of S. longiceps in Oman; Muscat to be during March to April and August. The length at first maturity (L50%) was estimated between 125-135 mm in Oman and Arabian Sea (Dorr III, 1990). Recent reviews in India were also reported by Rohit and Bhat (2003) identified the spawning season dur- ing June to August, peaking in July along Manglore-Malpe coast. Banerji (1973) observed two spawning seasons in India, one in early sea- son and the other at the end of season during June to October.
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Passengers Satisfaction Toward Oman Air Services

Passengers Satisfaction Toward Oman Air Services

Table 9 indicated means of Oman Air passenger’s perception of Service after flight according to scale starting from 1= strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. The highest mean of Service after flight was Arrangements if the passenger has to change destination or cancel return with mean score 4.0 and followed by Transfer from one airport to another by means of the company. Transfer to hotel if stoppage overnight and Quick and effective response in cases of lost or damaged luggage with mean score 3.9 and the lowest mean of Customs and consular facilities with score mean 3.6 The average of the passenger’s response of Passenger Service after flight items range between 3.6–4.3, the results seem to indicate that the passengers have positive response on Passenger Service after flight items. The average standard deviation for Passenger Service after flight found to be high that indicates that there is a lot of variation in the passenger’s answer.
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Alternative mechanisms for achieving food security in Oman

Alternative mechanisms for achieving food security in Oman

A number of issues need to be addressed in combin- ation with the three alternative mechanisms/strategies proposed in this paper: increase investment in new technologies and innovations to increase water avail- ability, including water desalinization and wastewater recycling; create a conducive environment for foreign investors so as to attract more foreign direct invest- ments to help create jobs and improve the incomes of the people; increase land and water productivity in terms of yields and value per unit of land and water, through investment in research to improve/increase land and water productivity; come up with a national strategy stipulating priority crops that should be grown in the country in order to conserve water instead of the current situation where everything is grown with no clear focus – the focus should, for example, be on crops that can be grown in a sustainable way without compromising the country’s scarce water and land resources; invest in buying or leasing land in land- abundant countries to secure food supply; and provide the Oman people with family planning services and promote nutrition education.
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A Study of Educational Reform and Teacher Training in Oman

A Study of Educational Reform and Teacher Training in Oman

The rapidly changing global economy requires a high degree of adaptability, and a strong background in mathematics, science, technology and languages. The English Language Curriculum Department (ELCD) of the Sultanate of Oman Ministry of Education (1999) has developed a new English language curriculum designed to provide pupils with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that they will need to succeed. The new curriculum, approach and objectives for teaching English, as well as approaches to teacher training and learner assessment, were developed to:

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Public schools’ characteristics and teacher turnover in Oman

Public schools’ characteristics and teacher turnover in Oman

This study has several limitations. First, the sampled schools were public schools in Oman, thus, the study is limited to public schools in Oman, and generalization on private schools is not recommended since there may be some differences between them. Second, large sample size is a prerequisite for robust results (Hair et al., 2010). In this study, the data from 138 schools were analyzed. Although, the sample size was not a problem in this study due to the low numbers of variables and items, caution should be considered in the generalization of the study results because of the low sample size. Third, this study is conducted in Omani schools, and caution should be considered when generalizing the study results to schools in other Arab and Gulf State countries because there are some differences between these countries. Fourth, Afternoon-shift schools are low represented in this study, thus, caution should be taken when comparing the study results regarding school time-shift with other studies.
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INFORMATION RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN OMAN

INFORMATION RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN OMAN

Limitations of this study include, first; 43 of community pharmacists of 71 pharmacists included in this study are from Muscat region (61%). Second; Survey questions were not validated before use. Third; the sampling technique, although systematic, did not capture all pharmacists with drug information responsibilities. Fourth; Qualification of the pharmacists working at community pharmacists were not recorded. Fifth; total years of their experience as community pharmacists was also not considered in the questionnaire. Sixth; year of their pharmacy graduation was also not considered in this study. This small exploratory study has shown that community pharmacists possess a range of paper based resources, which can be used to handle medicine-related enquiries. Based on these results, it can be concluded that drug information resources in community pharmacies in Oman have to be improved 16 . Apparently there is a need for information about available sources of information. In addition there is also a need for centres with larger information resources 28 .
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Epidemiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Oman

Epidemiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Oman

We conducted a multicenter study among pediatric rheumatology clinics in the Sultanate Oman to identify patients with JIA over a 10-year period from 2004–2013. All the subjects included in the study were Omani children <13 years of age, being the cut of limit for the pediatric age group in most Arabian countries. Patients who had the signs and symptoms of other arthritis such as para-/post-infectious arthritis, connective tissue disorder, systemic vasculitis, malignancy, or metabolic diseases were excluded from the study after careful evaluation. The diagnosis of JIA and identification of subtypes of JIA was based on the ILAR 2004 revised criteria. Patients whose diagnosis was made prior to the use of the ILAR criteria were subsequently diagnosed as having JIA according to the ILAR criteria from a review of the medical records. All patients fulfilled the ILAR criteria for diagnosis of JIA at least six months prior to the inclusion into the study.
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Decline in transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Oman

Decline in transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Oman

Dhofar lies in south-western Oman, bordering Yemen. It is a rather mountainous region covering 99 300 sq km (38 300 sq mi) (Fig. 1), with a population of approximately 375 000. Dhofar’s weather is relatively cool and rainy even during the summer (July to September, e.g., in July, mean daily temperature = 26.4 °C, mean rainfall 24.5 mm). Schistosomiasis transmission sites include temporary and permanent, natural and artificial water bodies and river- beds (wadis) located in a relatively small (80 km × 20 km), hilly area along the coast of the Indian Ocean [15] (Figs. 2 and 3). Such area lies within 20 km from the seashore, and is comprised in the wilayat (provinces) of Salalah, Taqah and Mirbat. Water contact used to be related to do- mestic activities but now mainly occurs for recreational purposes, although shepherds might bring their animals to water bodies, thus having occasional contacts. Human population in the area at risk for schistosomiasis is esti- mated at 25 000, including Omanis and non-Omanis.
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The Significance of Museums to Fine Art Education in Oman

The Significance of Museums to Fine Art Education in Oman

When the institutions that act as focal points for Art education have not been established other methods and techniques are developed by individuals and or- ganizations to fill the voids where Museums and Galleries might otherwise be. Art education is fluid; therefore, when one avenue to learning in not available, other approaches to the learning and development of the field are realised. As Shaw (1997: 169) supposed that Oman is a prime example of a country that has developed alternative sources of learning and collaboration to help develop art education. Most of the services and activities provided to the Omani communi- ties are planned and carried out through the University’s co-operative efforts with the various ministries and local institutions. Collaboration has played a key role in Oman’s development of Fine Art education. Foreign artists come to Oman to join local artist in order to work together in collaboration at local art institutions such as the Youth Art Studio, The Cultural Club, The Fine Art Group at Sultan Qaboos University, The Art Education Department at SQU and the Omani Society of Fine Art. These Arts institutions hold annual art exhibi- tions. They contribute to create a new generation of Omani artists. Also, Artists from Oman are taking it upon themselves to travel abroad to find new influences and gain more knowledge that would otherwise not be available locally. These meetings help to inspire creativity and give the opportunity to artists to explore and exchange their knowledge of contemporary Art (Al-Yahyai, 2013).
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Developing Talent Strategies:research Based Practice in Oman

Developing Talent Strategies:research Based Practice in Oman

A particular feature of Oman is its Omanisation policy, a government initiative requiring 90% of positions to be filled with Omani people, suggesting a greater focus on the attraction, retention and development of talent. Social and cultural pressures, perceived career opportunities and the chance for further investment in skills have resulted in a strong inclination to work in the government (public) sector rather than the private sector (Al-Ali, 2006; Al-Lamki, 1998; Budhwar and Mellahi, 2006). Skill shortages have led to increasing competition amongst organizations and even the finance sector faces tough competition from both the government and new banks in attracting and retaining talented local people. This is aggravated by the inability of higher education institutions to train sufficient graduates to meet current and future demand (Supreme Council for Planning, 2012). In summary, the context for talent and talent management in Oman is a complex one that has heightened the competition for talent and therefore the need for a more a nuanced and strategic approach to talent management.
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WHEAT LANDRACES FROM OMAN: A BOTANICAL ANALYSIS

