Open Source Software Development

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Innovation in Open Source Software Development: A Tale of Two Features

Innovation in Open Source Software Development: A Tale of Two Features

Feller and Fitzgerald note that users are a “critical feature” [4, 10] of OSSD projects, as the source of new requirements. Scacchi has made several studies of re- quirements acquisition in open source software development; he observes that require- ments “emerge” from on-line discussions which are usually open forums, rather than through traditional requirements elicitation processes, but that this emergent process, though less formal, is also effective [24, 23]. He also notes that requirements are “as- serted” after the fact; other researchers have echoed this observation. In particular, German reports a similar situation in the Gnome project [8]. This seems to contradict conventional understanding that cites failure to understand requirements as a major source of software project failure.
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Open Incremental Model  A Open Source Software Development Life Cycle Model (OSDLC)

Open Incremental Model A Open Source Software Development Life Cycle Model (OSDLC)

Open Source software offers significant benefits, compared to typical commercial products. Commercial products often stress on advancement and updation of visible features for getting marketing advantages. It is very difficult to measure qualities attributes such as stability, security, reliability etc. in case of Commercial Software. Commercial software put notices basically on the quality of mostly used features. Whereas Open Source software developing community consists of very bright, very motivated developers, who are mostly unpaid but are very disciplined to their work In addition to that all the users of Open Source software have access to the source code of the software and debugging tools.[1,2]. For this reason the users can suggest the developers about the bugs by feedback or they can fix the bugs if possible by modifying the source code and even can enhance the software by providing actual changes to the source code. Because of the availability of source code and right to modify the code by users, sometimes the quality of software produced by the Open Source software development community exceeds the quality of same type software produced by purely commercial organisations.[2]
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SOME OBSERVATIONS ON OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVES

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVES

Open source software development method is aggressive and progressive software development method and starts with problem discovery/ idea from one pupil (mostly software developer) and completed with the help of many software volunteers. Open source software development strategies are quite distinct from that of traditional software development methods. Open source has violated many of the theories of software engineering like limited team size, decentralized project management etc.[04]. FOSSD is a way for building deploying and sustaining large software systems on a global basis and differs in many interesting ways from the principles and practices traditionally advocated for software engineering [05]. In this paper we study the Nature and characteristics of open source software and strive to clarify some of the main principles followed in open source development. In the beginning, some important aspects of the entire OSSD approach are introduced. Important characteristics of Open source software development are explained and typical roles, processes and an overall lifecycle model of typical OSSD projects is also discussed. Subsequently paper examines and compares practices, patterns, and processes of OSSD with the traditional software development models.
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Gendered behavior as a disadvantage in open source software development

Gendered behavior as a disadvantage in open source software development

While categorical gender discrimination is an easy target for policies, discrimination based on behavioral expectations are more difficult to counter. Recently Google was sued by women for categorizing women as ‘front-end’ developers without reason, blocking their access to higher pay and faster promotion that ‘back-end’ developers enjoy, who are more likely to be male [19, 20]. This also underscores that when we analyze the gendered pat- tern of behavior, we should not assume that such behavior is a result of free choice. In fact, the history of computing occupations is also a history of marginalizing women from an increasing number of specializations [21]. Thus far there have been no analysis based on large data in a contemporary setting, to analyze behavioral traces, and to assess the relative weight of categorical and behavioral gender in gender inequality. Our data source is GitHub: the most popular online open source software project management system, which provides an opportunity to track the behavior of software developers directly, iden- tify gender from user names, and observe success and survival [22, 23]. In open source software development the most important payoff to participants is reputation [24], hence we operationalize success as the number of users declaring interest in one’s work by “star- ring” a repository. As a second dependent variable we analyze differences in the odds of sustaining open source development activity over a one year period subsequent to our data collection time window.
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Anti patterns in Open Source Software Development

