Online Child Protection

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Aspects of internet security: identity management and online child protection

Aspects of internet security: identity management and online child protection

Recent years have seen a wholesale change in attitudes toward online child protection, as discussed earlier, possession of well known Internet images depicting members of the Simpsons 101 cartoon family in lewd poses saw two separate convictions in Australia. One in 2008 for ‘possessing child pornography’, the other in 2010 for ‘possessing child exploitation material’ [52] [53]. Possession of these images would also be a criminal offence in the UK (under s49 of the Coroners and Justice Bill) [47]. In 2000 staff at Royal Sun Alliance, were disciplined (10 were dismissed) for distributing the obscene Simpsons cartoon by email. Commentators at the time called for restraint and common sense “Porn, especially child porn, is one matter, but smutty cartoons? Come on.” [54] and “Are they really that offensive? Not really…” [55]. Had the emails been sent today, the perpetrators would likely have attracted fines, prison sentences and been made to sign the sex offenders register. Would this have made children any safer? Do laws such as this improve child safety? The author feels not, ignoring the absence of a proven causative link, such material could be evaluated (and legal proceeding pursued) under the Obscene Publications Act against the ‘tendency to deprave and corrupt’ test of obscenity [60].
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KEY WORDS: constructivism; e-learning; online; child protection; technagogy; child welfare; social work education.

KEY WORDS: constructivism; e-learning; online; child protection; technagogy; child welfare; social work education.

managed by ‘‘intelligent software agents’’, the expanding range of tools available in a contemporary Learning Management System. Additionally, learner postings in discussion areas from previous weeks can be revisited, edited, or added to in subsequent weeks. This ‘‘written record’’ of the course progression and learner interaction is not available in the lecture-based face-to-face environment. The incremental building block approach that it affords is a key strength of the well-designed online course offering. Another is the capacity to change directions in midstream via URLs to relevant websites or immediate downloads of a new piece of policy or legislation, if a par- ticularly salient point opens the path to critical learning in another important area. In the fourth week of a course, when a discussion group comes upon a key point that can be foreshadowed as an upcoming important content area, participants in synchronous discussions can be taken immediately to the relevant resources and discussion outlines while the points are still fresh and the conceptual links established to reinforce the connection between the two areas.
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Internet Policies: Online Child Protection and Empowerment in a Global Context

Internet Policies: Online Child Protection and Empowerment in a Global Context

addressed through awareness-raising strategies, focusing in particular on offending and hurtful behaviour of perpetrators, coping strategies for victims and educational policies for target populations (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009; Shariff & Churchill, 2010). Relatedly, the phenomenon of ‘sexting’ or sending/receiving sexual messages via electronic communication, whether wanted or unwanted, is another area of contact risk that has received research and policy attention (Lenhart, 2009; Ringrose, Gill, Livingstone, & Harvey, 2012). It has received a more varied response, ranging from criminal prosecutions based on laws pertaining to possession of child pornography (Sacco, 2010) to a policy of ‘turning a blind eye’ to risky youthful practices.
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Internet Policies: Online Child Protection and Empowerment in a Global Context

Internet Policies: Online Child Protection and Empowerment in a Global Context

addressed through awareness-raising strategies, focusing in particular on offending and hurtful behaviour of perpetrators, coping strategies for victims and educational policies for target populations (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009; Shariff & Churchill, 2010). Relatedly, the phenomenon of ‘sexting’ or sending/receiving sexual messages via electronic communication, whether wanted or unwanted, is another area of contact risk that has received research and policy attention (Lenhart, 2009; Ringrose, Gill, Livingstone, & Harvey, 2012). It has received a more varied response, ranging from criminal prosecutions based on laws pertaining to possession of child pornography (Sacco, 2010) to a policy of ‘turning a blind eye’ to risky youthful practices.
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Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection

Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection

example such as cock. Are we talking about the male member or are we talking about a chicken? Is the computer going to make that judgment? Well, they can make inference based on other words around that piece of content. It was quite amusing over the weekend to see that the Sesame Street Channel on YouTube had been overrun by pornography as well; so if Google with all of their filtering technology can’t prevent that sort of thing from happening… I think the danger of filtering being seen as a solution is that parents will disengage with the debate and I think filtering is a very good tool but it is not going to be the solution that prevents the children from accessing this sort of content. Also, I have spoken to both parents and children where they go “well, if my kids see any of this sort of thing then I’ll stop them from going online” which is a very dangerous thing to have happen because then the kids aren’t going to say “I’ve come across this by accident, what am I going to do about it?” Parental engagement is really important. Perhaps if you’re saying filtering is the way forward and filtering is the only way forward that the engagement will disconnect even further. I know it is difficult for parents and some of these products are complex but I hate to use the very safe analogy, because I don’t like it, but a parent would not get into a car not learning how to drive and put their children in the back and go down the street. So why is it that they say “well, this technology stuff I don’t really understand, the kids do that so therefore someone else needs to do something else about it?”
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After Hours Child Protection Emergency Service regional Child Protection Service interim protocol

