contributing factors that enabled onlinegrooming. It demonstrated a cause-effect design that broke down the stages of the offence. The model was based on Bronfenbrenner’s ‘ecological approach, in which he proposed encircling layers of social influence- from close to distant’ (Bronfenbrenner 1979, cited in Livingstone, Mascheroni, and Stasrud 2015, 4). Arguably, this could be likened to Owen’s (2012) Genetic-Social approach, although rather than identifying the main influence from ‘close to distant’, the Genetic-Social (Owen 2012) perspective would entail using a stance of ‘Flexible Causal Prediction’ (Owen, Noble, and Speed, 2017). Here, by cautiously conceptualising the combination of effects, ‘the researcher using the framework would be able to gain a picture of the most likely combination of variables’ (Owen et al. 2017, 38). However, although the model attempts to incorporate a cluster of statistic, theory, and evidence-based knowledge, it could be suggested that the model neglects to consider juvenile cyber danger from a biological positivist perspective when concerning Owen’s (2012) Genetic-Social framework. For instance, it could be proposed that children are genetically predisposed to certain characteristics due to their genetic makeup. Therefore, when considering a specific individual with features such as a degree of resilience, vulnerability, or passivity, it could be suggested that they are genetically prompted. This could be linked to Owen’s (2017, 33) identification of ‘psychobiography’ which ‘refers to the largely unique asocial components of an individual’s’ dispositions’. Another example could be in relation to the underdevelopment of the prefrontal cortex, which has been recognised as a key to impulsivity (Carrion et al. 2009). This could enable children to make decisions with less clarity and act with more haste, as they lack the full ability to comprehend the consequences of their actions, however, the effect of this is arguably subjective and dependant on their psychobiography.
Abstract—The rapid expansion of the Internet has experienced a significant increase in cases of child abuse, as more and more young children have greater access to the Internet. In particular, adults and minors are able to exchange sexually explicit messages and media via a variety of online platforms that are widely available, which leads to an increasing concern of child grooming. Traditionally, the identification of child grooming relies on the analysis and localisation of conversation texts, but this is usually time-consuming and associated with other implications such as psychological pressure on the investigators. Therefore, automatic methods to detect grooming conversations have attracted the attention of many researchers. This paper proposes such a system to identify child grooming in online chat conversations, where the training data of the system were harvested from publicly available information. The data processing is based on a group of AI technologies, including fuzzy-rough feature selection and fuzzy twin support vector machine. Evaluation shows the promise of the proposed approach in identifying onlinegrooming conversations to be implemented in the future after further development to support real-world cases.
A research done by Zuo, Li, Anderson, Yang and Naik  to detect onlinegrooming implemented TF.IDF or Bag of Words (BoW) to identify terms for classification process and afterwards with Fuzzy-Rough Feature Selection in order to identify the uncertainty that includes in the nature of natural language conversation. In this research, the authors used two types of dataset which are training dataset and onlinegrooming dataset categorized into three categories namely Normal, Pedophile, and Sex. The proposed grooming detections consists of 4 steps: test pre-processing, text feature extraction, text feature selection, text feature normalization, and classification. Before applying FRFS, the processed dataset went through TFIDF or Bow in order to generate uniformed document representation for each data instance with unified length.
Victims provided with victim support, counselling or advisory sessions through social services or school found this process aided their recovery and helped to minimise the negative impact of abuse. The provision of support from an impartial professional should be a basic entitlement for victims of onlinegrooming and several victims noted that the objectivity and perspective of the professional was invaluable. In the case of Chloe, where the offer of counselling did not come to fruition, the negative impact of abuse was significant. This is also linked to the multiple risk factors in her life at the time and negative responses of her parents to the abuse. However, had counselling(for her and for her family) been implemented immediately after the abuse, she is more likely to have received the support that she desperately needed, which may have helped to limit the negative impact of the abuse.
Offences Act (2003) criminalizes the act of meeting a child –someone under 16—after grooming. The offender must be over 18, and must have met or communicated with the child at least twice. In addition, the offender must have intended to meet the child and travelled to the meeting intending to commit one of a range of offences defined in Part One of the Act. These range from outright rape to a variety of sexual assaults. Part One distinguishes between, on the one hand, rape and assaults against children under 13, and cases where the victims are older but under 16. Section 15 has some distinctive features. For example, it applies to international travel, some part of which is within the domestic jurisdiction. This means that if someone in London who was engaged in the onlinegrooming of a child in e.g. Thailand or America flew out from England or Wales to meet that person, intending to engage in a sort of sexual contact outlawed in England and Wales, that traveller would still be liable to prosecution on returning to England and Wales. Offences under section 15 are punishable by a maximum of 10 years imprisonment on indictment.
