Yes. Generally, calibrations are performed to improve the measurement accuracy of the whole networkanalyzer system, in other words the ZVR including cables, adapters and all other compo- nents of the test setup. The calibration method also determines the reference planes for the vector measurements of complex S-parameters of DUTs, irrespective of whether calibration is carried out in a coaxial or planar environment. The essential criterion is that the contacts to the calibration standards and later on to the DUT are reliable, reproducible and of good quality and that the calibration standards feature the required characteristics. In this respect there is no difference between AutoKal and the other calibration methods. The difference and an advantage of the AutoKal technique is that a complete 2-port calibration can be performed with only one calibration standard, namely a through- connection T. AutoKal needs a single funda- mental calibration prior to its first use to determine the characteristics of the transfer standards within the AutoKal unit. TOM is the recommended method for this fundamental calibration which requires, in addition to the through-connection T,
Abstract. In this article, the error-corrected determination of complex scattering parameters of multi-port devices by means of a 2-portvectornetworkanalyzer is presented. As only two ports of the device under test can be connected to the analyzer ports at a time, the remaining device ports have to be terminated by external reflections. In order to measure the scattering parameters of the DUT without the influence of systematic errors and of the external terminations, an er- ror correction has to be performed besides the calibration. For this purpose, the application of the multi-port procedure is presented. This method has the advantage, that the exter- nal reflective terminations can be chosen arbitrarily. Further- more, these terminations can be unknown except for one. An automatized measurement system based on a switching net- work is shown, which is optimized for the measurement of planar microwave circuits. An error model for the description of the measurement setup as well as a calibration procedure for the elimination of the systematic errors are presented.
Microwave and RF testing has gained importance with increased number of microwave applications in diversified fields like defense, domestic and space applications. The characteristics of the microwave devices are found by proper examination of S-parameters, which relates power levels at different ports by using s- parameter values, auxillary parameters like insertion, isolation, coupling, VSWR ,reflection coefficient etc., can be obtained. NetworkAnalyzer is a sophisticated testing device which is used to characterize active and passive components, such as amplifiers, mixers, duplexers, filters, couplers, and attenuators. These components are used in systems as common and low-cost as pagers, or in systems as complex and expensive as communications or radar systems. Components can have oneport (input or output) or many ports. The ability to measure the input characteristics of each port, as well as the transfer characteristics from oneport to another, gives designers the knowledge to configure a component as part of a larger system.
coefficients can then be retrieved by a suitable calibration procedure. Traditional calibration algorithms do not take into account mismatching and non-linearity effects in planar six-port systems. To that end, we have recently introduced an original calibration technique based on a Spatial Fourier Analysis to take into account the imperfections brought by the fabrication of the system . Furthermore, all the previous methods assume a linear response at the four arms of the six-port systems, but most of the power detection circuits are built with non-linear diodes that require an additional calibration step to linearize the diodes. In comparison with previous reported works, our calibration method includes the linearization of the power detectors as a part of the calibration procedure itself. Finally, the proposed technique gives the possibility to extend the frequency band capabilities by suitable calibration software that takes into account the hardware limitations.
This function provides a historical analysis on the performance and health of the network segment where the OptiView Workgroup Analyzer is attached. The default data source is the Workgroup Analyzer, but the Data Source drop down menu lists all RMON and RMON2 devices that have a history study enabled. This function allows you to select a device anywhere on your network and display the information gathered by that device. Even multi-port devices can be interrogated on an interface-by-interface basis. The utilization graph shows percentage utilization over time. Based on the pre- configured RMON history studies for the selected device, you can choose from any of the existing history durations. The OptiView Workgroup Analyzer’s time interval is selectable from 2.5 minutes to 15 hours. Each sample is time stamped and the cursor may be moved over any sample to provide additional information shown in the table below the graph. The utilization screen also allows you to display the Top Talkers, Top Multicasters and Top Broadcasters.
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a set of networking protocols that permits networked devices, such as personal computers, printers, Internet gateways, Wi-Fi access points and mobile devices to seamlessly discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications, and entertainment. UPnP is intended primarily for residential networks without enterprise-class devices. The concept of UPnP is an extension of plug-and-play, a technology for dynamically attaching devices directly to a computer, although UPnP is not directly related to the earlier plug-and-play technology. UPnP devices are "plug-and-play" in that when connected to a network they automatically establish working configurations with other devices.
You can install the database on a remote server by selecting a server from the SQL Server instance list, which displays all SQL server instances on your network. You can create the database on any of these instances if you have the valid user ID and password for them. (You created a password for the user name sa in Step 11 [p. 22].) You can also enter the name or IP address of any other SQL Server. If the database you want to create already exists on the machine you select, you receive a message indicating that the database already exists on the server. You do not need to have DNA installed on the remote server to have the database installed on the server. If you choose a remote SQL Server, a database will be created but sample data will not be installed. If you want to have sample data, you will have to do it after installation using the database backup and restore tools.
From any IP connected workstation, remotely access the health status of any of your low-speed Frame Relay/PPP/HDLC links and examine link performance from the physical layer to the application layer. You can even perform remote protocol analysis if necessary. Easily and quickly verify policy decisions regarding wide area network usage. Optimize WAN link performance for critical processes. Examine network security robust- ness. Produce trend reports on link utiliza- tion and errors, as well as examine SLA met- rics. Quickly discover current devices on the network. When problems are detected, get alerted to changes in network topology or availability immediately and have the events logged and presented in an easy-to-under- stand format automatically. In short, com- plete diagnostics of your WAN links.