After Hours Child Protection Emergency Service regional Child Protection Service interim protocol

AHCPES takes legal action after hours where the matter cannot safely be left until the next working day. This includes issuing protection applications by safe custody or applications to breach an order. AHCPES is not to initiate applications by notice and cannot not apply to vary or revoke orders. AHCPES arranges hearings before a bail justice as required. (CYFA, s. 242(3)). Urgent warrants are sought and acted upon as required.

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Child Protection And Marriage Prevention

Child Protection And Marriage Prevention

INTRODUCTION Children are reasonable and should be given full and comprehensive protection and cannot ignore all of their rights, especially the right to live, obtain education and teaching and health, these rights are absolutely possessed by a child, be it a healthy child or child who is disabled. Neglecting children's rights can lead to the destruction of their future, and in the context that causes them to be punished or known as criminal sanctions, if it is proven to do so, it is either due to intentional or negligent treatment of minors.
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Towards geographies of child protection

Towards geographies of child protection

Bywaters, Brady, Sparks, & Bos's ( 2016 ) quantitative analysis of Section 47 investigations (statutory assess- ments used to identify if a child is experiencing ‘significant harm’) in deprived areas in England has revealed a troubling relationship between place, poverty and intervention, whereby the areas of significant deprivation are seeing the highest increase in these investigations which can lead to the rupturing of family and perhaps even child removal. What is becoming apparent is that place is a significant determinant of child protection practice, and that there is a hidden geography of poverty and child welfare regulation that demands greater discussion. These geographies are complex and troubling (Disney & Schliehe, 2019 ); not only are the populations targeted by interventions ‘troubled’ by the engagements and wider contextual geographies of poverty, but also the institutions seeking to remake these populations are also increasingly themselves troubled by and through cuts and managerialist pressures. Here there is an insight into the ways in which the dispositif of child protection practice orders populations, classifying certain groups as problematic and requiring intervention. But also how the impacts of austerity also highlight the vulnerability of the constellation of practices that comprise the dispositif; while families struggle to negotiate the impacts of austerity and rising poverty, in the wider ecology of child protection services, the diversity of tools available to social workers to engage with families and to support them have been severely reduced. This can be seen through the reductions in third sector partners and complementary government services that child protection social workers could previously rely on to refer to. Austerity has also led to local authorities seeking new ways to practice in order to cope with these pressures.
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The Protection of Children Online

The Protection of Children Online

Internet literacy education An increasing number of countries include Internet literacy in school curricula and organise trainings for teachers and educators. According to a recent European survey, Internet safety has been recently included in the majority of European countries. 208 Where Internet literacy education is part of the school curricula, a more recent trend is to start with Internet literacy education in elementary school, for example in Japan the appropriate use of the Internet is taught as of 2009 in elementary school as well as in Norway, and as of 2011 in the United Kingdom. In some US states, Internet safety courses are part of the required curriculum and new federal rules require schools that receive federal funding to educate minors about appropriate online behavior. 209 Egypt is testing a curriculum on digital literacy and Internet safety in secondary schools. 210 In 2009, the Australian Government provided an additional AUD 16.6 million to the Australian Communica- tions and Media Authority (ACMA) to continue and expand their comprehensive range of Cybersmart cybersafety education activities which includes a national outreach training programme delivering cybersafety presentations to students, parents and teachers as well as accredited professional development workshops for teachers and trainee teachers. In addition, the Australian government provided a further AUD 3 million for the national pilot to increase cybersafety in schools, which was conducted by a child safety charity (the Alannah and Madeline Foundation).
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POLICY ON SAFEGUARDING (CHILD PROTECTION)

POLICY ON SAFEGUARDING (CHILD PROTECTION)

Appendix A DEFINITIONS OF ABUSE At Westminster School we try to promote respect and care for each other; but there is always a risk that abuse will occur in any school or institution, just as it may at home, within the family or among acquaintances outside the School. A child who is abused or witnesses abuse may find it difficult to develop and maintain a sense of self-worth, may feel helpless and humiliated, and may feel self-blame. It is the responsibility for all of the community to be alert to signs of abuse of any pupil. The Child Protection Policy outlines procedures that should be undertaken; all staff should be conversant with these procedures and will be regularly trained in order to enable them to do so.
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CHILD PROTECTION POLICY (Safeguarding)