WHEAT LANDRACES FROM OMAN: A BOTANICAL ANALYSIS

The rich and unique naked hexaploid and tetraploid wheats of Oman testify that wheat is not a casual and recent component of cultural flora of this country, but has an old history of cultivation. Ancient traces of agriculture are found in Arabia in the 3rd millenium BC. The oases of Oman were, at that time, early settlements where early farmers cultivated date palms and sowed distichous and polystichous barley, wheat, sorghum and jujube (Cleuziou and Costantini, 1980). Oman was the important staging post on crossing trade routes
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OMAN AS A FUTURE LOGISTICS HUB: A CONCEPTUAL STUDY

OMAN AS A FUTURE LOGISTICS HUB: A CONCEPTUAL STUDY

Despite the importance of logistics sector for a country economic growth, a research on the impact of logistics activities on economic growth in Oman is still lacking. This country is located at the gateway to the Gulf and has a logical distribution hub for the Indian subcontinent and nations in East Africa. Despite its attractive location, its massive investment in road and port infrastructure is beyond the limits due to independence and limited coordination between current transport and distribution system and other constituents in the logistics system. In addition, the weakness of soft systems including customs/border procedures, company incorporation, and legal and documentary procedures that failed to keep pace with other developments. Hence, a clear and integrated strategy is urgently required for trade facilitation. There is a real need to urge for alternative economic drivers like logistics to boost the economic growth of Oman. This can be achieved by assessing, monitoring and integrating all logistics activities in terms of its infrastructure.
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E Government Analysis: Sultanate of  Oman Case

E Government Analysis: Sultanate of Oman Case

Researchers in the field of technology studies (e.g. Moore and Benbasat, 1991; Taylor and Todd, 1995; Ven- katesh et al., 2003) [13] [16]-[18] found that facilitating conditions construct has a valid positive effect on e-government project and especially the innovation use and it is found that it can be considered as a significant technology use predictor. Al-Azri, Al-Salti and Al-Karaghouli (2010) [19] conducted a qualitative research by conducting many interviews in Sultanate of Oman. Most of the interviewees believed that senior top govern- mental management support and commitment are imperative to provide and allocate sufficient resources and funds as well as discourage resistance and increase efficiency.
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Identification of Delay Factor in Oman Construction Industry

Identification of Delay Factor in Oman Construction Industry

Like other countries in Gulf region, construction industry in Oman is also facing a lot of challenges considering delay almost in all mega construction projects. For example expansion of Muscat International Airport, Salalah Airport, Ministry of Education building in Muscat etc. Al Nuaimi & Al Mohsin (2013) studied delay in construction project at Muscat Oman for year 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010. They found 40% of projects faced delay in completion. For projects of 2007 to 2008 most significant causes were Weather, Variations and claims, Changes in initial design etc. For projects of 2009-2010 they found Planning and programming construction work, Poor construction experience, shortage in material causes delay (Nuaimi & Mohsin, 2013). Oyegoke and Al Kiyumi (2017) studied delay and mitigation factors, 53 questionnaire analyzed by using relative importance index, they found most significant causes of delay are selection of the lowest bid, the financial condition of the main contractor, delay in decision-making by the client, poor construction planning by the main contractor. Mitigation factors are the use of experienced contractors and consultant, efficient construction planning by the main contractor, and effective site management and supervision (Oyegoke & Al Kiyumi, 2017). Al Amri et al. (2017), studied delay causes in dam construction projects. 60 factors under 4 categories Client, Consultant, Contractor, and External factors were collected from literature and analysed statistically based on importance index, frequency index and severity index. Based on Pareto’s law of 80/20, they found most significant causes are severe weather conditions, change orders, uncertainty in ground condition, poor site management, executive bureaucracy in client organization, feasibility study did not cover all aspects, mistakes in soil investigation, natural effects during construction work, difficulty of defining project requirement, slowness of decision making process, delay of obtaining approval from the different government authorities, and land acquisition (Al Amri et al., 2017). Umar (2018) studied delay factor in construction industry of Oman, Umar found that contractual issues, workforce, materials, coordination between construction parties, and external factors are the main factors which cause delay to construction projects in Oman (Umar, 2018).
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Trends in extreme temperature and precipitation in Muscat, Oman