Anti patterns in Open Source Software Development

Anti-patterns offer real-world knowledge in identifying frequent problems in software development and present the tools to allow software developers and managers to spot these problems and find out their fundamental reasons. Another merit of using anti-pattern is these methods provide general vocabulary of representing and classifying problems and communicating their solutions [4].Open source software development is changing the strategies of classic software development [5]. It is the method by which open source software (publically available source code) is built. Open source products are offered with source code under license to understand, modify and enhance its design and functionality. We consider that there is deficiency of empirical knowledge regarding anti-pattern in open source software development which may guide the experts about bad practices that can affect the quality of software [5]. Normally, open source software is developed by internet- based society of developers [5].
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Communicating and Mitigating Conflict in Open Source Software Development Projects

Communicating and Mitigating Conflict in Open Source Software Development Projects

Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) involves both cooperation and conflict (Easterbrook, 1993). Conflict is an inherent part of the culture of work since "conflict and cooperation are omnipresent and inevitably coexistent in social life (Watson, 1987, p. 213)." Researchers recognize the importance of conflict in CSCW and suggest that designers of CSCW systems need to pay more attention to conflict and its management when building CSCW systems (Easterbrook, 1993). However, more research is needed to better understand how conflicts are resolved and managed in cooperative system development work environments, particularly those involving people who build software at a distance, and rarely if ever meet for face-to-face interaction. In this paper, we present a qualitative study of conflict and open source software development (OSSD) in a virtual community where persistent Internet Relay Chat (IRC) logs (i.e., transcripts) and threaded email discussions provide a persistent record of work practices and serve as a resource embodying organizational memory. These IRC logs are reminiscent of the online
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Innovation in Open Source Software Development

Innovation in Open Source Software Development

How do open source projects continue to innovate? How do they stay competitive with, and even dominate, their commercial competition? Empirical studies of open source software development suggest that open source projects follow different pro- cesses than traditional textbook approaches [23]. Feller and Fitzgerald note that users are a “critical feature” [4, 10] of OSSD projects, as the source of new requirements. Scacchi has made several studies of requirements acquisition in open source software development; he observed that requirements “emerge” from online discussions which are usually open forums, rather than through traditional requirements elicitation pro- cesses, but that this emergent process, though less formal, is also effective [23, 22]. He also notes that requirements are “asserted” after the fact; other researchers have echoed this observation. In particular, German reports a similar situation in the Gnome project [8].
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An Open Source Software Development Model

An Open Source Software Development Model

management, bug repositories and use of mailing lists for communication etc. These practices of course are necessitated by the structure of the community itself. So it is imperative not only to understand the differences but also to grasp the commonalities which can then be consolidated in the form of a model. Further, an approach is required that can portray the dynamics of the process and its flow along with the involvement of various stakeholders in performing the activities, the transfer of control from one to the other and the use of technology, under one roof. This approach is precisely what Quality Engineers in software process definition groups have been striving to achieve/fulfill since the birth of process improvement frameworks such as ISO and CMMI. SEPG groups make use of a number of mechanisms for capturing the organizational processes ranging from textual narrations of the process, to the use of more formal process modeling techniques such as IDEF, Swimlane diagrams etc [22]. These techniques were devised for the very purpose of visually charting the workflows or processes within an organization. Thus, we believe that this approach can play a vital role in documenting and understanding the practices of open source communities in a consistent manner. Once an understanding is established, deriving a representation for comprehending the ‘open source software development model’ is naturally the next logical step.
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Modeling the open source software development processes using IDEF3 standard

Modeling the open source software development processes using IDEF3 standard

The Open Source Software Development (OSSD) process model closely resembles the modeling process of conventional software development process model where the most common element in the development process of the project will be identified by the OSSD process model (Huysmans et al., 2010). Lately there have been significant demands for process modeling standard which have been raised because of the complexities characterized by this OSSD process model from the previous methods. The most significant issue is the available OSSD process model produced a lot of constructs, hence increasing the model complexities (Huysman et al., 2010). These means that the previous model are not supporting the quality attribute for simplicity which can cause for not having well documented process and no proper advertised development model (Jensen and Scacchi, 2006) (Lonchamp, 2005).
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THE IMPACT OF IDEOLOGY ON EFFECTIVENESS IN OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