Chapter 1 reflects upon the harmful impact of Internet-mediated sexual offending and the difficulties of managing this risk effectively in an ever-expanding online world. Chapter 1 introduces the phenomenon of online sexual grooming, highlighting the importance of understanding the process of grooming in order to effectively safeguard young people online. Chapter 2 explores the assessment of Internet offenders with regards to the characteristics and personality profiles of this subset of offenders. Specific attention is given to the offence characteristic of sexual deviance and a critical analysis of the psychometric properties and utility of the Multiphasic Sex Inventory is presented. It is concluded that an increased understanding of the process of online sexual grooming may shed light on appropriate assessment tools for this population of offenders. A systematic review of the existing literature directly assessing grooming transcripts is presented in Chapter 3 following a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of different research methods that have been utilised to investigate the phenomenon of online sexual grooming. This review identifies that in-depth qualitative findings require replication with larger statistically significant sample sizes and that automated computer programmes may assist with this endeavour. It is further identified that different grooming offence motives require further attention. Chapter 4 addresses this by identifying narrative themes in the grooming transcripts of 75 contact- driven and 75 fantasy-driven offenders. From a six-factor model of data reduction, the narrative theme of Sexual Desensitisation is found to be more present in the fantasy-driven transcripts and contributes to a predictive model for offence motive. Overall, the six-factor model is found to complement a recently developed integrative Self-Regulation Model of onlinegrooming (Elliott, 2015), thus supplementing and enhancing the sparse pool of literature upon which grooming models are proposed and theorised. A discussion on the thesis is presented in Chapter 5 alongside conclusions regarding the utility of the thesis.
Abstract. Online paedophile activity in social media has become a major con- cern in society as Internet access is easily available to a broader younger popu- lation. One common form of online child exploitation is child grooming, where adults and minors exchange sexual text and media via social media platforms. Such behaviour involves a number of stages performed by a predator (adult) with the final goal of approaching a victim (minor) in person. This paper presents a study of such onlinegrooming stages from a machine learning perspective. We propose to characterise such stages by a series of features covering sentiment polarity, content, and psycho-linguistic and discourse patterns. Our experiments with online chatroom conversations show good results in automatically classi- fying chatlines into various grooming stages. Such a deeper understanding and tracking of predatory behaviour is vital for building robust systems for detecting grooming conversations and potential predators on social media.
standards of transparency and accountability need to be high owing to less reporting of cybercrime for lack of faith in law enforcement agencies. In India, the Information Technology Act, 2000 was grossly incapable of addressing the new crimes that surfaced with technological advancements. Following the amendment in the year 2008, incidents of cyber bullying were extended from the ambit of criminal statutes to cyber law. 12 It comprises of protective measures for certain sections of society who are prone to vulnerabilities of lascivious content. Sending threatening messages and emails or hacking accounts of children attracts three years’ incarceration under section 66A of the Act. Onlinegrooming and exposure to pornographic materials for the purposes of facilitation of online child abuse are penalized under section 67B of the Act with five years prison term in case of first conviction and seven years prison term following second conviction. Despite legislative interventions, the inefficacy of Indian policies in delivering higher cybercrime convictions has been tremendously high. Over half of the Indian children who surf internet face cyber bullying or other harassment. 13 India stands at third rank with fifty three percent of its children bullied online. 14 Indian government, so far, have not been able to block websites that host harmful content for reasons of inadequate legal provisions and technological factors such as position of servers. 15 Websites should, rather, contain
The next question we addressed was the identity of the venom component eliciting grooming. A variety of rhythmic motor patterns in insects and other invertebrates have been shown to be induced by biogenic monoamines (dopamine, octopamine and serotonin) (for reviews, see Bicker and Menzel, 1989; Selverston, 1993). We therefore began by examining the possibility that one of the monoamines (or an agonist of a monoamine) is present in the venom and is inducing grooming in the stung cockroaches. One way to achieve a transient, elevated concentration of monoamines experimentally in the subesophageal ganglion, without the problems associated with surgery, is by using reserpine, a plant alkaloid known to cause massive release (and subsequent depletion) of monoamines (Oates, 1996). It has been found that reserpine crosses the blood–brain barrier and affects monoamine levels in the subesophageal ganglion of the cockroach (Sloley and Owen, 1982). We were interested to determine whether reserpine, like the venom, elicits grooming in insects. We found that injection of 30 µg of reserpine into the hemocoel induced prolonged grooming in cockroaches (Fig. 3); during the 30 min following injection, the time spent grooming was significantly longer after reserpine injection than after injection of vehicle (after reserpine 18.2±3.3 min; after vehicle 6.7±3.7 min). The components of the grooming behavior were the same as in stung or normal cockroaches.