CHILD PROTECTION POLICY (Safeguarding)

26. Emotional abuse: the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond a child’s developmental capability as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, although it may occur alone.
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SAFEGUARDING (CHILD PROTECTION) POLICY

SAFEGUARDING (CHILD PROTECTION) POLICY

Further information on Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): professionals in all agencies, and individuals and groups in relevant communities, need to be alert to the possibility of a girl being at risk of FGM, or already having suffered FGM. There is a range of potential indicators that a child or young person may be at risk of FGM, which individually may not indicate risk but if there are two or more indicators present this could signal a risk to the child or young person. Victims of FGM are likely to come from a community that is known to practise FGM. Professionals should note that girls at risk of FGM may not yet be aware of the practice or that it may be conducted on them, so sensitivity should always be shown when approaching the subject. Warning signs that FGM may be about to take place, or may have already taken place, can be found on pages 16-17 of the Multi-Agency Practice Guidelines referred to above. Staff should activate local safeguarding procedures, using existing national and local protocols for multi-agency liaison with police and children’s social care.
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CHILD PROTECTION AND SAFEGUARDING POLICY

CHILD PROTECTION AND SAFEGUARDING POLICY

 It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate;  It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. This can also occur when a child is a young carer for a parent who is disabled, has mental health problems or misuse alcohol or drugs.
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GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRY ON CHILD ONLINE PROTECTION

GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRY ON CHILD ONLINE PROTECTION

Child rights impacts: Companies can impact the rights of children, either positively or negatively, through the ways in which they operate their facilities; develop, deliver and market their products; provide their services; apply leverage through business relationships with key stakeholders and partners; and exert their influence on economic and social development. Under the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, companies have a responsibility to take adequate measures to identify, prevent, mitigate, and where appropriate, remediate their potential or actual negative impacts on human rights. The Children’s Rights and Business Principles 1 call on companies to respect children’s rights and avoid any infringement on the rights of children, and address any adverse child rights impact with which the business is involved. In addition, the Principles encourage companies to support children’s rights by taking voluntary actions that seek to advance children’s rights through core business operations, products and services, strategic social investments, advocacy, public policy engagement and working in partnership and other collective action. Child sexual abuse material: The term ‘child sexual abuse material’ is used to refer to recorded images of children subjected to sexual abuse and exploitation. These images might be in the form of stills, videos or be available via streaming.
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Child protection and social inequality : understanding child prostitution in Malawi.

Child protection and social inequality : understanding child prostitution in Malawi.

as, for example, in Hounmenou ( 2016 ) structured survey of child prostitutes in Ouagadougou. The capability approach lent itself to the purpose of the study reported here, to develop more nuanced understandings of children and young people’s involvement in prostitution based on their own experiences and their own ways of understanding their involvement. Nussbaum’s role in developing the capability approach has focused thinking about its application in understanding women’s and girls’ human rights and capabilities. Unlike Sen, who argues that the determination of specific capabilities may vary depending on diverse cultural understandings of valued lives, Nussbaum ( 2003 ) has defined basic capabilities central to human life, including the ability to have: good health including reproductive health; adequate nourishment and shelter; security against violent assault; the ability to think and reason in a truly human way informed by an adequate education; emotional development not blighted by fear and anxiety; and, the ability to form a conception of the good life and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s life, the social bases of self-respect, non-humiliation, dignity, and worth equal to that of others without discrimination. Nussbaum ( 2005 ) outlines how structural and cultural factors can have a disabling effect on capabilities, especially those of girls and women in patriarchal societies. She argues that girls, not recognising viable alternatives, exercise adaptive preferences conforming to culturally normative expectations, and complying with structural inequalities. But, because the capability approach focuses on what individuals are able to do and to be, it challenges an over-emphasis on structural inequalities that give rise to exploitation rationalised on the basis of cultural relativism ( Nussbaum 2005 ) and it opens a new space for making sense of children’s involvement in prostitution.
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Child protection Australia 2013–14