THE IMPACT OF IDEOLOGY ON EFFECTIVENESS IN OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

Using key informants to collect data about larger social entities is a common practice in organizational research (see Nelson and Cooprider (1996) at the department level, Capron and Hulland (1999) at the firm level, and Sparrowe et al. (2001) at the team level). The use of key informants requires a deliberate strategy to access respondents that possess special qualifications pertinent to the research such as status, experience, or specialized knowledge (Segars 1998). Research on the effectiveness of software development projects typically elicits project-level data from project managers (e.g., Ethiraj et al. 2005; Gopal et al. 2003). In the F/OSS domain project administrators represent an equivalent role that is best suited to providing details of a project. Thus we targeted project administrators, as they are positioned to be most familiar with the teams’ internal dynamics, activities, and accomplishments. Also, because founders and key leaders shape organizational ideology (Hofstede et al. 1990), such individuals may be better suited to report on the ideology of their teams than other individual members.
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Collaboration Practices and Affordances in Free/Open Source Software Development

Collaboration Practices and Affordances in Free/Open Source Software Development

All software informalisms are found or accessed from (xix) project related Web sites or portals. These Web environments are where most OSS software informalisms can be found, accessed, studied, modified, and redistributed [57]. A Web presence helps make visible the project's information infrastructure and the array of information resources that populate it. These include FOSSD multi-project Web sites (e.g., SourgeForge.net, Savanah.org, Freshment.org, Tigris.org, Apache.org, Mozilla.org), community software Web sites (PhP-Nuke.org), and project-specific Web sites (e.g., www.GNUenterprise.org), as well as (xx) embedded project source code Webs (directories), (xxi) project repositories (CVS [24] or Subversion), and (xxii) software bug reports [31] and (xxiii) issue tracking data base like Bugzilla [http://www.bugzilla.org/]. Last, giving the growing global interest in online social networking, it is not surprising to find increased attention to documenting various kinds of social gatherings and meetings using (xxiv) social media Web sites (e.g, YouTube, Flickr, MySpace, etc.) where FOSS developers, users, and interested others come together to discuss, debate, or work on FOSSD projects, and to use these online media to record, and publish photographs/videos that establish group identity and affiliation with different FOSSD projects.
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The Efficiency of Open Source Software Development

The Efficiency of Open Source Software Development

(2008) "Effort Modeling and Programmer Participation in Open Source Software Projects", Information Economics and Policy3. Information Economics and Policy , 20(4): 345-355.[r]

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A Case Study of Open Source Software Development: The Apache Server

A Case Study of Open Source Software Development: The Apache Server

Once a solution has been identified, the developer makes changes to a local copy of the source code, tests the changes on their own server, and either commits the changes directly (if the Apache guidelines [1] call for a commit-then-review process) or produces a "patch" and posts it to the developer mailing list for review. If approved, the patch can be committed to the source by any of the developers, though in most cases it is preferred that the originator of the change also perform the commit. As described above, each CVS commit results in a summary of the changes being automatically posted to the apache-cvs mailing list, including the commit log and a patch demonstrating the changes. All of the core developers are responsible for reviewing the apache-cvs mailing list to ensure that the changes are appropriate. In addition, since anyone can subscribe to the mailing list, the changes are reviewed by many people outside the core development community, which often results in useful feedback before the software is formally released as a package.
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The Economics of Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

The Economics of Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

(2001) shows that obligations can be considered as intrinsic motives arguing that if people act based on a principle, they do not pursue external rewards. Another branch of the obligation hypothesis can be regarded as ‘reciprocal altruism’ in the sense that the volunteers that invest their efforts carry a be- lieve that other programmers investing efforts on related problems will also make the resulting solution publicly available. Finally, pure altruism must also be mentioned as an important motive to publish the source code of one’s software. People like Richard Stallman (1999) see OSS as a social movement promoting computer users’ right to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs as part of fundamental democratic principles. 5 Publish- ing the source code of one’s software is often based on the wish to support this movement.
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A Review of Open Source Software Development Life Cycle Models

