Available Online at www.ijpret.com 770 separate cells (base stations) that cover a specific geographical area .The mobility management related information is maintained in the distributed controllers, which are organized in different domains rather than centralized controller like CMM. By modifying the Flow Tables at the involved gateways, the routes can be optimized inherently. A SaDMM is an efficient mechanism for mobility management oriented to the future mobile networkarchitecture as SDN uses Open flow protocol which does not support mobility and has issue of secure handover, mutual authentication. The new architecture i.e Open flow HIP layer protocol for these issues of Open flow, presents the architecture that enables Open Flow switches to change their IP addresses securely during mobility.
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient and on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction . The cloud helps to reduce time-to-market and provides on-demand scalability at a low cost for the users. Due to its prospective benefits and potential, cloud computing is a hot research area. Many private and public clouds have emerged during the last years, offering a wide range of different services at SaaS, PaaS and IaaS levels aimed at matching different user requirements. To take full benefit of the flexibility provided by different clouds that offer different services, the modules of a complex application should be deployed on multiple clouds depending on their characteristics and strong points.
Abstract. Software license management is currently expanding from its traditional desktop environment into the mobile application space, but software vendors are still applying old licensing models to a platform where application rights will be specified, managed and distributed in new and different ways. This paper presents an open-source pervasive application rights managementarchitecture (PARMA) for fixed network and mobile applications that supports the specification of application rights in a rights expression language (REL) based on ODRL. Our rights specification model uses aspect- oriented programming to generate modularized rights enforcement behaviour, which reduces development time for rights models such as feature-based usage rights and nagware. PARMA manages vendor and customer application rights over multiple platforms using a web services architecture and a container model on the client-side. The container model also supports the integration of services such as payment and encourages the super distribution of the rights object with associated default (evaluation) rights.
Service Provider provides the service to its own customers or end users (usually multiple customers with small to medium size). Note that it is possible for the functions of Service Providers and Network Providers to be offered by the same provider or organization. It should be noted here that in general the providers could be either national or regional providers depending on the geographical coverage that they provide. Providers that have Point of Presence (POP) throughout a country are called national providers while providers that cover specific regions are called regional providers and connect themselves to other providers at one or more points. All service provider networks may exchange traffic only at the Network Access Points (Aidarous & Pleyak, 1994). The primary intention of the work presented here is to provide an enhanced network/service management model that deals with methods of providing a view of network events with higher granularity and analyses the impact due to those events, and not to address issues related with network interoperability. However, we present a method that is incorporated in our enhanced network model to address the impact of faults originated within network elements that are either not monitored at all (i.e. special cases of customer premises equipment) or are outside the jurisdiction of the network provider. Therefore, for the sake of simplicity and without loss of any of the paper’s objectives, throughout we do not distinguish between national and regional providers and we use the terms network and service providers with their loose definition as provided in the beginning of this section. Integrated networkmanagementarchitecture. Previous representative integrated networkmanagement architectures can be classified into two types: manager-of-managers or common platform. Manager-of-managers architecture is an upper and lower networkmanagement system that is layered vertically. The upper networkmanagement system collects and processes all the management information from each of the lower networkmanagement systems. These upper and lower networkmanagement systems transfer the management information using a standard protocol (Terplan, 1997). This architecture is used by NetView from IBM, and ACCUMASTER Integrator and UNMA (Unified NetworkManagementArchitecture) from AT&T etc. In common platform architecture, networkmanagement systems do not exist in each communication network. Instead, all network resources are managed using an API (Application Program Interface). All of the network equipment uses a standard networkmanagement protocol, management information, and interface. This architecture is used by EMA (Enterprise ManagementArchitecture) from DEC, SunNet Manager from SUN, and Open View from Hewlett-Packard, etc.