Abstract—In this paper, an innovative technique for the determina- tion of the dielectric properties of planar substrates is presented. Start- ing from a set of impedance measurements performed on a section of a microstrip transmission line built on the planar dielectric substrate under test, the proposed technique formulates the reconstruction prob- lem in terms of an optimization one successively solved by means of an effective stochastic algorithm. Such a method allows one the recon- struction of the permittivity values at multiple frequencies by simply using a vectornetworkanalyzer and a standard calibration procedure for the impedance measurement. The results of some representative experimental tests are shown for a preliminary assessment of the effec- tiveness of the proposed approach.
T HE aviation industry is currently involved in the de- velopment of electrically propelled aircraft as a poten- tial successor to combustion powered aircraft. As increasing amounts of electrical wiring are added to aircraft, crosstalk is becoming an ever growing concern. Furthermore, most modern aircraft are made partially with carbon fiber. With the use of composites in aircraft being a fairly new practice, a lot of investigation is still required to fully understand its effects. In  research was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon fiber ground planes on crosstalk and it was found that a CFRP ground has a mixed result on crosstalk levels, which is frequency dependant and its behavior as a ground plane ranges between a non-conducting ground and a perfectly conducting one. In , it was shown that single ended S-parameters can be used to obtain a indication of crosstalk levels under the assumption that there is perfectly conducting ground plane.
In the past few decades there is an increase in the investigation and use of electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures for various electromagnetic applications [1, 2]. One such application is the suppression or reduction of Simultaneous Switching Noise (SSN)  also known as Ground Bounce Noise (GBN) which is observed in modern high speed electronic circuits. This noise is produced when the switching between high and low voltage levels occurs simultaneously. This noise propagates through the ground/power plane, which aﬀects the signal integrity of the system. Incorporating band gap structures  is one of the viable solutions for the suppression of SSN. The band gap structures when being incorporated into the circuit should mitigate the noise without degrading the signal characteristics. The signal integrity (SI) analysis provides a quantitative measure of the structure’s ability to preserve the integrity of the signal and should be presented in conjunction with the suppression band analysis.
ABSTRACT: In this paper an active antenna is designed at 200 MHz frequency. Active antenna is a combination of a active circuit and passive monopole antenna. Active circuit is consists of an active device, impedance matching and biasing network. This active circuit is used as trans- impedance circuit. Thus an active antenna can be used for VHF (174MHz-216MHz) frequency range applications.
out performance related studies, therefore freed from the burden of the "trial and error" hardware implementations. REAL: REAL is a simulator for studying the dynamic behavior of flow and congestion control schemes in packet switch data networks. Network topology, protocols, data and control parameters are represented by Scenario, which are described using Net Language, a simple ASCII representation of the network. About 30 modules are provided which can exactly emulate the actions of several well known flow control protocols (S. Keshav 1997). INSANE: INSANE is a network simulator designed to test various IP-over-ATM algorithms with realistic traffic loads derived from empirical traffic measurements. It's ATM protocol stack provides real-time guarantees to ATM virtual circuits by using Rate Controlled Static Priority (RCSP) queueing. A protocol similar to the Real-Time Channel Administration Protocol (RCAP) is implemented for ATM signalling. A Tk-based graphical simulation monitor can provide an easy way to check the progress of multiple running simulation processes (INSANE Homepage).
Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer, or "packet sniffer" application, used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and protocol development, and education. A packet sniffer (also known as a networkanalyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. As data streams travel back and forth over the network, the sniffer "captures" each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. To capture PDUs the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. When Wireshark is launched, the screen below is displayed.
A Two PortNetwork—The Processor PortNetwork (PPN) Containing the System’s Control, Software, and Trunk/Terminal Circuit Packs and the Expansion PortNetwork (EPN) Containing the Interface to the PPN and Additional Trunk and Terminal Circuit Packs (G1) Two Multi-Carrier Cabinets Serving up to
The IEEE 802.1X (dot1X) standard defines a port-based access control procedure that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the same credentials for authentication from any point within the network. This Switch uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to exchange authentication protocol messages with the client, and a remote RADIUS authentication server to verify user identity and access rights. When a client connects to a switch port, the Switch responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the Switch, which it forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the client identity and sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS server contains not only the challenge, but the authentication method to be used. The client can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on the configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The authentication method must be MD5. The client responds to the appropriate method with its credentials, such as a password or certificate. The RADIUS server verifies the client credentials and responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is successful, the Switch allows the client to access the network. Otherwise, network access is denied and the port remains blocked.
The basic philosophy adopted in this thesis is to point out the physics o f each situ atio n w ithout squelching too deeply into the m athem atics. To this end, "real" calculations, (especially those involving majestic clusters of Bessel and Hankel functions of irrational order, nestled up to 6 deep inside m enacing triple integrals over the complex plane,) are avoided, and mentioned in passing only where they illustrate a point. Physical and m athem atical descriptions of couplers and their modes are generalized as far as possible, even to the point o f abandoning the cherished evanescent w eak-coupling requirem ent in some cases. The resulting physical description of propagation in couplers applies to many more regimes than those strictly allowed by a scalar perturbation analysis. For those odd occasions when I felt it necessary to lapse into numerical English, viz, the occasional equation, I condescended to m ake it easier for my innum erate brethren (or should that be innum erable ? ... no ... there w on't be more than 6 people reading this anyw ay) to keep track of the tw isted logic associated therew ith, by num bering each equation uniquely - hence (2 -l i b ) is the second sub-equation o f the 11th equation of chapter 2, and will always be referred to as (2 -l i b ) thereafter, unless I've goofed during one o f my m any re-num bering fits. Figures are num bered uniquely in the standard m anner, e.g. Fig. 4.3. Likew ise my chapter.section.subsection notation is o f the conventional type, e.g. 5.2.1 and so on. There is no appendix. (Yes, it was rem oved years ago.) Papers are referred to by author and year and are lumped together at the back of the thesis for ease of location, and to make the list look more impressive.