A Review of Open Source Software Development Life Cycle Models

Open Source Software [1] development is not a new concept. The term open source was introduced in 1998, The Open Source Initiative (OSI) [2] advocate the open source movement and provide the guidelines for issuing of open source license [3]. OSS is defined [10] as the software whose source code is available along with the software and user has the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software under the licensing policies [4] of OSS. The development of OSS gains popularity due to the wide availability of the internet facility to each and every region of the world, parallel development, peer review, parallel debugging, expert developers, and feedback. Many different developers, user, or co- developers can participate in the development of the OSS. The development of OSS is always initiated by single developer or a single group, who starts the development of software for its own “personal itch” [5]. The development of OSS is different from the traditional commercial software also called as “closed software”. It is found by various researchers [7, 8] that the traditional Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) [6] and development processes models [6] cannot be used for the development of OSS. Various researchers and practitioners are working on developing the standard development life cycle of OSS.
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Effective Work Practices for Software Engineering: Free/Libre Open Source Software Development

Effective Work Practices for Software Engineering: Free/Libre Open Source Software Development

effe c tiveness , which is clearly a key variable for our study: if we cannot distinguish more and less effective teams, we cannot identify work practices related to effectiveness. An attractive feature of Hackman’s [34] model is that effectiveness i s conceptualized along multiple dimensions, not just task output . Hackman also includes the team’s continued capability to work together and satisfaction of individual team members’ personal needs as relevant outputs. These three types of output correspond well to the effectiveness measures for FLOSS projects identified by Crowston, Annabi and Howison [10], who proposed measures including system quality (task output), developer satisfaction (satisfaction of individual needs), and number of developers, developer turnover and progress of the project through stages of development (e.g., alpha to beta to production), all indicative of the continued ability of the team to work together. These measures had been de-emphasised in the management-oriented Information Systems literature (eg. Delone).
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Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition Final Report

Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition Final Report

simulation of systems across the acquisition life cycle has been identified as a significant opportunity for cost reduction and improvement in resulting system quality [Brown, Grant, et al., 2000]. Similarly, virtual system acquisition has demonstrated how large, complex process models for software system acquisition can be modeled, analyzed, simulated, and redesigned using Web-based tools and techniques [Choi and Scacchi 2001, Noll and Scacchi 2001, Scacchi 2001a,b, Scacchi and Boehm 1998]. These research efforts are complementary to emerging practices for E-Government [DG.O 2002, DGRC 2002] that have realized greatest success in applications addressing procurement and acquisition [Nissen 1997, Scacchi 2001b, Steyaert 2001]. Thus the potential exists for modeling, analyzing, simulating, redesigning, and ultimately
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Microblogging in Open Source Software Development: The Case of Drupal and Twitter

Microblogging in Open Source Software Development: The Case of Drupal and Twitter

Twitter can serve as a virtual infor- mation radiator for an open source community. When a community grows more connected through Twit- ter use, the distribution of informa- tion within that community should become quicker, minimizing mis- understandings between colleagues who don’t meet face-to-face very often if at all. 11 Both the group and

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1 The Economics of Open Source Software Development: An Introduction

1 The Economics of Open Source Software Development: An Introduction

In Chapter 11, ‘The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Soft- ware on Innovation Activity’, Jürgen Bitzer and Philipp J. H. Schröder provide a further perspective on OSS and innovation by examining the impact of competi- tion on the propensity to innovate. The chapter’s starting point is the frequently voiced concern that the emergence and persistence of OSS as a competitor could hamper the innovation activity in the software industry. Two possible channels for such effects exist. First, natural monopoly positions may be part of the indus- try structure – as is usually argued in other knowledge- and research-intensive sectors such as pharmaceuticals – and hence challenging those structures by market entry may be suboptimal. Second, the competition inherent to OSS, in the forking and branching of projects – situations where projects split into two competing projects ultimately aiming at the same consumer groups – may reduce the overall innovation activity. Bitzer and Schröder address this issue in a simple model of software competition, where firms compete through the technology level of their product, instead of price or quantity; and they present some novel empirical evidence on the issue. The chapter finds that the move from monopoly to duopoly, simulating market entry, has an unambiguous positive effect on inno- vation activity. Thus competition such as that generated by the entry of OSS, or the forking of projects, promotes innovation.
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Coordination of Free/Libre Open Source Software Development

Coordination of Free/Libre Open Source Software Development

– FLOSS teams need source code control systems.. Implications for conventional software development[r]

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