191 At the other end of the OXC, wavelength multiplexers collect the wavelengths carrying data stream and merge them onto common outgoing fibers. The logical/virtual topology, seen by the electrical layer, consists of a set of EXCs interconnected by lightpaths. In this way, WDM networks provide a way to interconnect electronic switches with high bandwidth bit-pipes without requiring a full-mesh physical topology. The design of static network topologies has been studied extensively in the past [7, 18]. However, the configurable nature of the EXCs also allows the logical topology to be dynamically reconfigured in response to traffic fluctuations. This is achieved by changing the lightpath connectivity between the EXCs, thereby reconfiguring the virtual topology. In our case, these reconfigurable lightpaths may be shared by many sub- wavelength requests and are referred to as Grooming Lightpaths (GLs). A GL is a direct connection between two nodes acting as a logical one-hop link, where all intermediate nodes are passed through at the OXC level. In case a low-speed data-connection carried by a given GL needs to be switched to a different GL or needs to be dropped to the local client, the wavelength carrying the parent GL is switched from the OXC to the EXC. For this purpose, one uses an emitting o 3 optical port and a receiving
The empirical data presented in this article were gathered from a number of semi‐structured interviews with second generation British Muslims and from a critical discourse analysis of media sources and official reports relating to the Rochdale and Rotherham child sexual exploitation scandals. The semi‐structured interviews referenced here were conducted with second generation British Muslims, beginning in January 2013; this data collection is a continuing process at time of writing. The initial intention of the study was to examine British Muslims’ views of integration and belonging but it quickly became apparent that the emerging ‘grooming’ scandal in Rochdale was a topic of key concern for nearly all of the interview respondents. This is likely due to the fact that all interviews were conducted within Greater Manchester; Rochdale is a large town located within this conurbation. The critical discourse analysis of media sources and official reports examined coverage relating to the Rochdale and Rotherham child abuse scandal and to other child abuse scandals that received markedly less attention. The time period examined was between 2010 and 2014. Whilst it is clear that Muslim ethnic groups in other parts of the globe have been racialised as violent sexual deviants (see Grewal 2012; Ticktin 2008), this article focuses predominantly on the racialisation of Muslims of South Asian origin in the UK, and those in the North of the UK in particular.
We then examined the experimental outcome measure: the PSE value or attitudinal component of body image. Raw PSE scores were corrected to absolute values so that the mean score for each group of estimators correctly reflected the amount of perceived body size distortion from zero (the true body size). The absolute PSE scores were again entered into a 2 by 2 ANOVA using Grooming Condition (G, NG) as a within-subjects factor and Type Estimator (under-estimator, over-estimator) as a between-subjects factor. Results showed a significant interaction between Grooming Condition and Type Estimator (F(1,22)=5.528, p=.028). Follow-up paired t-tests showed that this interaction was driven by a significantly more accurate PSE score in the Grooming compared to the Non-grooming sessions in the over-estimator group (t(8)=-2.776, p=.024), whereas no differences in PSE scores were observed between sessions in the under-estimator group (t(14)=.959, p=.354, n.s.). Figure 2 illustrates these findings.
In this subsection, we give details of a polynomial-time algorithm for the logical topology and traffic routing sub-problems of the traffic grooming problem. Note that unlike previous studies, our algorithm attempts to minimize the maximum amount of LTE at any ring node by creating long lightpaths that bypass intermediate nodes whenever possible. Because of the results given in Section 4.2, the decision version of the traffic routing sub- problem without RWA is itself NP-Complete, and hence our polynomial-time algorithm may terminate without necessarily finding an optimal, or even a feasible solution. How- ever, numerical results to be presented later indicate that the solutions obtained using our algorithm are close to the optimal and/or the lower bound on the objective function (4.10). Before we proceed, we introduce the concept of reduction of a traffic matrix. Specif- ically, we reduce the matrix T so that all elements are less than the capacity C of a single wavelength, by assigning a whole lightpath to traffic between a given source-destination pair that can fill it up completely. The available wavelengths on the links of the path segment from the source to the destination node are also decremented by the number of lightpaths thus assigned. Since breaking such lightpaths would increase the amount of LTE at some intermediate nodes of the path, this procedure does not preclude us from reaching an opti- mal solution, nor does it make the problem inherently easier or more difficult. We continue using the same notation for the traffic matrix and traffic components, but in what follows, they stand for the same quantities after the reduction process.