Child protection Australia 2013–14

This reporting of substantiated type of abuse or neglect is based on the type of abuse or neglect that is considered most likely to place the child at risk or be most severe in the short term—generally known as the ‘primary’ type of abuse or neglect. Other types of abuse or neglect may also be recorded as part of the substantiation. The co-occurrence of abuse and neglect refers to substantiations where both primary and other types of abuse are recorded. Table 3.3 shows the co-occurrence of primary types of abuse or neglect with other types of abuse or neglect that were recorded. Along with being the most common primary types reported, emotional abuse and neglect were also the most likely types to co-occur, with average co-occurrences of 29% and 26% respectively. Emotional abuse co-occurred in nearly half (47%) of all substantiations where physical abuse was the primary type of substantiated abuse or neglect and in just over one-quarter (26%) of substantiations where sexual abuse was the primary type. Neglect co-occurred in 30% of cases where emotional abuse was the primary type of substantiated abuse and in one-quarter (25%) of substantiations where physical abuse was the primary type. The co-occurrence of sexual abuse was much lower than all other types of abuse or neglect, with an average co-occurrence of less than 2% (Table 3.3).
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A Shared Vision for Systemic Child Protection : Advocating, Developing, Evidencing, and Partnering to Build a Child Protection System

A Shared Vision for Systemic Child Protection : Advocating, Developing, Evidencing, and Partnering to Build a Child Protection System

By undertaking pilot projects, effective approaches can then be identified and scaled up, as happened with the CPUs. In the case of the latter, the Government is responsible for scaling up, i.e. for developing CPUs across the whole country. Yet Tdh continue to provide expertise to support this process. For example, in the areas where it had developed the CPU pilots, Tdh provide mentoring to CPU workers in difficult cases, thus scaling in the sense of deepening or sustaining impact (HFRP, 2010). Tdh also continue to strengthen the CPU network nationally by supporting the scaling of ideas and policies, for example by developing a manual of procedures, the Guide for the Establishment & Functioning of Child Protection Units (Spahiu & Lopari, 2012). In this way, all CPUs can gain access to resources and guidance. The manual reflects learning from the pilot CPUs and by sharing it with new, less well-resourced CPUs, a better and more standardised approach to practice is encouraged across the country.
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Disabled Children and Child Protection in Scotland : An investigation into the relationship between professional practice, child protection and disability

Disabled Children and Child Protection in Scotland : An investigation into the relationship between professional practice, child protection and disability

4.2.5 Despite exhaustive efforts recruitment of participants took longer than originally envisaged. Although initial contacts at services forwarded information about the research to their team, it was not always relevant participants who replied and we were often passed from one administrator to another. Further contact revealed that potential participants had not felt they had enough experience with cases involving disabled children and/or had not been sure those with whom they had worked would classify as disabled. Additionally, there was a time delay between making initial contact and services locating the best person to deal with our research request. In one instance the email was forwarded through eight people before a return email came with a research approval form to be completed before the arrangement of interviews could begin. Similarly, clarification had to be given to initial contacts when they replied saying they were unable to help that we were looking to speak to any practitioner with some experience of child protection cases involving disabled children and not just those working specifically with disabled children.
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A strengths approach to child-protection education

A strengths approach to child-protection education

116 Each Open View environment choice avoided a desk and office chair setting and the researcher was purposefully seated alongside each participant rather than sitting opposite as in a traditional interview. Round tables were used where possible to project a power balanced inclusive relationship. Strengths resources used during the module were displayed on a table nearby. The Open View sometimes used these resources such as stickers containing a strengths statement or colourful flash cards with drawings of bear characters demonstrating different feelings and emotions (Veeken, 1997, 1999; Masman, 2007) and the book The Strengths Approach (McCashen, 2005). The resources were used to visually prompt, remind, initiate and record responses during the interview in addition to or as an adaption of traditional verbal questioning. Some participants would pick up resources and find book sections or pictures to illustrate their responses, or as the researcher, the author would refer to a resource to elicit further reflection. For example, pictorial scaling sheets used for recording levels of strengths or progression on issues by strengths practitioners were incorporated into some Open Views. Participant (8) for instance, although having previously generally indicated her confidence has increased, appeared to struggle with describing her current confidence level in child protection saying, “I don’t know”. The researcher drew her attention to the strengths scaling sheets on the nearby table. Participant (8) picked up a sheet, which showed an outline of a ladder with ten rungs. The researcher prompted, “if the top of the ladder is feeling really confident with child- abuse and child-protection issues where would you place yourself on the ladder” (Open View). Participant (8) responded, “Well I feel fairly high
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CHILD PROTECTION AND SAFEGUARDING POLICY

CHILD PROTECTION AND SAFEGUARDING POLICY

7.6.2 Domestic abuse can therefore have a damaging effect on a child's health, educational attainment and emotional well-being and development. The potential scale of the impact on children is not always easy to assess but may manifest itself as behavioural, emotional or social difficulties, including poor self-esteem, withdrawal, absenteeism, adult-child conflict. Children sometimes disclose what is happening or may be reluctant to do so hoping that someone will realise something is wrong.

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