Without solving the fundamental issues, such as proprietary hardware devices, complicated management, and inefficient resource utilization regarding the inherent design of mobile networks, it is very difficult for network operators to cope with the challenges exposed by the mobile Internet era. SDN and virtualization feature the centralized control plane, programmable network, software-based network functions, and physical infrastructure sharing. These are two complementary and promising technologies that provide solutions to major issues of mobile networks as well as facilitate many of their aspects. The adoption of SDN and virtualization in the mobile network has attracted many research works in academia and industry. In this paper, we surveyed comprehensively the latest approaches for SDN and virtualization-based mobile networks by covering a wide range of up-to-date research works related to this topic. We first made a general architecture for SDN and virtualization in the mobile network, and describe in detail benefits that these two tech- nologies bring in each level of the cellular network structure. Next, we proposed a hier- archical taxonomy based on the various levels of the mobile network structure in order to classify current research works. Through this taxonomy, we can understand what issues raised in the current design of the mobile network and promising solutions for each issue. By using this taxonomy, we looked deeply into each research work and focused on changes regarding the architecture and protocol operation when adopting the SDN and virtualiza- tion in each level of carrier networks. Then, we showed a list of use cases and applications that can take advantages of SDN and virtualization. Last, we discussed open issues, such as compatibility, deployment model, and unified control plane that need to be addressed in order to implement the SDN and virtualization-based mobile network in reality. In sum- mary, SDN and virtualization will be two key enable technologies for the evolution of future mobile networks. However, among current proposals, which will be the most suitable and efficient solution for SDN and virtualization-based mobile network is still an open issue. This choice requires the careful consideration of network operators and research communities based on economic and technical benefits.
As businesses strive to find fresh ways of building competitive advantage, meeting customer expectations, attracting the right skill sets and improving profit margins, a new challenge is also being added - the challenge of managing energy use strategically. This is not a new area of focus, but the sense of urgency and importance around it is certainly recent. As the collection of energy consumption data becomes more sophisticated – across sectors and across nations – there has clearly been a shift away from ambiguous rhetoric to finding actionable ways of improving energy management. This is the result of several key drivers.
How these technologies are developed, and the speed with which they are deployed, are critical to the future design of the Internet. Curiously, the law has so far treated DSL and cable modems very differently on the important question of whether the owner of the data pipe may exercise control over the way in which its customers access the Internet. Telephone companies are required to provide access to competing DSL providers on an open and nondiscriminatory basis. This prevents telephone companies from bundling broadband access with other services they would also like to sell to consumers. By contrast, cable companies have so far been permitted to impose whatever conditions they desire on their customers. The two largest cable companies, AT&T and Time Warner, have exercised, or have threatened to exercise, that power by bundling cable modem service with Internet Service Provider (ISP) service. If you want Internet cable access from AT&T, you must agree to use their captive, in-house ISPs, @Home or Roadrunner. While Time Warner has not yet imposed a similar rule, it strongly indicated that it intended to do so once its merger with America Online (AOL) was complete. 4 The Federal Trade Commission
Resource Management is an important issue in cloud environment. The emerging cloud computing paradigm provides administrators and IT organizations with tremendous freedom to dynamically migrate virtualized computing services between physical servers in cloud data centers. Virtualization and VM migration capabilities enable the data center to consolidate their computing services and use minimal number of physical servers. VM migration offers great benefits such as load balancing, server consolidation, online maintenance and proactive fault tolerance. Cloud computing offers utility-oriented IT services to users worldwide. Based on a pay-as-you-go model, it enables hosting of pervasive applications from consumer, scientific, and business domains. However, data centers hosting Cloud applications consume huge amounts of electrical energy, contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. Therefore, to need Green Cloud computing solutions that can not only minimize operational costs but also reduce the environmental impact. So that to define an architectural framework and principles for energy-efficient cloud computing. Based on this architecture, to present the vision, open research challenges and resource provisioning and allocation algorithms for energy-efficient management of cloud computing environments.Virtual machine monitors like Xen provide a mechanism for mapping virtual machines to physical resources. This mapping is largely hidden from the cloud users.VM live migration technology makes it possible to change the mapping between virtual machines and physical machines while applications are running. The capacity of physical machines can also be heterogeneous because multiple generations of hardware coexist in a data center.
The disastrous flood events on Memorial Day and Halloween in 2015 in Houston prompted the City of Houston to draft an Action Plan for Disaster Recovery (2016). The Plan lists Sunnyside as one of the most impacted Low-Medium Income (LMI) areas during the floods. The city identified that most damages were repeated in the same communities, due to infrastructure inadequacies that called for long-term solutions. A large portion of these flooding events were caused by the open ditches scattered throughout the neighborhood (See Appendix 1) that need major infrastructure improvement. The idea is to create a Green Infrastructure (GI) network in the neighborhood that would protect the natural hydrology of the site by capturing and filtering stormwater volume through the use of engineered systems that mimic natural hydrological systems (Flynn and Davidson, 2016). Instead of acquiring new lands, the existing vacant parcels in the neighborhood are a great resource for developing the GI system (Anderson and Minor, 2016).