The Pet Services market segment is primarily composed of small, low annual revenue, mom- and-pop entities. Financial transactions are of low to moderate size. Whereas boarding services obviously require a brick-and-mortar establishment (this could be in the proprietor’s home) the other services are far more mobile. Many companies in this business provide in- home training or classes performed in a parking lot, municipal park, etc... There are even mobile grooming services that come to the customer’s home. Pet sitting and pet walking are two other services that require no facilities and little overhead that are growing in popularity. These characteristics lend themselves to a payment solution that requires little or no upfront cost, minimal fixed fees, and wireless capabilities.
Although the looked for differences were not found, there were several useful confirmatory 670 aspects of this research. Taken as a whole, the findings support Elliott’s (2017) proposal that an ongoing cyclical self-regulation model of grooming is used by offenders. The initial phase comprises the build-up of social capital in the form of the desired base-line relationship with the child; followed by movement toward the goal of sexual gratification, with continued return to Phase one as required, rather than the linear progression suggested by O ’ Connell (2003). The findings of this study support
MCJROTC uniforms, insignia, and personal grooming follow the same standards as those of the Marine Corps. The uniform will be worn in accordance with MCO P1020.34, Marine Corps Uniform Regulations. Just as the Marines do, you too must set the example by compliance and must enforce the
For over a decade, British Muslims have been at the forefront of political, media and societal concerns in regards to terrorism, radicalisation, women’s rights, segregation and, most recently, the sexual exploitation and abuse of young women. Demonised, marginalised and criminalised due to inflammatory political rhetoric, inaccurate, irresponsible and sensationalist media reporting, discriminatory counter terrorism policies and legislation and state surveillance, British Muslims have emerged as a perceived racialised threat. This has continued apace with the onset of the Rochdale and Rotherham ‘grooming’ child sexual abuse scandals which in popular discourse have been dominated by representations focusing on race, ethnicity and the dangerous masculinities of Muslim men. This disproportionate and racist narrative served to both frame and limit the debate relating to the sexual exploitation and violence experienced by young female victims at a pivotal moment when the issue had been brought to national attention. This article compares and contrasts the representations and discourse of racialised and non‐racialised reporting of child sexual abuse and situates the ‘grooming’ scandals in the context of anti‐Muslim racism. It argues that the development of the British Muslim as a racialised threat is a current and on‐going legacy of colonialism in which this group experiences discriminatory ‘othering’ processes resulting in their marginalisation.
First, we propose a new solution approach that decomposes the traffic grooming problem into two subproblems that are solved sequentially: (1) the virtual topology and traffic routing (VTTR) subproblem, that does not take into account physical topology constraints, and (2) the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) subproblem, that reconciles the virtual topology determined by VTTR with the physical topology. The decomposition is exact when the network is not wavelength limited. We also propose three algorithms that use a partial LP relaxation technique driven by lightpath utilization information to solve the VTTR subproblem efficiently. Our approach delivers a desirable tradeoff between running time and quality of the final solution. Second, instead of viewing the network as a flat entity, we further consider networks with hierarchies, where the second level of hierarchy consists of hub nodes, and the first level is formed by the remaining nodes. Hierarchical traffic grooming facilitates the control and management of multigranular WDM networks. We first survey heuristic hierarchical grooming algorithms. We then apply the above decomposition approach onto hierarchical traffic grooming. We define the hierarchical virtual topology and traffic routing (H-VTTR) problem, and we present a suite of ILP formulations to solve it. The formulations represent various tradeoffs between solution quality and running time. We also explore the performance of the formulations under various direct lightpath thresholds, traffic loads, and number of hubs. The formulations are cross-compared with the baseline VTTR formulation.
In this thesis we have combined eta factorization with GUB structure in arc-chain solver and studied how much improvement in performance can be accomplished for optimization problem. An arc-chain solver for bifurcated traffic grooming with GUB structure was done by Mr. Quazi Rahman. A branch and price technique was used in that arc-chain solver to convert the bifurcated traffic grooming into optimal non-bifurcated traffic grooming. The performance of the revised simplex method improved significantly after using GUB structure in this approach.