Trends in extreme temperature and precipitation in Muscat, Oman

Abstract Changes in frequency and intensity of weather events often result in more frequent and intensive disasters such as flash floods and persistent droughts. In Oman, changes in precipitation and temperature have already been detected, although a comprehensive analysis to determine long-term trends is yet to be conducted. We analysed daily precipitation and temperature records in Muscat, the capital city of Oman, mainly focusing on extremes. A set of climate indices, defined in the RClimDex software package, were derived from the longest available daily series (precipitation over the period 1977–2011 and temperature over the period 1986–2011). Results showed significant changes in temperature extremes associated with cooling. Annual maximum value of daily maximum temperature (TX), on average, decreased by 1°C (0.42°C/10 year). Similarly, the annual minimum value of daily minimum temperature (TN) decreased by 1.5°C (0.61°C/10 year), which, on average, cooled at a faster rate than the maximum temperature. Consequently, the annual count of days when TX > 45°C (98th percentile) decreased from 8 to 3, by 5 days. Similarly, the annual count of days when TN < 15°C (2nd percentile) increased from 5 to 15, by 10 days. Annual total precipitation averaged over the period 1977–2011 is 81 mm, which shows a tendency toward wetter conditions with a 6 mm/10 year rate. There is also a significant tendency for stronger precipitation extremes according to many indices. The contribution from very wet days to the annual precipitation totals steadily increases with significance at 75% level. When The General Extreme Value (GEV) probability distribution is fitted to annual maximum 1-day precipitation, the return level of a 10-year return period in 1995–2011 was estimated to be 95 mm. This return level in the recent decade is about 70% higher than the return level for the period of 1977–1994. These results indicate that the long-term wetting signal apparent in total precipitation can be attributed largely to the increases in extreme precipitation in recent decades. Key words climate change; RClimDex; general extreme value probability distribution; skewness
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An Economic Analysis of  Duqm Fishery Harbor in Oman

An Economic Analysis of Duqm Fishery Harbor in Oman

Economic viability of the fishing harbor development project in Duqm, Oman has been assessed within the broad framework of “Cost-Benefit Analysis”, generally used for appraisal of public investment projects. The main objective of the analysis is to identify the project benefits and to compare them with project costs over the economic life of the project so as to justify its implementation. In case of financial analysis, the profits accruing to an individual entity making investment become the major factor for evaluation, whereas in economic analysis the benefits to the economy are the main criteria for evaluation. Accordingly, the costs to be considered in economic analysis are different than those in financial analysis. In financial analysis, total cost of project at market prices is considered. However, for economic analysis, financial costs are converted into economic costs, which are the net of taxes, duties and royalties.
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Sultanate of Oman: building a dental workforce

Sultanate of Oman: building a dental workforce

Until recently, Omanis who wished to study dentistry had to train abroad, there having been no dental educa- tion available in the Sultanate. Thus, traditionally, Oman relied on expatriate dentists to form its dental work- force, together with a minority of overseas-qualified Omanis. With new policy encouraging the participation of the private sector in higher education, and the deter- mination of its founding figures, Oman Dental College (ODC) [27] was established in 2006 and runs a 5-year BDS dental degree programme with an additional pre- dental year for the majority of those requiring prepar- ation for the degree programme delivered in English. ODC remains the only dental school in Oman. It was established in consultation with the Ministries of Health and Higher Education and following approval of the Higher Education Council. ODC is regulated by the Ministry of Higher Education, and the majority of stu- dents have state bursaries.
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Training programs evaluation for educational supervisors in Oman

Training programs evaluation for educational supervisors in Oman

In line also many of the studies in the local context in Oman, finds that the existing evaluation of training program in public sector still not satisfactory; Al-Khalili(2003) stated that the quality of training does not meet the expectation of the trainees' needs, and training programs are conducted in a very short span of time that it is not sufficient for the trainees to assimilate training subject(p. 61). Parell to Al Khalili as a local studies Al Hanshi(2004) also claim that the training in Oman facing many challenges, such as, there is limited and lack in training quality in both public and private sectors . He further stated that should do research about training fault reasons and develop HR professional (pp. 64-65). Similar to the previous local studies' findings Al-Nabhani (2007) also as local study share same opinion by stated that there are shortcomings in evaluating training results in the current MOE, Oman training program. Her study also shows that the training plans of the ministry, and prepare the finally evaluation reports are hardly followed any systematic approach to training program evaluation, and the evaluations process were done merely to see participa nts’ satisfaction with the programs, and mostly without feedback of the sequences of the training program in terms of its success in achieving the targeted aims. Also according to Al Amri (2008) indicated that the “interest of educational supervisors in training and professional development was being recorded as being slow”.
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