Data center network design has been undergoing rapid changes in a few short years after VMware launched VM (Virtual Machine) Virtual Center in 2003. Server virtualiza- tion enabled not only efficiency of compute, but a new IT delivery model through private and public cloud computing plus new business models to emerge. Fundamental to mod- ern data center networking is that traffic patterns have shift- ed from once dominant north-south or client-to-server to now a combination of north-south plus east-west or server- server and server-storage. In many public and private cloud facilities, east-west traffic dominates flows. There are many drivers contributing to this change, in addition to server virtualization, such as increased compute density scale, hyperlinked servers, mobile computing, cloud economics, etc. This simple fact of traffic pattern change has given rise to the need for few network switches or tiers, lower latency, higher performance, higher reliability and lower power consumption in the design of data center networks. In addition to traffic shifts and changes, service providers and enterprise IT organizations have been under increasing pressure to reduce network operational cost and enable self- service so that customers and business units may provision IT needed. At the February 13, 2013, Open Networking User Group in Boston at Fidelity Investments, hosted by the Lippis Report, Fidelity showed the beginning of exponential growth in VM Creation/Deletion by business unit manag- ers since August 2012. Reduced OpEx and self-service are driving a fundamental need for networking to be included in application, VM, storage, compute and workload auto provisioning.
In order to be eligible for inclusion in the list, standards must be registered and tested by the Standardisation Forum. This registration can be performed by any stakeholder, after which the standard is assessed by an expert. The assessment establishes whether the standard is sufficiently open and sufficiently suitable for the intended area of application (e.g. in relation to other open standards). In addition, the impact the standard would have on government organisations if it were to be implemented is determined. Finally, the standard’s potential for inclusion in the list is assessed. If a standard is included in the list, it must help enhance supplier independence and interoperability. In a public consultation, all those involved are subsequently able to respond concerning the results of the expert assessment. Based on this assessment, the consultation and
The Internet operates on a best-effort basis. That is, there are no guarantees provided by the network upon the delivery of content, from the source to the destination. The basic requirement for traditional data transferred over computer networks was reliable delivery. End-to-end services were therefore built on top of the network layer, mostly by transport protocols (e.g. the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)), using mechanisms such as timestamps and checksums, in order to ensure that all bits of information were successfully delivered to the final destination. However, the presence of multimedia traffic introduced a new basic requirement, i.e. the timeliness of the arrival of information. Datagrams arriving out of time cause as much disruption as datagrams not arriving at all. The new classes of application that emerged, such as multimedia streaming, Video on Demand (VoD), interactive voice, remote conferencing, etc., raised the requirements of minimizing delay upon content delivery and the variations in this delay. Moreover, some of these applications would not be worth running if consistent throughput capacity could not be guaranteed over their entire lifetime. In addition, the trend of moving towards a single telecommunications network and the candidacy of the Internet to provide such a service, makes the support of these applications essential, rather than a luxury. For example, if the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is to be substituted by some form of Voice over IP (VoIP), then being able to establish a call and not being disrupted/disconnected before hanging up, will be critical.
GeoBeads is a monitoring solution with multi-parameter sensor nodes based on semiconductors technology, an opennetworkarchitecture which also supports third party instruments and an internet platform for data distribution and analysis. Due to its scalability and its direct internet access, it is suitable for detailed real-time monitoring of ground and infrastructural stability over wide areas and in remote locations. GeoBeads networks run both on power lines or batteries and can transmit data from any project site by wire or wirelessly.
The concept of “utilizing the built environment as an open textbook” is not new; it has been introduced in different ways into studio teaching by adopting community design and development or participatory approaches (Sanoff 2003). Over the past few years there have been critical voices to incorporate such a concept in different learning settings at pre-university level. Notably, the “Sustainable Building Industry Council” advocated the integration of the school building facility into teaching (SBIC 2001). However, the discussion underlying the idiosyncrasies in architectural pedagogy coupled with a closer look at architectural education teaching practices (Salama 2005, 2006-b) reveals that very little attention has been given to ways in which the built environment can be utilized as a teaching medium in theory and lecture courses, only through casual site visits or field trips. Therefore, there is a need to examine how architecture, the built environment or a portion of it can be integrated into structured learning experiences. In essence, evaluation studies can be seen as a mechanism that fosters a desired integration. Evaluation is an area of research and a mental activity devoted to collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information. Evaluation studies in architecture are intended to provide reliable, useful, and valid information. Evaluation literature conveys three major objectives of evaluation research that can be exemplified by developing a database about the quality of the built environment, identifying existing problems or needs and their characteristics,
5G NORMA introduces three RAN slicing Options described in Section 2.3.5. These options permit different degrees of RAN sharing. If tenants set great value on their unique selling points the slice-specific RAN (Option 1) would fit best (cf. Figure 2-10). The whole network slice down to the physical layer transmission point (PHY TP) can be customized individually. A critical point for macro antenna sites is the size and number of mounted antenna panels as well as the maximum radiated power that depending on the frequency band must not exceed a certain power flux density at locations where humans can be expected. Hence multiband antennas should be applied as much as possible and number of antenna elements should allow for reasonable form factors. An important advantage is that, in Option 1, the antennas can be operated jointly which alleviates fulfilment of EMF requirements and enlarges spectrum deployment limitations (cf. A.2.2.2). On the other hand, this option requires tight synchronisation of the common functions which lead to challenging requirements at the antenna sites and the achievable multiplexing gain is limited. RAN slicing Option 2 provides sharing of PHY and MAC in the data layer and RRC in the control layer. This enables a reasonable compromise in terms of flexibility and complexity allowing for more multiplexing gains utilizing common resources (spectrum, compute, storage). As scheduling is performed under control of SDM-X, the spectrum of multiple RAN InP can be deployed in a flexible way by splitting it into InP specific and jointly used fractions to be done by slice specific parameterisation by an SDM-X multi-tenant scheduling app. By doing so, local multiplexing gains first of all with respect to the scarce spectrum resources can be achieved and user experience (user throughput) can be improved as well as headroom with respect to cell load can be reduced (Section 18.104.22.168.1).
The current methodology in developing distributed systems is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), building upon methodologies such as Object Oriented programming, Components and Distributed Object Request Brokers. Within a SOA, systems are composed of multiple individual services located and maintained on different heterogeneous machines administered by different organizations. The key in SOA is that the component services should be loosely coupled to allow the orchestration of systems built up from component services, which should be robust against implementation changes in the underlying services . To achieve this SOAs strive towards a number of goals: 1. The services should implement a small set of simple, ubiquitous and well known interfaces which only encode generic semantics. 2. The interfaces should deliver messages constrained by extensible schema for efficiency. This allows both services and consumers to work with well defined message structures, but allowing new versions of the services to be introduced without breaking existing systems.
Seven+ years of progressive experience in information security, networking and computing. Experience to include operating systems, general networkarchitecture, firewalls, proxies, intrusion detection systems, security information and event management, penetration testing, vulnerability assessments, malware incident handling virtual private networks, risk analysis and compliance testing.
IT flexibility has an influence on strategic alignment . Establishments that lacked IT flexibility, encountered a more demanding time when obtaining business value from strategic alignment . Strong association exists between increasing innovation levels of IT flexibility and strategic alignment . The results from the examination of a formational model (data from 200 U.S. and Canadian companies) offer evidence that connectivity, modularity, and IT personnel have a noteworthy effect on strategic alignment. Additionally, the data confirmed that IT connectivity has a stronger relationship with strategic alignment than do other dimensions . As organizations cope with rapid changes in their business and technological environments, alignment issues have been at or near the top of the list of “critical issues” in IT management every year for the past fifteen years .  provided the model in the way of guidance for actually correcting misalignment between business and IT architecture and thus achieving alignment, BITAM (Business IT Alignment Method) which is a process that describes a set of twelve steps for managing, detecting and correcting misalignment, the methodology is an integration of two hitherto distinct analysis areas: business analysis and architecture analysis. The BITAM is illustrated via a case study conducted with a Fortune 100 company. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been proposed as a mechanism to facilitate alignment of IT with business requirements that are changing at an ever increasing rate because of its ability to engender a higher level of IT infrastructure flexibility . SOA has attracted considerable attention among IT practitioners due to its potential to address alignment of IT with business requirements . Department of IT (2007) defines IT Architecture segments including: Application and Data Architectures, Platform Architecture, NetworkArchitecture, Internet Architecture, Security Architecture. As we see networkarchitecture and IT Architecture can have effect on each other. Communication infrastructure includes voice and data technologies. As mentioned by Department of IT (2007) transmission services and protocols necessary to facilitate the interconnection of server platforms, intra-building and office networks (LANs), and inter-building and campus networks (WANs), also initiatives already in place and those planned have resulted in many significant changes. In this research we provide indicators for measuring wireless network communication in context of IT Architecture.